Simscape Based Modeling and Simulation of Solar Cell Module with Partial Shading Effect


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1 nternational Journal of Modern Electronic and Communication Engineering (JMECE) olume No., ue No.4, September, SSN:  (Online) Simcape Baed Modeling and Simulation of Solar Cell Module with Partial Shading Effect Swati Singh t PG Student [M.E], Dept. of EE NTTTR Chandigarh, ndia Sandeep Gupta nd PG Student [M.E], Dept. of EE NTTTR Chandigarh, ndia Lini Mathew Aociate Profeor, Dept. of EE NTTTR Chandigarh, ndia Abtract: Thi paper preent a unique tep by tep procedure for imulation of a olar panel of given data heet Simelectronic (Matlab/Simulink).Onediode equivalent circuit i employed in order to invetigate  and P characteritic of a typical 6 W olar module. t reult indicated that the created imulation block in Simulink/Matlab are imilar to actual P module. By the model, it i allowed to etimate behaviour of P module with repect change on irradiance intenity, ambient temperature and the other deign parameter of the P module. Thi model i alo ued to invetigate the effect of partial hading on olar cell due to which P module power i harply reduced. Key word: P Modeling, Partial hading effect, P characteritic, MATLAB/ SMSCAPE.. NTRODUCTON ndia i bleed with an abundance of unlight, water and bioma. Becaue of it location between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator, ndia ha an average annual temperature that range from C 7. C. Thi mean that ndia ha huge olar potential. Solar energy ha everal application: photovoltaic (P) cell are placed on the roof top of houe or commercial building, and collector uch a mirror or parabolic dihe that can move and track the un throughout the day are alo ued. Thi mechanim i being ued for concentrated lighting in building. P cell find application in individual home rooftop ytem, community treet light, community water pumping, and area where the terrain make it difficult to acce the power grid. A the Photovoltaic module exhibit nonlinear  Characteritic, which are dependent on olar nolation and environment factor, the development of an accurate power electronic circuit oriented model i eential to imulate and deign the photovoltaic integrated ytem. n thi paper, the deign of P ytem uing imple circuit model with detailed circuit modeling of P module uing imelectronic and the phyical equation governing the P module i preented. The comparion between different photovoltaic cell can be done on the bai of their performance and characteritic curve. The parameter are alway given in dataheet. The dataheet make available the notable parameter regarding the characteritic and performance of P cell with repect to tandard tet condition. Standard tet condition are a follow: P cell are baically emiconductor diode. Thi emiconductor diode ha got a pn junction which i expoed to light. When illuminated by unlight it generate electric power. The power produced by a ingle P cell i not enough for general ue. So by connecting many ingle P cell in erie (for high voltage requirement) and in parallel (for high current requirement) can get u the deired power. Generally commercial module conit of 6 or 7 cell. A photovoltaic array (P ytem) i a interconnection of module which in turn i made up of many P cell in erie or parallel. The power produced by a ingle module i eldom enough for commercial ue, o module are connected to form array to upply the load. n a photovoltaic cell, when unlight trike it urface, ome portion of the olar energy i aborbed in the emiconductor material. f aborbed energy i greater than the band gap energy of the emiconductor, the electron from valence band jump to the conduction band. By thi, pair of holeelectron are created in the illuminated region of the emiconductor. The electron thu created in the conduction band are now free to move. Thee free electron are forced to move in a particular direction by the action of electric field preent in the P cell. Thee flowing electron contitute current and can be drawn for external ue by connecting a metal plate on top and bottom of P cell. Thi current and the voltage produce required power. Temperature (T n ) = C rradiance (G n ) = W/m. PHOTOOLTAC CELL RES Publication Page
2 nternational Journal of Modern Electronic and Communication Engineering (JMECE) olume No., ue No.4, September, SSN:  (Online) N p i the number of cell connected in parallel n Double diode model an extra diode attached in parallel to the circuit of ingle diode model. Thi diode i included to provide an even more accurate  characteritic curve that conider for the difference in flow of current at low current value due to charge recombination in the emiconductor' depletion region. Figure. Baic Structure of P Cell. MODELNG OF P MODULE Modeling of P module or array i required in order to deign and monitor thee ytem. Uually, a Grey Model proce i ued to model P array. n uch model, phyical parameter are determined uing the meaured data given in the dataheet (by manufacturer).the P device are baically repreented in two different model viz. Single diode model and Double diode model. An ideal olar cell i modelled by a current ource in parallel with a diode. However no olar cell i ideal and thereby hunt and erie reitance are added to the model a hown in the Fig. Figure. Two diode equivalent circuit of olar cell The characteritic equation for double diode model i given by R R pv ph o [exp ] o[exp ] t a t a R R The current ource pv repreent the cell photo current, R h and R are ued to repreent the intrinic erie and hunt reitance of the cell repectively. Uually the value of R h i very large and that of R i very mall, hence they may be neglected to implify the analyi. The accuracy of thi model more than the ingle diode model but becaue of the difficulty to olve the equation, ingle diode model i preferred. h Figure. Equivalent Circuit of P Cell Table. Electrical characteritic data of Solkar 6W P module The characteritic equation for ingle diode model i given by R pv p h o[exp ] ta R R Where pv i output voltage of a P module () pv i output current of a P module (A) T r i the reference temperature = 98 K T i the module operating temperature in Kelvin ph i the light generated current in a P module (A) o i the P module aturation current (A) A = B i an ideality factor =.6 k i Boltzmann contant =.8  J/K q i Electron charge =.69 C R i the erie reitance of a P module SCr i the P module hortcircuit current at o C and W/m =.A K i i the hortcircuit current temperature coefficient at SC r =.7A / o C λ i the P module illumination (W/m ) = W/m E go i the band gap for ilicon =. e N i the number of cell connected in erie h Rated Power 7.8w oltage at Maximum Power(mp) 6.6v Current at Maximum Power(mp).A Open circuit voltage(oc).4 Short Circuit Current(c).A Total number of Cell in Serie(N) 6 Total number of Cell in Parallel(Np) RES Publication Page. SMCAPE MODEL OF P MODULE Figure 4(a). Symbol of olar cell in Simcape
3 nternational Journal of Modern Electronic and Communication Engineering (JMECE) olume No., ue No.4, September, SSN:  (Online) Figure 4(d). A Subytem conecting all above ubytem. Figure 4(b). A Subytem of erie connected ix olar cell. Figure 4(c). A Subytem of three erie connected ix olar cell ubytem. Figure.Complete Model for a 6 W olar panel. PARTAL SHADNG EFFECT Figure 4(d). A Subytem of two erie connected eighteen olar cell ubytem. Solar panel obviouly produce le power when they are haded and hould ideally be ituated where there will never be any hadow on them. There may be ituation where thi cannot be avoided, and the effect of partial hading hould be conidered. A hadow falling on a mall part of a panel can have a urpriingly large effect on output. Not only will the cell that are haded be producing le power, but a the cell within a panel are normally all wired in erie, the haded cell affect the current flow of the whole panel. f the affected panel i wired in erie (in a tring) with other panel, then the output of all thoe panel will be affected by the partial hading of one panel. RES Publication Page
4 Power(Watt) Current(Amp) Power(Watt) nternational Journal of Modern Electronic and Communication Engineering (JMECE) olume No., ue No.4, September, SSN:  (Online) There are ome uggetion to minimize thi effect a follow: ()Site your olar panel array where there will be no regular hading. ()Uing inverter that ha MPP Tracking capability ()Uing micro inverter intead of typical tring inverter can improve olar panel performance in hade by more than %. Partial hading effect can be demontrated with the help of developed model in thi paper. Partial effect mean that olar cell i not getting irradiance or very le irradiance compared to other cell connected in erie. Here we connect ix cell in erie. Five olar cell are given W/m irradiance and one i given W/m irradiance. Thi how that obe cell i getting le irradiance o decreaing whole panel power output to a great extent. Fig.6 how the experimental model in SMCAPE to how thi effect.fig.8 (a) and (b) how the effect of partial hading on olar panel. 4 oltage(olt) Figure 7(a). P characteritic of olar panel W/m 4W/m 6W/m 8W/m W/m.. W/m 4W/m 6W/m 8W/m W/m. oltage(olt) Figure 7(b).  characteritic of olar panel Figure 6. One Solar cell i at W/m which how it i under partial hading. SMULATON RESULTS The graph of P,  and P againt different radiation level are hown in the Fig. 6(a), (b) & (c). Thee graph how the effect of irradiance on the output power of olar panel. A the irradiance decreaed, the power i alo decreaed.fig.8 (a) and (b) how that due to partial hading on P cell, the output power i decreaed a lot a compared to no hading effect. 4 W/m 4 W/m 6 W/m 8 W/m W/m... Current(Amp) Figure 7(c). P characteritic of olar panel RES Publication Page 4
5 Current power nternational Journal of Modern Electronic and Communication Engineering (JMECE) olume No., ue No.4, September, SSN:  (Online) Each Cell at W/m Five cell at W/m and one cell at W/m(Partial hading) ery Le Power Due to Partial Shading Pout = 6. W Full Output Power Pout =. W Simulation of Photovoltaic Array EEE Tranaction on power electronic, OL. 4, NO., MAY 9. [4] JeeHoon Jung, and S. Ahmed, Model Contruction of Single Crytalline Photovoltaic Panel for Realtime Simulation, EEE Energy Converion Congre & Expo, September 6,, Atlanta, USA. []F.GonzaezLongatt, Model of Photovoltaic in MatlabTM,nd Latin American Student Congre of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science ( CBELEC ),Puerto la Cruz, enezuela, April 6 [6] A. Oi, Deign and Simulation of Photovoltaic WaterPumping Sytem, Mater Thei, California PolytechnicState Univerity, San Lui Obipo, CA, [7] M.G. illalva, J.R. Gazoli, and J.R. Filho, Modeling and circuitbaed imulation of photovoltaic array, EEE, pp. 444, 9. [8] [9] 4 voltage BOGRAPHY Figure 8(a). Effect of partial hading on P characterie. Maximum Power When No Shading Pout(mpp) = 6. W No Shading Partial hading.. ery Le Power Due to Partial Shading Pout(mpp)=. W oltage Figure 8(b).Effect of partial hading on  characterize Swati Singh i preently working a Senior Lecturer in Electronic & Communication Engineering Department of Meerut ntitute of Technology, Meerut. She ha 6 year of teaching experience. She hold a Bachelor degree in Electronic & Communication Engineering from Uttar Pradeh Technical Univerity. She i Puruing M.E (Modular) in Electrical Engineering Department of National ntitute of Technical Teacher Training and Reearch, Chandigarh, ndia. Her area of pecialization are MATLAB/ SMULNK, Power Electronic, Fuzzy Logic Controller, FPGA application, irtual ntrumentation.. CONCLUSON n thi paper imcape model of photovoltaic (P) module i preented, which can be ued a a common platform for the material cientit a well a power electronic circuit deigner to develop the better P power plant and to meaure the tring efficiency in partial hading condition. REFERENCES []. H. Alta and A.M. Sharaf, A Photovoltaic Array Simulation Model for MatlabSimulink GU Environment, EEE, Clean Electrical Power, nternational Conference on Clean Electrical Power (CCEP '7), June 46, 7, chia, taly. [] R. C. Campbell, A circuitbaed photovoltaic array model for power ytem tudie, in Proc. 9th North Amer. Power Symp. (NAPS), pp. 97, 7. [] Marcelo Gradella illalva, Jona Rafael Gazoli, and Erneto Ruppert Filho Comprehenive Approach to Modeling and RES Publication Page