# Implementation of OFDM Modulated Digital Communication Using Software Defined Radio Unit For Radar Applications

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2 The orthogonal property in OFDM is satisfied by choosing the frequency of the sub-carriers to be integral multiple of 1/T i.e., where T is the OFDM symbol duration and is the sub-carrier frequency spacing. This construction is efficiently met with using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) algorithm. The time domain OFDM symbol is thereby given by:- where X(n) represents set of arbitrary complex symbols obtained through a phase modulation technique say, Phase Shift Keying (PSK). In this paper, QPSK technique is used to generate these symbols. N denotes the number of sub-carriers with frequency,. The corresponding OFDM symbol in frequency domain is given by:- In simple words, the modulation demodulation process of the OFDM signal is a combination of IFFT and FFT. Interestingly, IFFT can be performed using FFT by conjugating the input and output of the FFT and dividing it by the FFT size [3]. This reduces hardware complexity and is more cost effective. An approach to OFDM radar processing and to calculate the radar range profile is discussed by Sturm et al in their paper [4]. According to this approach, the samples of the channel transfer function in frequency domain can be obtained by calculating an element-wise division of the received OFDM de-multiplexed information {R(n)} and the transmitted QPSK symbols {X(n)}:- The radar range profile is thus obtained as the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform of {C(n)}. 3.CHOICE OF OFDM SIGNALPARAMETERS The system is to be designed to operate in the 2.45 GHz ISM band, for a bandwidth of 5MHz. Let us consider a radar application to detect slow moving small UAVs (such as Quad-copters), within a range of 200m and relative velocity of 25 m/s. Here, the Doppler shift is given by:- The sub-carrier spacing f is chosen such that f > 10*, to preserve the orthogonal nature between them. The cyclic prefix in OFDM signal is included to handle multi-path effect efficiently. It is usually times the OFDM symbol duration. In monostatic radar terms, the maximum delay between the transmitted and received signal caused is the round trip delay. Hence, the cyclic prefix duration must be greater than the round trip time, for the given range of 200m. Thus, the calculated OFDM parameters are as below:- 4010

3 Parameter TABLE I OFDM Signal Parameters Value Carrier frequency ( ) 2.45 GHz Total Design Bandwidth (B) 5MHz No. of Sub-carriers 1024 Sub-carrier spacing ( f) 4.8 khz OFDM symbol duration (T) 208.3μs Cyclic prefix duration ( ) 26.04μs Total OFDM symbol duration ( ) μs Total OFDM samples Radar range resolution 30m Preamble samples are generated for the above OFDM signal, in accordance with IEEE d/e standard. This also serves as a known training sequence, making the retrieval easier. For the case of 1024 sub-carriers, only the carriers from 299 to 727 are non-zero sub-carriers while the rest are zero padded. This is done to reduce the energy levels at the edges and to generate a bandwidth specific OFDM signal. Also, the amplitude of the preamble samples is maintained such that its average power is 3dB more than the OFDM signal s symbols. Finally, the OFDM frame is formed by prefixing the preamble to the OFDM signal. 4.IMPLEMENTATION OF OFDM SIGNAL USING SDR SETUP The Software Defined Radio setup used is Benchmark s WiCOMM-T units. It is a wireless digital communication system with pluggable 70 MHz IF or 2.4 GHz RF modules. The system has a transmitter and receiver. Also, the setup can be interfaced with MATLAB, using the PC s USB port. All baseband level signal definition and processing algorithms were defined using MATLAB. The testing and implementation was carried out at three different stages:- A. Baseband loopback B. IF (70MHz) loopback C. RF (2.4 GHz) level real time communication At the transmitting end, random data bits were generated, which are then QPSK modulated. IFFT was performed on the above QPSK symbols, cyclic prefix added accordingly and the signal was upsampled to generate the final OFDM signal to be transmitted, as shown in Fig

4 Fig. 1 70MHz IF module Fig GHz RF module Fig. 3 WiCOMM-T RF setup Fig. 4 WiCOMM-T transmitting end (loopback) block diagram in MATLAB 4012

5 At the receiving end, it is very essential that our code implements algorithm to down-sample, identify & correct frequency offset errors and perform a symbol timing recovery, in order to retrieve the information transmitted, as shown in Fig. 5. All of the above mentioned procedures were coded in MATLAB, before feeding it to the real time communication setup. Schmidl Cox algorithm [5], as shown in Fig. 6, was used at the receiving end to correct the frequency offset error and to identify the start of OFDM frame. Fig. 5 WiCOMM-T receiving end (loopback) block diagram in MATLAB Fig. 6 5.RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS Schmidl Cox algorithm The above generated OFDM signal was tested by transmitting from one WiCOMM-T to another, in loop-back as well as through air in RF-mode (separated by few meters). The plots of the real time transmitted signal, received demodulated signal and other associated parameters, in IF mode are shown in Fig. 7 to 10. Fig. 7 Generated random input data (IF-mode) 4013

6 Fig. 8 Transmitted OFDM signal (IF-mode) Fig. 9 Received demodulated & decoded output (with no equalization) It is observed from Fig.9 that we were able to retrieve the transmitted random data, corrupted with simulated channel noise. Also, the bit error rate was less than 0.1, without any equalizer applied to undo the channel effects. Fig. 10 Auto correlation result to find preamble (IF-mode) Fig.10 shows the auto correlation results, as a part of Schmidl Cox algorithm, to find the start of the frame. It indicates that in the received signal, the OFDM frame starts from 160 th sample index and is thereby synchronised accordingly with the transmitter. The corresponding results in the RF mode are shown below in Fig.11 to

7 Fig. 11 Generated random input data (RF-mode) Fig. 12 Transmitted OFDM signal (RF-mode) Fig. 13 Auto correlation result to find preamble (RF-mode) 4015

8 Fig. 14 Estimated fractional frequency offset Fig. 15 Estimated integer frequency offset Fig. 16 Received demodulated & decoded output (with no equalization in RF-mode) Fig. 13 shows that the OFDM frame starts from sample number 1950 in the received signal. The synchronization of the receiver with the transmitter is done accordingly. Since OFDM demodulation is FFT-based, it is sensitive to frequency offset errors. Fig. 14 & 15 show the estimated frequency offsets, using Schmidl Cox algorithm, which is corrected before demodulation of the signal. The received demodulated & decoded plot of the corresponding transmitted random data (Fig.11) is thus presented in Fig.16. The signal was retrieved with a bit error rate close to 0.3, with no equalizer applied. 5. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, an approach to model OFDM signal as a radar signal has been presented. Also, the modelled OFDM signal has been implemented using Benchmark s Wireless Digital Communication 4016

9 setup (WiCOMM-T). Several challenges in the real time signal processing including dynamic channel conditions have been encountered and some of them have been addressed for enhanced retrieval of the OFDM signal. A bandwidth specific signal modelling has been adapted, with the dual role of preamble. Future scope of this work would be to implement the WiCOMM-T setup as a short range radar system, to detect small, slow-moving UAVs, using the modelled OFDM radar signals. Also, the bit error rate of the communication setup could be reduced significantly by the design of an appropriate equalizer to undo channel effects. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First of all, the authors would like to thank the management of VIT University for the facilities and opportunities provided, during the progress of this work. The authors extend their heartfelt thanks to Dr.Ramachandra Reddy (Senior Professor, VIT) for his valuable and extensive guidance throughout this work. They extend their special thanks to Prof.Rajesh.A, Mr.Sridhar.V (Communication Engineering Lab, VIT) and Mr.Anish (Research, VIT) for their valuable support in carrying out the hardware implementation. REFERENCES [1] G.E.A. Franken, H. Nikookar, P. Van Genderen, Doppler tolerance of OFDM coded Radar Signals, Proc. 3 rd European Radar Conference, pp , Sept [2] A. Garmatyuk, J. Schuerger, Y.T. Morton, K. Binns, M. Durbin, J. Kimani, Feasibility study of a multi-carrier dual-use imaging radar and communication system, Proc. 37 th European Microwave Conference, pp , Oct [3] Richard van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Artech House, London. [4] C. Sturm, E. Pancera, T. Zwick, W. Wiesbeck, A Novel Approach to OFDM Radar Processing, IEEE, [5] T.M. Schmidl, D.C. Cox, Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM, IEEE transactions on communication, pp , Dec

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