A ThreeMicrophone Adaptive Noise Canceller for Minimizing Reverberation and Signal Distortion


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1 American Journal of Applied Sciences 5 (4): 3037, 008 ISSN Science Publications A ThreeMicrophone Adaptive Noise Canceller for Minimizing Reverberation and Signal Distortion Zayed M. Ramadan Department of Netork and Communications Engineering, College of Engineering and Information Technology, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 64141, Al Ain, UAE Abstract: This paper introduces an adaptive noise canceller (ANC) to improve the system performance in the presence of signal leakage components. The proposed ANC consists of to adaptive filters and three microphones. The first adaptive filter cancels the signal leakage and the second filter cancels the noise. For best results, a least mean squares adaptive algorithm as also introduced and used in the proposed ANC. In this algorithm the step size as based on both error vector and data normalization. Simulation results, carried out using a real speech, demonstrate significant improvements of the proposed ANC over the conventional one in minimizing signal distortion and reverberation. Keyords: crosstalk, noise canceller, reverberation, signal leakage. INTRODUCTION Adaptive noise cancellation techniques are usually applied in applications here a reference signal that is correlated ith the noise at the primary signal is easily obtained. These applications include long distance telephone calls, adaptive antenna array processing, and adaptive line enhancement. Many tomicrophone ANCs have been proposed in the literature of adaptive filtering using least meansquare (LMS)based algorithms that alter the stepsize of the update equation to improve the tracking ability of the algorithm and its speed of convergence as ell [15]. A typical block diagram of a conventional adaptive noise canceller is shon in Fig.1, here the signal source provides the signal S(n) hich serves as the desired signal for the adaptive filter. The reference signal v (n) is derived from a noise source g(n) located ithin the noise field. This reference signal is correlated ith the noise v 1 (n) that corrupts S(n), and results in the noise corrupted observation, or the primary input signal, d(n). The adaptive filter adjusts itself to produce an output y(n) that best estimates v 1 (n) in the meansquare sense, and thus produces an error signal e(n)= S(n)+ v 1 (n) y(n) that is as close as possible to S(n). In all conventional ANCs, it as assumed that there are no signal components leaking into the Corresponding Author: Zayed M. Ramadan, Department of Netork and Communications Engineering, College of Engineering and Information Technology, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 64141, Al Ain, UAE. Tel Fax reference input. The presence of these signal components (also called signal crosstalk or signal leakage) at the reference input is a practical concern because it causes cancellation of a part of the original speech signal at the input of the ANC, and results in severe signal distortion and lo signal to noise ratio at the output of the ANC. The magnitude of this distortion depends on the signal to noise ratios at the primary and reference inputs. Several techniques ere proposed in the literature to enhance the system performance in this case of signal leakage [67]. High computational complexity is associated ith these techniques and algorithms. This paper introduces an ANC to improve the system performance in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed ANC consists of three microphones and to adaptive filters. To microphones are used to represent the original speech signal and the reference noise input. The third microphone is used to provide a signal that is processed through the first adaptive filter to cancel the signal crosstalk leaking from the primary input into the reference input. The second adaptive filter is used to cancel the noise at its input and produce a signal that is as close as possible to the original speech. The proposed ANC is simulated using different noise poer levels for both stationary and nonstationary noise environments. Simulation results, carried out using a real speech, clearly demonstrate the significant
2 achievements of the proposed ANC in minimizing the signal distortion and reverberation. Proposed ANC: An adaptive noise canceller ith signal leakage in the reference input is shon in Fig.. The leakage signal is represented as an output of a lo pass filter h. Figure 3 shos a block diagram of the proposed ANC. The first microphone represents the speech signal and the second microphone represents a mixture of noise g(n), and signal components leaking from the first microphone through a channel ith impulse response h 3. These signal components cause distortion in the recovered speech at the output of a conventional ANC. To solve this problem e introduce a third microphone (sensor) to provide a signal that is correlated ith the signal components leaked from the primary input. This signal is processed by the first adaptive filter ( 1 ) to produce a crosstalkfree noise at its output. This noisy signal, ith almost no leakage of the speech, is processed through the second adaptive filter to cancel the noise at its input, and accordingly produces the recovered speech at the output of the ANC. The transmission path beteen the third microphone and the first adaptive filter is represented by the impulse response h. It is assumed that the third microphone is located farther aay from the reference microphone such that there ill no signal crosstalk leaking from the first into the second. Figures and 3 illustrate the fundamental concepts of the proposed crosstalk resistant ANC compared to the conventional ANC. In the ANC shon in Fig., the reference signal v (n), hich must be correlated ith v 1 (n), is used to estimate the noise v 1 (n). A similar concept is used in the proposed crosstalk resistant ANC shon in Fig.3. The signal provided by the third microphone, v 4 (n), is correlated ith the crosstalk signal that leaks from the primary microphone into the reference one. This signal (i.e., v 4 (n)) is composed of both speech and noise and is almost an attenuated replica of the noise corrupted observation at the primary sensor. The performance of an ANC can be measured in terms of a dimensionless quantity called misadjustment M, hich is a normalized meansquare error defined as the ratio of the steady state excess meansquare error (EMSEss) to the minimum meansquare error. Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, EMSEss M = (1) MSE min The EMSE at the nth iteration is given by here EMSE( n) = MSE( n) MSE min () MSE( n) = E[ en ( ) ] (3) The MSE(n) in (3) is estimated by averaging e(n) over I independent trials of the experiment. Thus, (3) can be estimated as: ^ 1 I MSE(n) MSE( n) = e ( n) (4) I k= 1 From (), e can rite: EMSE ss = MSE ss MSE min (5) To obtain best results, an adaptive algorithm in hich the step size depends on both error and data normalization is introduced and analyzed belo. This algorithm is used in the computer simulations of both the proposed and the conventional ANCs. The simulations sho performance superiority of the proposed ANC in decreasing signal distortion, reverberation and consequently, producing small values of EMSE. Error Data Normalized Step Size: Based on regularization Neton s recursion [11], e can rite ( n 1) ( n) + = + 1 ( n) ( n) I R p R ( n) x µ ε + x (6) here n is the iteration number, is an N 1 vector of adaptive filter eights, ε ( n) is an iterationdependent regularization parameter, µ ( n) is an iterationdependent stepsize, and I is the N N identity matrix. ( n) E d( n) ( n) p x is the crosscorrelation vector = beteen the desired signal d(n) and the input signal x ( n), and Rx ( n) = E[ x( n) x T ( n) ] is the autocorrelation matrix of x(n). Writing (6) in the LMS form by replacing p and R x d n x n and by their instantaneous approximation ( ) ( ) T ( n) ( n), x x respectively, ith appropriate proposed eights, e obtain,
3 Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, 008 ( n 1) ( n) + = + L T 1 ( n) ( n) ( n) ( n) e( n) µ α e I+γx x x (7) here µ is a positive constant stepsize, α and γ are positive constants, e( n ) is the system output error defined by and T ( ) = ( ) ( ) ( ) e n d n x n n (8) L 1 e L( n) = e( n i) (9) i= 0 Equation (9) is the squared norm of the error vector, e ( n), estimated over its last L values. Expanding (7) and applying the matrix inversion formula A+BCD = ith [ ] A A B C +DA B DA (10) T ( n) ( n) ( n) A=α el IB=x,, C =γ,and D=x e obtain 1 T α el( n) I+γ x( n) x ( n) = 1 1 α el I el Ix ( n) α ( n) ( n) T 1 x 1 T 1 γ + x α el x ( n) α el( n) ( n) ( n) ( n) (11) Multiplying both sides of (11) by x ( n) from the right, and rearranging the equation, e have 1 T α el ( n) I +γ x( n) x ( n) x( n) = x( n) ( n) x( n) α e L +γ (1) Substituting (1) in (7), e obtain a ne errordata normalized stepsize (EDNSS) algorithm: ( n 1) ( n) + = + µ x α el( n) + (1 α) x( n) ( n) e( n) (13) here γ is replaced by (1 α) 0 in (13) ithout loss of generality. It should be noted that α and µ in this equation are different than those in the preceding equations. Hoever, since these are all constants, α and µ are reused in (13). The fractional quantity in (13) may be vieed as a timevarying stepsize, µ ( n), of the proposed EDNSS algorithm. Clearly, µ ( n) is controlled by normalization of both error and input data vectors. This algorithm is dependent on normalization of both data and error. It differs from the NLMS algorithm in the added term ( n ) e L ith a proportional constant. For the case hen L=n, this added term ill increase the denominator of the time varying stepsize µ ( n ) (the fractional quantity of (13)), and hence a larger value of µ than that of the NLMS should be used in this algorithm to assure fast rate of convergence at the early stages of adaptation. As n increases (ith L=n), µ ( n ) decreases except for possible up and don variations due to statistical changes in the input signal energy x ( n). This indicates that the EDNSS algorithm ith L=n performs ell in stationary environments. In a nonstationary environment, the length of the error vector, L, should be constant to improve the tracking ability of the algorithm. In this case, as n increases, e ( n ) decreases, and µ ( n ) L increases to a maximum value of ( ) ( ) 1 α hich is the time varying stepsize of the NLMS algorithm. A small positive constant could be added to the denominator of (13) to insure stability of the algorithm hen the denominator is close to zero. Note that setting α=0 in this equation results in the standard NLMS algorithm. µ x n, 3
4 Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, 008 S(n) d(n) e(n) g(n) h 1 v 1 (n) y(n) h v (n) Fig. 1: A conventional ANC ith no signal leakage S(n) d(n) e(n) h v 1 (n) y(n) h 1 v 3 (n) g(n) Fig. : A conventional ANC ith signal leakage 33
5 Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, 008 S(n) d(n) e(n) h h 3 v 1 (n) y (n) h 1 g(n) v 3 (n) v (n) y 1 (n) v 4 (n) 1 Fig. 3: Proposed ANC for solving signal leakage problem SIMULATION RESULTS Fig. 4: Cancellation of crosstalk at the output of the first adaptive filter of the proposed ANC in stationary environment ( σ g = 0.001, Table 1). From top to bottom: Original clean speech S(n), noise corrupted ith crosstalk v 3 (n), and crosstalkfree noise, v (n). See Fig.3. The simulations are carried out using a male native speech saying sampled at a frequency of khz. The number of bits per sample is 8, and the total number of samples is or 3 sec of real time. Simulation results are presented for stationary and nonstationary environments. For the stationary case, the noise g(n) as assumed to be zeromean hite Gaussian ith three different variances as shon in Table 1. For the nonstationary case, the noise as assumed to be zeromean hite Gaussian ith a variance that increases linearly from σ g =0.001 to three different maximum values σ g as demonstrated max in Table. The impulse responses of the three autoregressive (AR) lo pass filters used in the simulations, are h 1 =[ ], h =[ ], and h 3 =[ ]. In all simulations, the EDNSS algorithm, represented in (13), is used ith the folloing values of parameters: Proposed ANC: min 34
6 N 1 =N =1, L 1 =L =0N, µ 1 =0.15, µ =0.03, α 1 =0.9, and α =0.7, here N 1, L 1, µ 1, and α 1 are filter length, error vector length, stepsize and proportional constant, respectively, of the EDNSS algorithm used in the first adaptive filter ( 1 ) shon in Fig.3. Similarly, N, L, µ, and α are the corresponding parameters of the EDNSS algorithm used in the second adaptive filter ( ) shon in Fig.3. Conventional ANC: N=1, L=0N, µ=0.03, and α=0.7, here N, L, µ, and α are the corresponding parameters of the EDNSS algorithm and used in the adaptive filter () shon in Fig.. Figure 4 illustrates the performance of our proposed ANC in canceling the signal leakage at the output of the first adaptive filter for the case in hich σ g =0.001 as shon in Table 1. From top to bottom, Fig.4 shos the original speech S(n), combination of noise and signal leakage v 3 (n), and the error signal of the first adaptive filter v (n) hich is the noise free version of signal leakage. A comparison of the proposed ANC ith the conventional ANC for both stationary and nonstationary noise environments is shon in Tables 1 and. The adaptation constants of the algorithm used in both ANCs ere selected to achieve a compromise beteen small EMSE and high initial rate of convergence for a ide range of noise variances. From these tables, improvements of up to 3dB in EMSE ss of the proposed ANC over the conventional one ere achieved. It is orthhile to note that if the noise variance increases, the performance of the conventional ANC becomes a little better as illustrated in Tables 1 and. This is expected because increasing noise poer results in a less significant effect of the signal leakage at the reference input. That is, the SNR at the output of a conventional ANC ith signal leakage is inversely proportional to the SNR at its reference input [1]. Figure 5 illustrates the performance of proposed ANC in a stationary noise environment ( σ g = 0.001, Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, 008 max Table 1). The figure shos the original clean speech S(n), speech corrupted ith noise d(n), recovered speech e(n), and the excess error e(n) S(n). Figures 6 and 7 provide more illustrations of the significant achievements of the proposed ANC over the conventional one in the nonstationary noise case in hich σ g = 0.01 (Table ). Figure 6 shos the max increasing the variance of the noise on the processed speech is clearly shon in the second plot of the figure. Figure 7 shos the plot of EMSE in decibels for both ANCs. Figure 8 repeats Fig.7 but in a stationary noise environment ith σ g = 0.01 as shon in Table 1. The EMSE in this case starts decreasing during the initial stage of convergence. After that, it keeps fluctuating depending on the tracking capability of the adaptive algorithm. Hoever, the EMSE in the nonstationary noise case is different from that in stationary case during the early stages of adaptation, since the variance of the noise is increasing linearly in this case. speech signal S(n), the noise corrupted observation d(n), and the excess error (e(n)s(n)) of both the proposed and conventional ANCs. The effect of Computer simulations, using a ne proposed adaptive 35 Fig. 5: The performance of proposed ANC in a stationary noise environment (σ g = 0.001, Table 1). From top to bottom: Original clean speech S(n), speech corrupted ith noise d(n), recovered speech e(n), and excess error e(n) S(n). CONCLUSION In this paper, a crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller is proposed to improve the performance in the presence of signal leakage or crosstalk at the reference input. This ANC uses three microphones and to adaptive filters. The third microphone is used to provide a signal that is correlated ith the leaking signal components. This signal is processed by the first adaptive filter to produce a noise that is free from crosstalk at its output. The second adaptive filter cancels the noise at it input and produces a recovered speech that is as close as possible to the original speech.
7 Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, 008 algorithm based on normalization of both error and data, sho performance superiority of the proposed ANC in decreasing signal distortion and reverberation in the resulted speech, and consequently, producing small values of EMSE. Fig. 8: EMSE in db of the proposed and conventional ANCs in stationary noise environment (σ g = 0.01, Table 1). Fig. 6: Performance comparison beteen the proposed and conventional ANCs in a nonstationary noise environment (σ g max = 0.01, Table ). From top to bottom: Original clean speech S(n), speech corrupted ith noise d(n), excess error of the proposed ANC, and excess error of the conventional ANC. Table 1: Comparison of the EMSE ss and M of the proposed and conventional ANCs for stationary noise case Gaussian hite zeromean noise, g(n) Conventional ANC Steady State EMSE (db) M % Proposed ANC Steady State EMSE (db) M % σ g = σ g = σ g = Table : Comparison of the EMSE ss and M of the proposed and conventional ANCs for nonstationary noise case Nonstationary Gaussian noise g(n) σ g min = Conventional ANC Steady State EMSE (db) M % Proposed ANC Steady State EMSE (db) M % σ g max = Fig. 7: EMSE in db of the proposed and conventional ANCs in a nonstationary noise environment (σ g max = 0.01, Table ). σ g max = σ g max =
8 Am. J. Applied Sci., 5 (4): 3037, 008 REFERENCES 1. Boll, S. F., & D. C. Publisher, Suppression of acoustic noise in speech using to microphone adaptive noise cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ASSP 8, Ikeda, S., & A. Sugiyama, An adaptive noise canceller ith lo signal distortion for speech codecs, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 47 (3), Greenberg, J. E., Modified LMS algorithms for speech processing ith an adaptive noise canceller, IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, 6, Harrison, W. A., J. S. Lim, & E. Singer, A ne application of adaptive noise cancellation, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 34 (1), AlKindi, M. J., & J. Dunlop, A lo distortion adaptive noise cancellation structure for real time applications. Proc. IEEE ICASSP, G. Mirchandani, R. L. Zinser, and J. B. Evans A ne adaptive noise cancellation scheme in the presence of crosstalk. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.,Vol. 39, pp V. Parsa, and P. Parker, Constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller. IEE Electronic Letters, Vol. 30, pp V. Parsa, P. A. Parker, and R. N. Scott, Performance analysis of a crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.,Vol. 43, pp M.J. AlKindi and J. Dunlop, A lo distortion adaptive noise cancellation structure for real time applications. Proc. IEEE ICASSP, pp S. Ikeda and A. Sugiyama, An adaptive noise canceller ith lo signal distortion for speech codecs. IEEE Trans. on Signal, Processing, Vol. 47, pp A. H. Sayed, 003. Fundamentals of Adaptive Filtering, Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, N.J 1. B. Widro, and S.D. Stearns, Adaptive Signal Processing. Prentice Hall, Engleood Cliffs, N.J 37
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