# Usually use an op-amp circuit Often found as a pre-amplifier to ADC circuitry Simple circuit to computer natural logarithm

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Usually use an op-amp circuit Often found as a pre-amplifier to ADC circuitry Simple circuit to computer natural logarithm"

## Transcription

1 Connecing he compuaion capabiliies of a microconroller o exernal signals Transforming variable values ino volages and vice-versa Digial and analog Issues How many signals can be conrolled? How can digial and/or analog inpus be used o measure differen physical phenomena? How can digial and/or analog inpus be used o conrol differen physical phenomena? To conrol or reac o he environmen we need o inerface he microconroller o peripheral devices Microconroller may conain specialized inerfaces o sensors and acuaors Things we wan o measure or conrol ligh, emperaure, sound, pressure, velociy, posiion Sensors e.g., swiches, phooresisors, acceleromeers, compass, sonar Acuaors e.g., moors, relays, LEDs, sonar, displays, buzzers Map analog inpus o a range of binary values 8-bi A/D has oupus in range Wha if we need more informaion? linear vs. logarihmic mappings larger range of oupus (16-bi a/d) analog digial analog! Usually use an op-amp circui Ofen found as a pre-amplifier o ADC circuiry Simple circui o compuer naural logarihm Map binary values o analog oupus (volages) Mos devices have a digial inerface use ime o encode value Time-varying digial signals almos arbirary resoluion pulse-code modulaion (daa = number or widh of pulses) pulse-widh modulaion (daa = duy-cycle of pulses) frequency modulaion (daa = rae a which pulses occur) V IN V OUT = log e ( V IN ) V V V 1

2 #\$%& \$ ( \$%& \$ &) Pulse a digial signal o ge an average analog value The longer he pulse widh, he higher he volage period Pulse-widh raio = on on period average value Mos mechanical sysems are low-pass filers Consider frequency componens of pulse-widh modulaed signal Low frequency componens affec componens They pass hrough High frequency componens are oo fas o figh ineria They are filered ou Elecrical RC-neworks are low-pass filers Time consan (τ = RC) ses cuoff frequency ha separaes low and high frequencies " ' %)+) -&. %)+) Rear wheel conroller/ani-lock brake sysem Normal operaion Regulae velociy of rear wheel Brake pressed Gradually increase amoun of breaking If skidding (fron wheel is moving much faser han rear wheel) hen emporarily reduce amoun of breaking Inpus Brake pedal Fron wheel speed Rear wheel speed Oupus Pulse-widh modulaion rear wheel velociy Pulse-widh modulaion brake on/off brake pedal pressed fron wheel velociy rear wheel velociy micro conroller brake on/off move rear wheel *, /.0 1+)2 #3 \$ Check if brake pedal pressed or inerrup brakepressed = read (brakepedalpor) Turn brake on/off wrie (brakepor, onoff) Move rear wheel wrie (rearwheel, onoff) brake pedal pressed fron wheel velociy rear wheel velociy GPIO por micro conroller GPIO por brake on/off move rear wheel Sofware mus repeaedly check Brake pedal por How ofen? Need o make sure no o forge o do so (use imer) Use auomaic deecion capabiliy of processor Connec brake pedal o inpu capure or exernal inerrup pin Inerrup on level change Inerrup handler for brake pedal brake pedal pressed GPIO por micro conroller 2

3 #\$%& \$ +) /)\$ \$ To pump he brakes gradually increase he duy-cycle ( on ) unil car sops Use imer o urn brake on and off Apply brake Se imer o inerrup afer on ime Disengage brake Se ime o inerrup afer off ime Repea How do we ell which inerrup is which? se imer o go off a each edge sar imer running /)\$ \$1 42 Change value of on ime o change analog average average oupu = ( on + off ) / ( period ) How do we decide on he period of he pulses? Using wo imers One o se period (auo-reload) One o urn i off a he righ duy cycle Need o deermine he rear wheel velociy Use sensor o deec wheel moving Deermine speed of a bicycle Aach baseball card so i pokes hrough spokes Number of spokes is known Coun clicks per uni ime o ge velociy Baseball card sensor is a shaf encoder click! bike wheel se imer o go off a each edge baseball card sar imer running - Insead of spokes we ll use black and whie segmens Black segmens absorb infrared ligh, whie reflecs Coun pulses insead of clicks How many segmens should be used? More segmens give finer resoluion Fewer segmens require less processing Tradeoff resoluion and processing wheel infrared ligh emier deecor pulse " ' 3

4 5 Use inerrup on GPIO pin Every inerrup, incremen couner Use imer o se period for couning When imer inerrups, read GPIO pin couner velociy = couner known disance per click / judiciously chosen period Rese couner Pulse accumulaor funcion Common funcion Some microconrollers have his in a single peripheral device Basically a couner conrolled by an ouside signal Signal migh enable couner o coun a rae of inernal clock o measure ime Signal migh be he couner s clock o measure pulses ATmega16 has exernal clock source for imer/couner Microconrollers come wih buil-in I/O devices Timers/couners GPIO ADC Ec. Someimes we need more... Opions Ge a microconroller wih a differen mix of I/O Ge a microconroller wih expansion capabiliy Parallel memory bus (address and daa) exposed o he ouside world Serial communicaion o he ouside world *,.0 # The are never enough I/O pors Techniques for creaing more pors por sharing wih simple glue logic decoders/muliplexors memory-mapped I/O por expansion unis Direcion of pors is imporan single direcion por easier o implemen iming imporan for bidirecional pors If signals all in same direcion and have a separae guard signal, hen able o share wihou glue logic Example: connec 5 LCD displays o microconroller can share connecions o RS, RW, and DB bu no E changes on E affec display mus guaranee only one is acive 6!\$ 7 Conflic on device signals (e.g., one signal affecs boh) soluion is o inser inervening regisers ha keep signals sable regisers require enable signals which now need pors as well Encode n single-bi device pors using log n bis of a conroller por enabled decoder: one-ho, inpu-only device pors regisered decoder: inpu-only (bu no one-ho) device pors muliplexor: oupu-only device pors µ C device A device B µ C D EN D EN Q Q device A device B µc log(n) bis enable enabled decoder n one-ho signals µc daa µc log(n) bis n signals enable n signals log(n) muliplexor selec bis D EN n regiser selec lines regisered decoder Q 4

6 7 #(89 7 #( 868 Design a sysem o conrol a digial Soluion: design a PWM uni! "#\$ '&! "#\$! "#( %! "#\$ %&! "#\$ %& '&! "#( % 7 #( 8 & 7.0 // in iniializaion code Wrie off o onoff regiser // do some suff // se up PWM Repea for each moor Wrie hightime and period regisers Sonar range finder Compass IR proximiy deecor Acceleromeer Brigh LED // urn moors on Repea for each moor Wrie on o he onoff regiser // more suff #,, Uses ulra-sound (no audible) o measure disance Time echo reurn Sound ravels a approximaely 343m/sec need a leas a 34.3kHz imer for cm resoluion One simple echo no enough many possible reflecions wan o ake muliple readings for high accuracy Commonly found on old Polaroid cameras, now a frequenly used par in mobile robos Transducer (gold disc) charged up o high volage and snapped disc says senisized so i can deec echo (acs as microphone) Conroller board high-volage circuiry o prepare disc for ransmiing and hen receiving 6

7 #,,1 42 Only need o connec wo pins o microconroller INIT - sar ransmiing ECHO - reurn signal Some imporan informaion from daa shee INIT requires large curren (greaer han microconroller can provide add exernal buffer/amplifier) ECHO requires a pull-up resisor (deermine curren ha needs o flow ino microconroller pin - size resisor so proper volage is on pin " Four compass direcions (each has hree pins) One-ho/wo-ho encoding one-ho for N, E, S, W wo-ho for NE, SE, SW, NW #!"Ω \$ Ω ' # Deecing a change in compass direcion 4 bis change from 0001 o 0011 o 0010 o 0110 o 0100 Always alernaing beween one bi on and wo bis on Pariy ree can deec difference beween one and wo bis being assered XOR ree of four bis (one TTL SSI package) Oupu mus change a leas once for every change in orienaion Use inerrups o deec changes N E S W e.g., NE E SE * Oscillaor mus be se o mach deecor, -:\$\$ #7 urn on emier sleep for 600us val_on = read deecor urn off emier sleep for 600us val_off = read deecor reurn ( val_on & ~val_off ) imer goes off wake imer goes off wake Mosly in main urn on emier se imer sleep imer goes off val_on = read deecor urn off emier rese imer sleep reurn ( val_on & ~val_off ) wake Using inerrup handlers imer goes off (again) val_off = read deecor 7

8 8 7 Always sending ou IR Deecor drives LED (guaraneed o mach frequency) Micro-elecro-mechanical sysem ha measures force F = ma (I. Newon) Measured as change in capaciance beween moving plaes Designed for a maximum g-force (e.g., 2-10g) 2-axis and 3-axis versions Used in airbags, lapop disk drives, ec. 8

9 ( +\$.< = /\$ % Average over ime smoohing Sofware filer like swich debouncing Take several readings use average for Tb and Tc or heir raio Running average so ha a reading is available a all imes e.g., updae running average of 4 readings curren average = ¾ * curren average + ¼ * new reading Take readings of boh Tb and Tc o be exra careful Tc changes wih emperaure Usually can do Tc jus once Filer capaciors limied noise frequency bandwidh limiing *,!;,0\$ \$!;,0 Acceleromeer duy cycle varies wih force 12.5% for each g R SET deermines duraion of period A 1g duy-cycle will be 62.5% (37.5%) Sensiiviy (maximum duy cycle change per degree) is highes when acceleromeer is perpendicular o graviy #( 8\$ /! How big a couner do you need? Assume 7.37MHz clock 1ms period yields a coun of 7370 This fis in a 16-bi imer/couner Should you use a prescaler for he couner? Bi precision issues unsigned in posiive; unsigned in period; unsigned in pos_duy_cycle; BAD: pos_duy_cycle = posiive/period; BAD: pos_duy_cycle = ( posiive * 1000 ) / period; OKAY: pos_duy_cycle = ( (long) posiive * 1000 ) / period; Easy o conrol inensiy of ligh hrough pulse-widh modulaion Duy-cycle is averaged by human eye Ligh is really urning on and off each period Too quickly for human reina (or mos video cameras) Period mus be shor enough (< 1ms is a sure be) LED oupu is low o urn on ligh, high o urn i off Acive low oupu 9

10 ! 6 #(8 Varying PWM oupu volaile uin8_ widh; /* posiive pusle widh */ volaile uin8_ delay; /* used o slow he pulse widh changing */ SIGNAL (SIG_OVERFLOW2) { if(delay++ == 20) { OCR2 = widh++; delay = 0; } } in main (void) { /* mus make OC2 pin an oupu for he PWM o visible */ DDRD = _BV(DDD7); /* use Timer 2 FasPWM and he overflow inerrup o updae duy-cycle */ TCCR2 = _BV (WGM21) _BV (WGM20) _BV (COM21) _BV(COM20) _BV(CS21) _BV(CS20); TIMSK = _BV (TOIE2); /* seup iniial condiions */ delay = 0; /* enable inerrups */ sei (); for (;;) { ; /* LOOP FOREVER as he inerrup will make necessary adjusmen */ } reurn (0); } 10

### Controlling and reacting to the environment

Interfacing Connecting the computational capabilities of a microcontroller to external signals Transforming variable values into voltages and vice-versa Digital and analog Issues How many signals can be

### Controlling and reacting to the environment

Interfacing Connecting the computation capabilities of a microcontroller to external signals Transforming variable values into voltages and vice-versa Digital and analog Issues How many signals can be

### EE 40 Final Project Basic Circuit

EE 0 Spring 2006 Final Projec EE 0 Final Projec Basic Circui Par I: General insrucion 1. The final projec will coun 0% of he lab grading, since i s going o ake lab sessions. All oher individual labs will

### 4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications

Because of he grea number of indusrial buses now available he majoriy of indusrial measuremen echnology applicaions sill calls for he sandard analog curren nework. The reason for his lies in he fac ha

### EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER INTRODUCTION: Being able o ransmi a radio frequency carrier across space is of no use unless we can place informaion or inelligence upon i. This las ransmier

### Synchronization of single-channel stepper motor drivers reduces noise and interference

hronizaion of single-channel sepper moor drivers reduces noise and inerference n mos applicaions, a non-synchronized operaion causes no problems. However, in some cases he swiching of he wo channels inerfere,

### Lab 3 Acceleration. What You Need To Know: Physics 211 Lab

b Lab 3 Acceleraion Wha You Need To Know: The Physics In he previous lab you learned ha he velociy of an objec can be deermined by finding he slope of he objec s posiion vs. ime graph. x v ave. = v ave.

### Designing the VCNL4200 Into an Application

PS-PD ALS-PD Oscillaor VISHAY SEMICONDUCTORS www.vishay.com Opical Sensors Designing he VCNL42 Ino an Applicaion By Reinhard Schaar INTRODUCTION AND BASIC OPERATION The VCNL42 is a fully inegraed proximiy

### Designing the VCNL4200 Into an Application

PS-PD ALS-PD Oscillaor VISHAY SEMICONDUCTORS www.vishay.com Opical Sensors Designing he VCNL42 Ino an Applicaion By Reinhard Schaar INTRODUCTION AND BASIC OPERATION The VCNL42 is a fully inegraed proximiy

### Diodes. Diodes, Page 1

Diodes, Page 1 Diodes V-I Characerisics signal diode Measure he volage-curren characerisic of a sandard signal diode, he 1N914, using he circui shown below. The purpose of he back-o-back power supplies

### 4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits

4/5/011 secion 4_5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuis 1/ 4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuis eading Assignmen: 8086 Now le s examine how we C bias MOSFETs amplifiers! f we don bias properly, disorion can

### EXPERIMENT #9 FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS LINK

EXPERIMENT #9 FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS LINK INTRODUCTION: Much of daa communicaions is concerned wih sending digial informaion hrough sysems ha normally only pass analog signals. A elephone line is such

### ECMA st Edition / June Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI)

ECMA-373 1 s Ediion / June 2006 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Sandard ECMA-373 1 s Ediion / June 2006 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Ecma Inernaional Rue du Rhône 114

### FROM ANALOG TO DIGITAL

FROM ANALOG TO DIGITAL OBJECTIVES The objecives of his lecure are o: Inroduce sampling, he Nyquis Limi (Shannon s Sampling Theorem) and represenaion of signals in he frequency domain Inroduce basic conceps

### THE OSCILLOSCOPE AND NOISE. Objectives:

-26- Preparaory Quesions. Go o he Web page hp://www.ek.com/measuremen/app_noes/xyzs/ and read a leas he firs four subsecions of he secion on Trigger Conrols (which iself is a subsecion of he secion The

### MEASUREMENTS OF VARYING VOLTAGES

MEASUREMENTS OF ARYING OLTAGES Measuremens of varying volages are commonly done wih an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope displays a plo (graph) of volage versus imes. This is done by deflecing a sream of

### LECTURE 1 CMOS PHASE LOCKED LOOPS

Lecure 01 (8/9/18) Page 1-1 Objecive LECTURE 1 CMOS PHASE LOCKED LOOPS OVERVIEW Undersand he principles and applicaions of phase locked loops using inegraed circui echnology wih emphasis on CMOS echnology.

### Designing the VCNL4040 Into an Application

PS-PD ALS-PD Oscillaor VISHAY SEMICONDUCTORS www.vishay.com Opical Sensors By Reinhard Schaar INTRODUCTION AND BASIC OPERATION The VCNL44 is a fully inegraed proximiy and ambien ligh sensor. I combines

### Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing

Rero-reflecive phooelecric sensors wih polarizaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 10-2011/04 50105364 1 khz 0 5m We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK3B_Sandard_EL_en.fm 10-30 V DC A 2 LS Polarized rero-reflecive

### Universal microprocessor-based ON/OFF and P programmable controller MS8122A MS8122B

COMPETENCE IN MEASUREMENT Universal microprocessor-based ON/OFF and P programmable conroller MS8122A MS8122B TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND INSTRUCTION FOR USE PLOVDIV 2003 1 I. TECHNICAL DATA Analog inpus

### The ramp is normally enabled but can be selectively disabled by suitable wiring to an external switch.

Vickers Amplifier Cards Power Amplifiers for Proporional Valves EEA-PAM-56*-A-14 Design EEA-PAM-561-A-14 for use wih valve ypes: KDG5V-5, * and KDG5V-7, 1* series EEA-PAM-568-A-14 for use wih valve ypes:

### Programmable DC Electronic Loads 8600 Series

Daa Shee Programmable DC Elecronic Loads The programmable DC elecronic loads provide he performance of modular sysem DC elecronic loads in a compac benchop form facor. Wih fas ransien operaion speeds and

### Table of Contents. 3.0 SMPS Topologies. For Further Research. 3.1 Basic Components. 3.2 Buck (Step Down) 3.3 Boost (Step Up) 3.4 Inverter (Buck/Boost)

Table of Conens 3.0 SMPS Topologies 3.1 Basic Componens 3.2 Buck (Sep Down) 3.3 Boos (Sep Up) 3.4 nverer (Buck/Boos) 3.5 Flyback Converer 3.6 Curren Boosed Boos 3.7 Curren Boosed Buck 3.8 Forward Converer

### Solid-state Multi-functional Timer

Solid-sae Muli-funcional Timer Eigh operaing modes (H3DE-M) and four operaing modes (H3DE-S) cover a wide range of applicaions. Programmable conac enables he building of a self-holding relay circui (-

### Programmable DC Electronic Load 8600 Series

Daa Shee Programmable DC Elecronic Load The programmable DC elecronic loads provide he performance of modular sysem DC elecronic loads in a compac benchop form facor. Wih fas ransien operaion speeds and

Disribued by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The conen and copyrighs of he aached maerial are he propery of is owner. 16K-Bi CMOS PARALLEL E 2 PROM FEATURES Fas Read Access Times: 200 ns Low Power CMOS

### Solution of ECE 342 Test 2 S12

Soluion of ECE 342 Tes 2 S2. All quesions regarding superheerodyne receivers refer o his diagram. x c () Anenna B T < B RF < 2 f B = B T Oher Signals f c Mixer f Baseband x RFi RF () x RFo () () () x i

### Connection. Input II EEx ia IIC without SC red. Composition

Sandsill conroller Oupu: relay Connecion Inpu I EEx ia IIC Inpu II EEx ia IIC 1-channel Conrol circui EEx ia IIC Addiional inpu or roaion direcion deecion or sar-up override 2 relay oupus Inpu requency

### 10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit

Elecronicsab.nb 1. he Series esisor and Inducor Circui Inroducion he las laboraory involved a resisor, and capacior, C in series wih a baery swich on or off. I was simpler, as a pracical maer, o replace

### A-LEVEL Electronics. ELEC4 Programmable Control Systems Mark scheme June Version: 1.0 Final

A-LEVEL Elecronics ELEC4 Programmable Conrol Sysems scheme 243 June 26 Version:. Final schemes are prepared by he Lead Assessmen Wrier and considered, ogeher wih he relevan quesions, by a panel of subjec

### Programmable DC Electronic Loads 8600 Series

Daa Shee Programmable DC Elecronic Loads 99 Washingon Sree Melrose, MA 02176 Phone 781-665-1400 Toll Free 1-800-517-8431 Visi us a www.tesequipmendepo.com 2U half-rack 3U 6U USB RS232 GPIB The programmable

### Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing

Rero-reflecive phooelecric sensors wih polarizaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 10-2011/04 50105364 1 khz 0 5m We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK3B_Sandard_EL_en.fm 10-30 V DC A 2 LS Polarized rero-reflecive

### Electrical connection

Reference scanner Dimensioned drawing en 02-2014/06 50117040-01 200 500mm Disance on background/reference 10-30 V DC We reserve he righ o make changes DS_HRTR46Bref_en_50117040_01.fm Robus objec deecion

### Application Note 5324

Desauraion Faul Deecion Opocoupler Gae Drive Producs wih Feaure: PLJ, PL0J, PLJ, PL1J and HCPLJ Applicaion Noe 1. Inroducion A desauraion faul deecion circui provides proecion for power semiconducor swiches

### AN303 APPLICATION NOTE

AN303 APPLICATION NOTE LATCHING CURRENT INTRODUCTION An imporan problem concerning he uilizaion of componens such as hyrisors or riacs is he holding of he componen in he conducing sae afer he rigger curren

### Time Control Technique

Time Conrol Technique muliimer Mulifuncion Relay MK 785N/2 23928 Your Advanages Up o 1 funcions in one uni Simplified sorage Increased flexibiliy Quick seing of long ime values Opions wih Pluggable Terminal

### Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals

CS4/MSc Compuer Neworking Lecure 11 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Compuer Neworking, Copyrigh Universiy of Edinburgh 2005 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Neworks consruced ou of Links or ransmission

### Time Control Technique

Time Conrol Technique MULTITIMER Mulifuncion Relay MK 785N/2 23928 Your Advanages Up o 1 funcions in one uni Simplified sorage Increased flexibiliy Quick seing of long ime values Circui Diagrams B1 22

### ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009

ECMA-373 2 nd Ediion / June 2012 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Reference number ECMA-123:2009 Ecma Inernaional 2009 COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT Ecma Inernaional 2012 Conens Page 1 Scope...

### Dimensions. Model Number. Electrical connection emitter. Features. Electrical connection receiver. Product information. Indicators/operating means

OBE-R-SE Dimensions.8.8 ø..75 7.5 6. 5 6.7 4.9 4. 5.9 ø.6 Model Number OBE-R-SE Elecrical connecion emier Thru-beam sensor wih m fixed cable Feaures 45 cable oule for maximum mouning freedom under exremely

### Transmission Lines. Transmission Lines :: Topics. Introduction Wave Propagation Termination Reflections Summary. Introduction.

Transmission Lines Digial Design and Compuer Archiecure David Money Harris and Sarah L. Harris Transmission Lines :: Topics Inroducion Wave Propagaion Terminaion Reflecions Summary TL- TL- Inroducion

### Dimensions. Transmitter Receiver ø2.6. Electrical connection. Transmitter +UB 0 V. Emitter selection. = Light on = Dark on

OBE-R-SE Dimensions Transmier.. 7.5 9..5.8 4.9 4 5 M 8.9 7.5 9..5.8 4 5 M 8.9 ø.6 ø.6 Model Number OBE-R-SE Thru-beam sensor wih m fixed cable Elecrical connecion Transmier Feaures BN +UB WH IN Ulra-small

### Industrial, High Repetition Rate Picosecond Laser

RAPID Indusrial, High Repeiion Rae Picosecond Laser High Power: RAPID is a very cos efficien, compac, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 picosecond laser wih 2 W average power a 1064 nm. Is 10 ps-pulses have high pulse

### MODEL: M6SXF1. POWER INPUT DC Power R: 24 V DC

Tension-Clamp Ulra-Slim Signal Condiioners M6S Series FUNCTION MODULE (PC programmable) Funcions & Feaures Mainenance-free ension clamp connecion Single inpu filer and funcion module 12 ypes of funcions

### Dimensions. Transmitter Receiver ø2.6. Electrical connection. Transmitter +UB 0 V. Emitter selection. = Light on = Dark on

OBE-R-SE Dimensions Transmier.. 7.5 9..5.8 4.9 4 5 M 8.9 7.5 9..5.8 4 5 M 8.9 ø.6 ø.6 Model Number OBE-R-SE Thru-beam sensor wih m fixed cable Elecrical connecion Transmier Feaures BN +UB WH IN Ulra-small

### DISCONTINUED MODEL Replaced with Model JPS3

Plug-in Signal Condiioners M-UNIT PUSE ADDER (field-programmable) MODE MODE & SUFFIX CODE SEECTI MODE A : Dry conac B :Volage pulse (Specify sensiiviy) C : V pulse (sensiiviy V) D : V/V pulse (sensiiviy

### Control circuit for a Self-Oscillating Power Supply (SOPS) TDA8385

FEATURES Bandgap reference generaor Slow-sar circuiry Low-loss peak curren sensing Over-volage proecion Hyseresis conrolled sand-by funcion Error amplifier wih gain seing Programmable ransfer characer

### Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

COMM 704: Communicaion Lecure : Analog Mulipliers Dr Mohamed Abd El Ghany Dr. Mohamed Abd El Ghany, Mohamed.abdel-ghany@guc.edu.eg nroducion Nonlinear operaions on coninuous-valued analog signals are ofen

### Installing remote sites using TCP/IP

v dc Keypad from nework Whie/ 3 Whie/ 4 v dc Keypad from nework Whie/ 3 Whie/ 4 v dc Keypad from nework Whie/ 3 Whie/ 4 +v pu +v pu +v pu v dc Keypad from nework Whie/ 3 Whie/ 4 v dc Keypad from nework

### EE 330 Lecture 24. Amplification with Transistor Circuits Small Signal Modelling

EE 330 Lecure 24 Amplificaion wih Transisor Circuis Small Signal Modelling Review from las ime Area Comparison beween BJT and MOSFET BJT Area = 3600 l 2 n-channel MOSFET Area = 168 l 2 Area Raio = 21:1

### Chapter 2 Introduction: From Phase-Locked Loop to Costas Loop

Chaper 2 Inroducion: From Phase-Locked Loop o Cosas Loop The Cosas loop can be considered an exended version of he phase-locked loop (PLL). The PLL has been invened in 932 by French engineer Henri de Belleszice

### Primary Side Control SMPS with Integrated MOSFET

General Descripion GG64 is a primary side conrol SMPS wih an inegraed MOSFET. I feaures programmable cable drop compensaion and a peak curren compensaion funcion, PFM echnology, and a CV/CC conrol loop

### Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarisation filter. Dimensioned drawing

Specificaions and descripion PRKL 3B Laser rero-reflecive phooelecric sensor wih polarisaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 08-2011/04 50105363 2 khz 0 3m 10-30 V DC Polarized rero-reflecive phooelecric

### Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

DUAL SWITCH-MODE SOLENOID DRIER HIGH CURRENT CAPABILITY (up o.5a per channel) HIGH OLTAGE OPERATI (up o 46 for power sage) HIGH EFFICIENCY SWITCHMODE OPERATI REGULATED OUTPUT CURRENT (adjusable) FEW EXTERNAL

### Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller

IDL - Inernaional Digial Library Of Available a:www.dbpublicaions.org 8 h Naional Conference on Advanced Techniques in Elecrical and Elecronics Engineering Inernaional e-journal For Technology And Research-2017

### MODEL: M6NXF1. POWER INPUT DC Power R: 24 V DC

Screw Terminal Ulra-Slim Signal Condiioners M6N Series FUNCTION MODULE (PC programmable) Funcions & Feaures Single inpu filer and funcion module 12 ypes of funcions are PC programmable 7.5-mm wide ulra-slim

### Generating Polar Modulation with R&S SMU200A

Rohde & Schwarz producs: SMU00 Generaing Polar Modulaion wih R&S SMU00 Polar modulaion is a mehod where digial modulaion is realized as a combinaion of phase and ampliude modulaion, raher han using an

### EE201 Circuit Theory I Fall

EE1 Circui Theory I 17 Fall 1. Basic Conceps Chaper 1 of Nilsson - 3 Hrs. Inroducion, Curren and Volage, Power and Energy. Basic Laws Chaper &3 of Nilsson - 6 Hrs. Volage and Curren Sources, Ohm s Law,

### Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter for bottles. Dimensioned drawing

Rero-reflecive phooelecric sensors wih polarizaion filer for boles Dimensioned drawing en 05-2013/08 50103461 1 khz 0 3.5m 10-30 V DC We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK3B42_en_50103461.fm Polarized

### Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing

Specificaions and descripion PRKL 3B Laser rero-reflecive phooelecric sensor wih polarizaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 09-2012/06 50105363 2 khz 0 3m 10-30 V DC We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRKL3B622_en_50105363.fm

### Lecture 4. EITN Chapter 12, 13 Modulation and diversity. Antenna noise is usually given as a noise temperature!

Lecure 4 EITN75 2018 Chaper 12, 13 Modulaion and diversiy Receiver noise: repeiion Anenna noise is usually given as a noise emperaure! Noise facors or noise figures of differen sysem componens are deermined

### 49.8. Control Relays and Timers. Contents. Product Selection Guide. Timing Relays

Conrol Relays and Timers.8 Produc Selecion Guide Noes Applies o TRN model only. Applies o TRF model only. The E5-248 is baery powered and has hree programmable rigger funcions. This produc may perform

### M2 3 Introduction to Switching Regulators. 1. What is a switching power supply? 2. What types of switchers are available?

M2 3 Inroducion o Swiching Regulaors Objecive is o answerhe following quesions: 1. Wha is a swiching power supply? 2. Wha ypes of swichers are available? 3. Why is a swicher needed? 4. How does a swicher

### f t 2cos 2 Modulator Figure 21: DSB-SC modulation.

4.5 Ampliude modulaion: AM 4.55. DSB-SC ampliude modulaion (which is summarized in Figure 21) is easy o undersand and analyze in boh ime and frequency domains. However, analyical simpliciy is no always

### Lecture 5: DC-DC Conversion

1 / 31 Lecure 5: DC-DC Conversion ELEC-E845 Elecric Drives (5 ECTS) Mikko Rouimo (lecurer), Marko Hinkkanen (slides) Auumn 217 2 / 31 Learning Oucomes Afer his lecure and exercises you will be able o:

### MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones

DATA BULLETIN MX629 DELTA MODULATION CODEC mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Feaures Mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Single Chip Full Duplex CVSD CODEC On-chip Inpu and Oupu Filers Programmable Sampling Clocks 3- or 4-bi Companding

### Trigger high-speed, retro-reflective sensors for bottles. Dimensioned drawing

Trigger high-speed, rero-reflecive sensors for boles Dimensioned drawing en 03-2014/10 50121192-02 10-30 V DC 0 3.6m 5 khz We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK18BFX_en_50121192_02.fm Trigger high-speed,

### COMBITRON Program Schedule

OMBITRO Program Schedule OMBITRO are supply and acuaor modules for he elecromagne cluches and brakes. As power supply for D- or A-side swiching differen single-wave and bridge recifiers as well as rapid

### Installation and Operating Instructions for ROBA -brake-checker Typ

(B.018102.EN) Guidelines on he Declaraion of Conformiy A conformiy evaluaion has been carried ou for he produc in erms of he EC Low Volage Direcive 2006/95/ EC and EMC Direcive 2004/108/EC. The Declaraion

### ENDA ETM442 DIGITAL TIMER

english Read his documen carefully before using his device. The guaranee will be expired by damaging of he device if you don' aend o he direcions in he user manual. Also we don' accep any compensaions

### SCiCoreDrive62 +DC T5 U V W -DC. SCiCore 62. IGBT/MOSFET drivers

PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL INFORMATION SCiCoreDrive62 IGBT/MOSFET drivers HIGHLIGHTS - 6 channel IGBT driver - suiable for 200V IGBT (900 V max on DCLink) - Up o 8 A peak oupu curren - Collecor sensing & faul

### Signal Characteristics

Signal Characerisics Analog Signals Analog signals are always coninuous (here are no ime gaps). The signal is of infinie resoluion. Discree Time Signals SignalCharacerisics.docx 8/28/08 10:41 AM Page 1

### LD7516C 08/31/2016. Primary Side Quasi-Resonant Controller. Features. General Description. Applications. Typical Application REV.

REV. 01 General Descripion Primary ide Quasi-Resonan Conroller The is an excellen primary side feedback MO conroller wih CV/CC operaion, inegraed wih several funcions of proecions. I minimizes he componen

### A1 K. 12V rms. 230V rms. 2 Full Wave Rectifier. Fig. 2.1: FWR with Transformer. Fig. 2.2: Transformer. Aim: To Design and setup a full wave rectifier.

2 Full Wave Recifier Aim: To Design and seup a full wave recifier. Componens Required: Diode(1N4001)(4),Resisor 10k,Capacior 56uF,Breadboard,Power Supplies and CRO and ransformer 230V-12V RMS. + A1 K B1

### Proceedings of International Conference on Mechanical, Electrical and Medical Intelligent System 2017

on Mechanical, Elecrical and Medical Inelligen Sysem 7 Consan On-ime Conrolled Four-phase Buck Converer via Saw-oohwave Circui and is Elemen Sensiiviy Yi Xiong a, Koyo Asaishi b, Nasuko Miki c, Yifei Sun

### Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Teser. Esimaion of Inducance by Impulse Response When he volage response is observed afer connecing an elecric charge sored up in he capaciy C o he coil L (including he inside

### Wrap Up. Fourier Transform Sampling, Modulation, Filtering Noise and the Digital Abstraction Binary signaling model and Shannon Capacity

Wrap Up Fourier ransorm Sampling, Modulaion, Filering Noise and he Digial Absracion Binary signaling model and Shannon Capaciy Copyrigh 27 by M.H. Perro All righs reserved. M.H. Perro 27 Wrap Up, Slide

### Electronic timer CT-MVS.12 Multifunctional with 1 c/o contact Data sheet

Feaures Raed conrol supply volage 24-48 V DC, 24-240 V AC Mulifuncion imer wih 10 iming funcions: ON-delay, OFF-delay wih auxiliary volage, Impulse-ON, Impulse-OFF wih auxiliary volage, Symmerical ON-

### Active Filters - 1. Active Filters - 2

PHY35 - Elecronics Laboraory, all Term (K rong) Acie ilers - By combining op-amps wih energy-sorage elemens, circuis can be designed o gie frequency-dependen op-amp responses Acie filers are hose ha use

### Sensing method Application Appearance Sensing distance Model Convergent-reflective Small type 30±3 mm

Auhorised Disribuors:- AS & AAIN INDIA PV D S-, F.I.E.E., Okhla Indusrial Area, Phase-ii, New Delhi-(India) el : -9 Fax : -9 E-mail : sales@ashalain.com Compac ead Amplifier-separaed Phooelecric Sensor

### GG6005. General Description. Features. Applications DIP-8A Primary Side Control SMPS with Integrated MOSFET

General Descripion GG65 is a primary side conrol PSR SMPS wih an inegraed MOSFET. I feaures a programmable cable drop compensaion funcion, PFM echnology, and a CV/CC conrol loop wih high reliabiliy and

### Ultracompact 6-Channel Backlight and Flash/Torch White LED Driver

Feaures and Benefis Proprieary adapive conrol scheme (1, 1.5, 2 ) 0.5% ypical LED curren maching 2 separae serial inerfaces for dimming conrol Drives up o 6 whie LEDs (4 display backligh, 2 flash/orch)

### DS Bit, Programmable, 100kHz Pulse-Width Modulator

www.maxim-ic.com FEUE ingle 5-bi, programmable, pulse-widh modulaor (PWM) djusable Duy Cycle: 0% o 100% 2.7V o 5.5V Operaion andard Frequency Value: 100kHz 2-Wire ddressable Inerface Packages: 8-Pin (150-mil)

### Solid-state Timer H3CT

Solid-sae Timer H3CT DIN 48 x 48-mm Sandard Size Analog Timer Wide ime range (for 4 series of models); 0.1 s o 30 hrs. Wih H3CT-8H models, he oupu ype can be swiched beween ime limi DPDT and ime limi SPDT

### 16-CHANNEL CONSTANT CURRENT LED DRIVER WITH

Version : PRE. Issue Dae : 28/7/3 File Name Toal Pages : 3 : SP--PRE..doc 6-CHANNEL CONSTANT CURRENT LED DRIVER WITH 6-bi PROGRAMMABLE PWM OUTPUTS 9-7F-, Prosperiy Road I, Science Based Indusrial Park,

### Technology Trends & Issues in High-Speed Digital Systems

Deailed comparison of dynamic range beween a vecor nework analyzer and sampling oscilloscope based ime domain reflecomeer by normalizing measuremen ime Sho Okuyama Technology Trends & Issues in High-Speed

### Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarisation filter. Dimensioned drawing. Teach button Optical axis Indicator diode

Specificaions and descripion Leuze elecronic Laser rero-reflecive phooelecric sensor wih polarisaion filer Dimensioned drawing Par No. 501 06860 2 khz 0 3m 10-30 V DC Polarised, laser rero-reflecive phooelecric

### ORDER INFORMATION TO pin 320 ~ 340mV AMC7150DLF

www.addmek.com DESCRIPTI is a PWM power ED driver IC. The driving curren from few milliamps up o 1.5A. I allows high brighness power ED operaing a high efficiency from 4Vdc o 40Vdc. Up o 200KHz exernal

### Application & Guidance Notes

Phooelecric Swiches Applicaions Successful applicaion of phoo-elecrics ino sysems need no involve a deep undersanding of heir principles of operaion. Following hese few simple rules will enable many of

### ISSCC 2007 / SESSION 29 / ANALOG AND POWER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES / 29.8

ISSCC 27 / SESSION 29 / ANALOG AND POWER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES / 29.8 29.8 A 3GHz Swiching DC-DC Converer Using Clock- Tree Charge-Recycling in 9nm CMOS wih Inegraed Oupu Filer Mehdi Alimadadi, Samad Sheikhaei,

### Study on the Wide Gap Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device Gaofeng Wang

Sudy on he Wide Gap Dielecric Barrier Discharge Device Gaofeng Wang School of Informaion Engineering, Zhengzhou Universiy, Zhengzhou 450001, China 932167312@qq.com Keywords: DBD; Wide air gap; Plasma body;

### Optical fibres. Optical fibres made from high-density glass can carry light signals long distances without losing any light through their sides.

Nearly here Nailed i! Uni 1 Conen Opical fibres Opical fibres made from high-densiy glass can carry ligh signals long disances wihou losing any ligh hrough heir sides. Criical angle The criical angle,

### Investigation and Simulation Model Results of High Density Wireless Power Harvesting and Transfer Method

Invesigaion and Simulaion Model Resuls of High Densiy Wireless Power Harvesing and Transfer Mehod Jaber A. Abu Qahouq, Senior Member, IEEE, and Zhigang Dang The Universiy of Alabama Deparmen of Elecrical

### Chapter 14: Bandpass Digital Transmission. A. Bruce Carlson Paul B. Crilly 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies

Communicaion Sysems, 5e Chaper 4: Bandpass Digial Transmission A. Bruce Carlson Paul B. Crilly The McGraw-Hill Companies Chaper 4: Bandpass Digial Transmission Digial CW modulaion Coheren binary sysems

### Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing

Specificaions and descripion PRKL 3B Laser rero-reflecive phooelecric sensor wih polarizaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 11-2016/01 50105363-02 2 khz 0 3m 10-30 V DC We reserve he righ o make changes

### EECE 301 Signals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler

EECE 301 s & Sysems Prof. Mark Fowler Noe Se #1 Wha is s & Sysems all abou??? 1/9 Do All EE s & CoE s Design Circuis? No!!!! Someone has o figure ou wha funcion hose circuis need o do Someone also needs

### A New Voltage Sag and Swell Compensator Switched by Hysteresis Voltage Control Method

Proceedings of he 8h WSEAS Inernaional Conference on ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS, HIGH VOLTAGES, ELECTRIC MACHINES (POWER '8) A New Volage Sag and Swell Compensaor Swiched by Hyseresis Volage Conrol Mehod AMIR

### Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras

ECEN 44 Communicaion Theory Chaper Summary: Coninuous-Wave Modulaion.1 Modulaion Modulaion is a process in which a parameer of a carrier waveform is varied in accordance wih a given message (baseband)