# A Novel Approach of Compressing Images and Assessment on Quality with Scaling Factor

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1 A Novel Approach of Compressing Images and Assessment on Quality with Scaling Factor Umesh 1,Mr. Suraj Rana 2 1 M.Tech Student, 2 Associate Professor (ECE) Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering M.R.I.E.M, Rohtak Abstract - Compressing an image is significantly different than compressing raw binary data. If we used general or outdated technique to compression images then result would be not optimal as it should be. This is because images have definitely statistical properties which can be triggered or exploited by encoders which are implemented or design for them. In image we have to give up some fine details for the sake of saving a little more bandwidth or storage space. So we can say that lossy compression technology. In this dissertation compression of digital images are done with the help of DCT. Several encoding technique have also been used together with DCT to improve the performance of compression. A computational analysis of picture quality is also made with respect to compression ratio and PSNR Keyword- ADPCM, pixel, quantization, ac coefficient, region growing, compressed, coordinates, staggering I INTRODUCTION An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function, for example let f(x, y) is a function and it depend on two variable so f is dependent on independent variable x and y, where x and y are plane coordinates. We know when we take an image which is function of x and y then with help of x and y we can calculate the intensity level of image or can say pixel. As we know intensity value lies between o to 255. At every point intensity level would be different it depend upon which type of image we fetched. When x, y and the amplitude values of f are all finite, different quantities, we can call the image a digital or binary form. Digital image processing allows the use of complicated algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple tasks and the implementation of different approach which would be impossible by analog means. In particular, digital image processing is one of the best practical technology for Classification, Feature extraction, Projection, Multi-scale signal analysis. DIP techniques are generally more versatile, reliable, and accurate. They have the additional profit of being easier to analyze or evaluate than their analog counterparts. Specialized hardware is still used for digital image processing: computer structures based on pipeline processing have been the most commercially successful. II BACKGROUND HISTORY Nowadays the use of digital imaging is implemented in many applications e.g., object recognition, satellite imaginary, biomedical instrumentation, digital entertainment media, internet etc. The main function of the Digital image processing is to provide the clear picture as per the interest while attenuating detail irrelevant to a given application, and the information regarding the scene is taken out from the improved image. With the 1

2 help of the digital image processing one can get the reversible, virtually modified image which is noise free and the image is in the form of matrix integers in place of the classical darkroom manipulations or filtration of time-dependent voltages which is necessary for analog images and video signals. Present image processing algorithms are extremely helpful. A digital image, or "bitmap", consists of a grid of dots, or "pixels", with each pixel defined by a numeric value that gives its color.. Let us assume that a random variable r K lying in the interval [0, 1] represents the gray levels of an image and that each r K occurs with probability P r (r K ). P r (r K ) = N k / n where k = 0, 1, 2 L-1 L = No. of gray levels. N k =No. of times that gray appears in that image N = Total no. of pixels in the image If no. of bits used to represent each value of r K is l (r K ), the average no. of bits required to represent each pixel is L avg = l (r K ) P r (r K ) Fig.1 Encoder for Image compression III METHODOLOGY With pace of time there is improvement in technology and there are two type of compression lossy and lossless. Predictive coding is a spatial domain technique. In predictive coding, information already sent or available is used to predict future values, and the difference is coded. Since this is done in the image or spatial domain, it is relatively simple to implement and is readily adapted to local image characteristics. Fig.2 Decoder for Image compression 2

3 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) is one particular example of predictive coding. Transform coding, on the other hand, first transforms the image from its spatial domain representation to a different type of representation using some well-known transform and then codes the transformed values (coefficients). This method provides greater data compression compared to predictive methods, although at the expense of greater computational requirements. We will work over two method of image compression. However both are based on DCT but the encoding technique has been changed. In this section a brief overview of these two approaches is explained with the help of flow chart Fig.4 Division of Image in Blocks Why use 8 8 pixel groups instead of, for instance, The 8 8 grouping was based on the maximum size that IC technology could handle at the time the JPEG standard was developed. Fig.5 Flow Chart for DCT Image compression with RLE-DPCM Encoding DCT image compression with Huffman encoding Fig.3 Flow Chart for DCT Image compression with Huffman Encoding Fig.6 Block diagram of DCT Compression and De compression with Huffman Encoding 3

4 IV RESULT We have presented the relationship between the compression ratio and the scaling factor of quantization tables. As we know default quantization table which is universal standard for discreet cosine transform is depicted below START Set Block Size Divide Image Apply DCT on each block Quantize transformed block of Image Set Scaling Factor We can change the scaling value for different value to analyze the behaviour of different parameter and to access out correlation and regression. Generally we take the range from one to five to derive relationship between CR and PSNR. Now we are going to arrange our simulation result in a fashion such that when we change the value of quality factor in increasing order and due to which we got different parameter variation like DCT CPU elapsed time CR (compression), inverse discreet cosine transform central processing unit time and peak signal to noise ratio. And after that gamma correction result for various images are carried out and region growing result of JPEG image also stimulated. Always keep one thing in mind that these two are applicable for only black and white image. We will see different result obtained from algorithm which we applied on different. DC Coefficient Check Coefficient DPCM Encoding Stop RUN Length Encoding AC Coefficient Fig.7 Graph Analysis of CR and PSNR 4

5 Fig.8 Graph Analysis of DCT and IDCT processing time In this section we performed lot of experiment with image by changing quality factor value by changing from one to ten and corresponding this we get different result mean to say for each quality factor we got different discrete cosine transform CPU time, compression ratio, inverse discrete cosine transform CPU time and peak signal to noise ratio. From these observation finally we able to conclude a result Fig.10 Histogram of Fig Fig.11 Histogram equalization of Fig.9 Fig.9 Original image for jpeg reconstruction Fig.12 Reconstructed image of Fig.9 5

6 Fig.13 Simulation result for region growing with coding Fig.14 Gamma corrected image with gamma factor 0.5 with coding V CONCLUSION In this thesis we worked on different field like image compression using DCT. In which we analyze what will be impact of quality factor on image when we will increase value of quality factor value and observe the impact on following parameter for example peak signal to noise ratio, processing time of DCT, compression ratio and processing time of IDCT. As we change the value of quality factor then all these parameters value changes. Now we have to analyse the pattern to carry out a final conclusion. As we increase value of quality factor then image compression ratio will be increased it means that quality of image degraded but size of image will be decreased so that when we have to transmit image over channel or through electromagnetic waves it can be transmitted easily and take less time. One point is very crucial that we did not increase value of quality factor so much high that its quality will be se degraded that at receiver side we cannot access valuable information so over all we can say if compression ratio will be high image quality will be worst so we have to take a trade off between these parameters. On other hand very peak signal to noise ratio is very important parameter. We know PSNR should me maximum for optimize the result. As we increase the quality factor PSNR value reduced in a proportion and we analyze that Compression ratio increased so from this observation we can say that PSNR and CR (compression ratio) both are reciprocal to each other. Besides this we also perform region growing segmentation part and also observed the impact of gamma factor for different images to extract out crucial information and as we changes value of gamma factor then obviously we can clearly see the effect on images. References [1] Rafael C. Gonzalez, Digital Image Processing using MATLAB, 2-e, Pearson Education, [2] Gregory K. Wallace, "The JPEG still picture compression standard", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 38, No. I, pp , February [3] Ravi Prakash et.all, Enhanced JPEG Compression of Documents,IEEE International conference of Image Processing, Vol.3,pp ,2001. [4] ZiqiangCheng,Kee-Young Yoo, A Reversible JPEG-to-JPEG Data Hiding Technique, Fourth International Conference on 6

7 Innovative Computing, Information and Control pp ,2009. [5]Weiqi Luo, JPEG Error Analysis and Its Applications to Digital Image Forensics IEEE Transactions On Information Forensics And Security, VOL. 5, NO. 3, September [6] Wei Zheng, ZhisongHou, Analysis of JPEG Encoder for Image Compression Multimedia Technology (ICMT), International Conference on Digital Object Identifier,pp , [7] S. V. Viraktamathand G. V. Attimarad, Performance Analysis of JPEG Algorithm, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Computing and Networking Technologies, pp , [8]XiHongZhou, Research on DCT -based Image Compression Quality, IEEE Conference Cross Strait Quad-Regional Radio Science and Wireless Technology, pp , [9] HUANGet al. Detecting Double JPEG Compression with the Same Quantization Matrix, IEEE on Information Forensics and Security, VOL. 5, NO. 4, pp , Dec., [10] Jing-Ming Guo, et.all, Secret Communication Using JPEG Double Compression, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, VOL. 17, NO. 10,pp , October

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