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1 Simple Graphics and Image Processing The Plan For Today Website Updates Intro to Python Quiz Corrections Missing Assignments Graphics and Images Simple Graphics Turtle Graphics Image Processing Assignment Work Time Simple Graphics Graphics: Discipline that underlies the representation and display of geometric shapes in two- and three-dimensional space A Turtle graphics toolkit provides a simple and enjoyable way to draw pictures in a window turtle is a non-standard, open-source Python module Upcoming Python Exam Fri. 4/24 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 5 Overview of Turtle Graphics Turtle graphics originally developed as part of the children s programming language Logo Created by Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT in the late 1960s Analogy: Turtle crawling on a piece of paper, with a pen tied to its tail Sheet of paper is a window on a display screen Position specified with (x, y) coordinates Cartesian coordinate system, with origin (0, 0) at the center of a window Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 6 Overview of Turtle Graphics (continued) Together, these attributes make up a turtle s state Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 7 Turtle Operations Turtle Operations (continued) Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 8 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 9 1

2 Object Instantiation and the turtle Module Before you apply any methods to an object, you must create the object (i.e., an instance of) Instantiation: Process of creating an object Use a constructor to instantiate an object: Drawing Two-Dimensional Shapes Many graphics applications use vector graphics, or the drawing of simple two-dimensional shapes, such as rectangles, triangles, and circles To instantiate the Turtle class: Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 11 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 14 Taking a Random Walk Like any animal, a turtle can wander around randomly: Colors and the RGB System Display area on a computer screen is made up of colored dots called picture elements or pixels Each pixel represents a color the default is black RGB is a common system for representing colors RGB stands for red, green, and blue Each color component can range from maximum saturation of a color component 0 total absence of that color component A true color system Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 16 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 18 Colors and the RGB System (cont d) Example: Drawing with Random Colors The Turtle class includes a pencolor method for changing the turtle s drawing color Expects integers for the three RGB components Each color component requires 8 bits; total number of bits needed to represent a color value is 24 Total number of RGB colors is 2 24 (16,777,216) Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 19 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 20 2

3 Examining an Object's Attributes Mutator methods change the internal state of a Turtle method Example: pencolor method Manipulating a Turtle s Screen The Screen object s attributes include its width and height in pixels and its background color Use t.screen to access a turtle s Screen object, then call a Screen method on this object Accessor methods return the values of a Turtle object s attributes without altering its state Example: position method Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 21 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 22 Image Processing Analog and Digital Information Digital image processing includes the principles and techniques for the following: The capture of images with devices such as flatbed scanners and digital cameras The representation and storage of images in efficient file formats Constructing the algorithms in image-manipulation programs such as Adobe Photoshop Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 29 Computers must use digital information which consists of discrete values Example: Individual integers, characters of text, or bits The information contained in images, sound, and much of the rest of the physical world is analog Analog information contains a continuous range of values Ticks representing seconds on an analog clock s face represent an attempt to sample moments of time as discrete values (time itself is analog) Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 30 Sampling and Digitizing Images A visual scene projects an infinite set of color and intensity values onto a two-dimensional sensing medium If you sample enough of these values, digital information can represent an image more or less indistinguishable (to human eye) from original scene Sampling devices measure discrete color values at distinct points on a two-dimensional grid These values are pixels As more pixels are sampled, the more realistic the resulting image will appear Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 31 Image File Formats Once an image has been sampled, it can be stored in one of many file formats A raw image file saves all of the sampled information Data can be compressed to minimize its file size JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Uses lossless compression and a lossy scheme GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) Uses a lossy compression and a color palette of up to 256 of the most prevalent colors in the image Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 32 3

4 Image-Manipulation Operations The Properties of Images Image-manipulation programs either transform the information in the pixels or alter the arrangement of the pixels in the image Examples: Rotate an image Convert an image from color to grayscale Blur all or part of an image Sharpen all or part of an image Control the brightness of an image Perform edge detection on an image Enlarge or reduce an image s size Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 33 The coordinates of pixels in the two-dimensional grid of an image range from (0, 0) at the upper-left corner to (width-1, height-1) at lower-right corner width/height are the image s dimensions in pixels Thus, the screen coordinate system for the display of an image is different from the standard Cartesian coordinate system that we used with Turtle graphics The RGB color system is a common way of representing the colors in images Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 34 The images Module The images Module (continued) Non-standard, open-source Python tool Image class represents an image as a twodimensional grid of RGB values Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 35 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 36 A Loop Pattern for Traversing a Grid Most of the loops we have used in this book have had a linear loop structure Many image-processing algorithms use a nested loop structure to traverse a two-dimensional grid of pixels A Loop Pattern for Traversing a Grid (continued) Previous loop uses a row-major traversal We use this template to develop many of the algorithms that follow: Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 37 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 38 4

5 A Word on Tuples A pixel s RGB values are stored in a tuple: Converting an Image to Black and White For each pixel, compute average of R/G/B values Then, reset pixel s color values to 0 (black) if the average is closer to 0, or to 255 (white) if the average is closer to 255 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 39 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 40 Converting an Image to Black and White (continued) Converting an Image to Grayscale Black and white photographs contain various shades of gray known as grayscale Grayscale can be an economical scheme (the only color values might be 8, 16, or 256 shades of gray) A simple method: Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 41 Problem: Does not reflect manner in which different color components affect human perception Scheme needs to take differences in luminance into account Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 42 Converting an Image to Grayscale (continued) Copying an Image The method clone builds and returns a new image with the same attributes as the original one, but with an empty string as the filename Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 43 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 44 5

6 Blurring an Image Pixilation can be mitigated by blurring Edge Detection Edge detection removes the full colors to uncover the outlines of the objects represented in the image Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 45 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 46 Edge Detection (continued) Reducing the Image Size The size and the quality of an image on a display medium depend on two factors: Image s width and height in pixels Display medium s resolution Measured in pixels, or dots per inch (DPI) The resolution of an image can be set before the image is captured A higher DPI causes sampling device to take more samples (pixels) through the two-dimensional grid A size reduction usually preserves an image s aspect ratio Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 47 Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 48 Reducing the Image Size (continued) Reducing size throws away some pixel information Work Time Remember PyCharm is a free download! Keep up the great conversation and working together! Make use of example code! Try, try, try! Make sure you understand code you write. Thanks for leaving the lab looking great! Fundamentals of Python: First Programs 49 6

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Image Representation and Processing cs4: Computer Science Bootcamp Çetin Kaya Koç cetinkoc@ucsb.edu Çetin Kaya Koç http://koclab.org Summer 2018 1 / 22 Pixel A pixel, a picture element, is the smallest