CSE 3482 Introduction to Computer Security.

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1 CSE 3482 Introduction to Computer Security Instructor: N. Vlajic, Winter 2017

2 Learning Objectives Upon completion of this material, you should be able to: Identify various motivations and implementation approaches to information hiding. Describe the basic concepts and uses of digital steganography. Explain the key principles pertaining to four common types of digital steganography: plaintext, image, audio and datagram. Enlist the common uses of digital watermarking. Explain the difference between digital watermarking and digital fingerprinting.

3 Introduction WHO Protects Information in Digital Age & WHY? companies: to protect trade secret & intellectual property governments: to protect classified information individuals: to hide sensitive information from others or from authorities

4 Introduction (cont.) Information Protection in Digital Age techniques of digital information protection can be grouped in two major categories: Information Encryption the presence of information is obvious, but the content is scrambled using a crypto-key, so it becomes meaningless no matter how unbreakable, encrypted message will arose suspicion Information Hiding the goal is not just to prevent others from accessing hidden information, but to make others unaware of the very existence of the hidden information

5 Introduction (cont.) Example: Encryption vs. Information Hiding

6 Introduction (cont.) Information Protection in Digital Age Information Protection Information Hiding (data not visible) Encryption (data visible but encrypted) Steganography Watermarking Fingerprinting

7 Introduction (cont.) Techniques of Information Hiding Steganography steganography Greek word for concealed writing art and science of hiding information in some cover media for the purpose of protecting information confidentiality digital steganography cover media: image, text, audio, video Watermarking also aims to make information invisible, but for the purpose of protection of intellectual property Fingerprinting embedding user-unique marking to different copies of content for the purpose of tracking of intellectual property

8 Introduction (cont.) Example: Watermarking vs. Digital Fingerprinting Others/Mohanty_Masters_Thesis_Spring1999.html

9 Information Hiding: Steganography

10 Classical Steganography History of Steganography the need to protect information from unsolicited access, by making it obscure, precedes our digital age in ancient Greece, a message would be tattooed on the shaved head of a messenger; the hair would be grown over in era of printed press, different typefaces were used to encode a message in WW2, the French resistance used invisible ink (e.g., wax) to write messages on the back of regular currier ahzemllyo

11 Digital Steganography Digital Steganography process of hiding information in digital multimedia files and in network packets elements of digital steganography system include cover media (C ) that will hold the hidden data secret message (M) - may be plain text or any other type of data stego function (Fe) and its inverse (Fe -1 ) an optional stego-key (K) or password to hide and unhide the message stego object (S) = cover media + secret message

12 Digital Steganography (cont.) Example: Steganography of Image inside an Image sender receiver

13 Digital Steganography (cont.) What Makes Steganography Work? digital steganography takes advantage of 1) space redundancy in cover media 2) data redundancy in cover media in combination with inherent weaknesses of human perception e.g., in computer/text file steganography, information can be hidden in unused areas of the file/text e.g., in image steganography, information can be embedded in the Least Significant Bits (LSBs) of an image (introduced change is insignificant for human eye) e.g., in audio steganography, information can be embedded in high frequencies of audio spectrum (human ear is insensitive to slight variations in high audio frequencies)

14 Digital Steganography (cont.) Techniques of Digital Steganography Based on Type of Cover Media Digital Steganography Plaintext Still Imagery Audio and Video Datagram most popular

15 Plaintext Steganography 1.1) Plaintext Steganography: Use of Selected Characters in Cover Media sender sends a 1) text message = stego object 2) a series of integer number = key secret message is hidden within the respective positions of subsequent words in cover media Example: Plaintext Steganography with Selected Characters The weather is sunny and wonderful. They have gone running at the beach He is not here.

16 Plaintext Steganography (cont.) 1.2) Plaintext Steganography: Line Shifting or Word Shifting in Cover Media e.g., lines are shifted down by a small fraction shift present = 1, shift not present = 0 e.g., words are shifted right by a small fraction shift present = 1, shift not present = 0 encoded bits are extracted and compared against a predefined Codebook

17 Plaintext Steganography (cont.) Example: Plaintext Steganography with Line Shifting IF you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you, If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too; If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or being lied about, don't deal in lies, Or being hated, don't give way to hating, And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise: If you can dream - and not make dreams your master; If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim; If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same; If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build 'em up with worn-out tools: If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings And never breathe a word about your loss; If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: 'Hold on! If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings - nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much; If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And - which is more - you'll be a Man, my son! Codebook: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z hello

18 Image Steganography

19 Image Steganography Example: Digitized Image any image can be digitized i.e., represented by a discrete set of same-color points / display elements How can we improve the quality of digital images? By decreasing the size of display elements (increase resolution).

20 Image Steganography (cont.) Digital Image a 2D (NxM) array/grid of m-bit pixels Pixel fundamental same-color display element in a digital image each pixel is made up of one or more bits monochrome image: pixel = 1 bit => (black/white) grayscale image: pixel = 8 bits => 256 shades of gray RGB image: pixel = 24 bits => 8 bits for each red, green, blue => different color shades

21 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: Pixels in Grayscale Image

22 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: RGB Image

23 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: Image Size What is the size (in kbytes and KBytes) of a grayscale image comprising 200x300 pixels? 200 x 300 x 8 = bits = bytes = 60 kbytes = KBytes kbyte = 10 3 bytes = 1000 bytes KByte = 2 10 bytes = 1024 bytes

24 Image Steganography (cont.) Bits in a Pixel relative importance of different pixels is different LSB least significant bit last bit MSB most significant bit 1 st bit LSB carries the least information it changes most rapidly MSB carries the most information it changes least rapidly

25 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: LSB(s) and Human Eye R = = G = = B = = R = = G = = B = = R = = G = = B = =

26 Image Steganography (cont.) 2.1) Image Steganography: Use of Least Significant Bit (LSB) easiest and surprisingly effective way of hiding information in an image LSB(s) of each pixel is/are used to hide the most significant bits of another image algorithm: (1) load up host image and image to hide (2) choose the number of bits you whish to hide the secret image in more bits used => better quality of hidden image => more distortion in cover image (3) to get original image back, pick out the LSBs according to the number used in (2)

27 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: Embedding Process using only one LSB

28 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: Image in Image with LSB Number of LSB used = 4 Cover Secret Stego Image Recovered Image Encoding: Decoding:

29 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: Image in Image with LSB Number of LSB used = 1 Cover Secret Stego Image Recovered Image fewer LSB bits used => hiding capacity low better stego-image worse recovered image

30 Image Steganography (cont.) Example: Image in Image with LSB Number of LSB used = 7 Cover Secret Stego Image Recovered Image more LSB bits used => hiding capacity high worse stego-image better recovered-image

31 Image Steganography (cont.) Pattern of LSB Embedding secret bits can be embedded in LSBs of cover image in two ways: sequentially simple embedding & extraction of secret bits statistics of cover image abruptly changed - easy to detect randomly the key to generate pseudorandom numbers must be sent secret bits scattered throughout cover image - hard to detect

32 Image Steganography (cont.) What is a better place to hide secret bits: - same-color background - part of image with lots of detail???

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