1 Advanced Camera and Image Sensor Technology Steve Kinney Imaging Professional Camera Link Chairman
2 Content Physical model of a camera Definition of various parameters for EMVA1288 EMVA1288 and image quality CCD and CMOS sensors, image artifacts Noise in cameras Spectral response and penetration depth Area scan and line scan Spatial trigger Monochrome and color Single-, dual-, tri-linear sensors, TDI Mechanical and optical pixel size limitations Camera mounting standards
3 Physical Model of a Camera
4 What are the Important Things? Quantum Efficiency When light is emitted from a light source, then passes through the optics and hits the Silicon, electrons will be generated. The probability of how many electrons will be generated per 100 photons is called Quantum Efficiency (QE). QE = number of electrons / number of photons Typical values are 30 to 60 %.
5 What are the Important Things? Full Well and Saturation Capacity Each pixel has a maximum capacity to collect electrons. But we will limit that to a lower maximum, because non-linear effects occur as the maximum capacity is reached. A pixel may have a saturation capactity of electrons. A glass of wheat beer contains approx drops of beer. A glass of wine or champagne might have drops. Full Well Capacity Saturation Capacity
6 What are the Important Things? Signal to Noise Ratio When refilling the pixel to the same previous value, there is a slight jitter in the amount of electrons created. This noise is equivalent to the square root of the number of electrons. noise = e Refilled Level So the maximum Signal to Noise Ratio (SSS mmm ) is: SSS mmm = e mmm e mmm = sss.ccc. sss.ccc. = sss. ccc. 5000e = approx. 224 Refilled beer glasses do not have the same content.
7 What are the Important Things? Dark noise There is always some residual noise, even when no light hits the sensor. Depending on the sensor, this is between 8 to 110 electrons. Compare this to the remaining drops of beer in an empty glass. Full Well Capacity Saturation Capacity Heat is a contributor. Dark Noise
8 What are the Important Things? Detection Limit If the signal is the same as the dark noise, we call this detection limit. CCD sensors usually have a detection limit of 8 to 25 electrons. This corresponds to photons. CMOS sensors will start at 10 to 110 electrons, or 's of photons. Detection Limit Dark Noise
9 What are the Important Things? Dynamic Range Dynamic range is the ratio between a full glass of beer and an empty glass. Saturation Capacity So, a pixel's dynamic range is: DDD = sss.ccc. dddd nnnnn = 50000e 25e = 200 Dark Noise A glass of beer will always have dynamics!
10 The Diagram db 50 Signal to Noise Ratio bits Typical CCD 30 5 Typical CMOS Dynamic Range Number of Photons
11 How to Understand the Diagram? The x-axis We use a logarithmic scale to display the large range of values we are concerned with. A linear scale will not represent this properly. example: Imagine a scale that can display both kilometers and millimeters at the same time with the same precision. Set Quantum Efficiency to 50%, 100 photons will generate 50 electrons Number of Photons Number of Electrons
12 How to Understand the Diagram? The y-axis Signal to Noise Ratio db bits Actual SNR is also displayed on a logarithmic scale. A linear scale always adds the same unit. A logarithmic scale always multiplies by the same unit. Bits (2 n ) and decibel (dd) are logarithmic scales. Multiplying SNR by 2 = 1 bit = 6.02 db increasing by 1 bit = increasing by 6 dd.
13 How to Understand the Diagram? Image Quality Signal to Noise Ratio db bits An excellent image is SNR = 40 or better. A good image quality is SNR =
14 Examples: Sony ICX285 Saturation capacity: electrons Dark noise: 9 electrons 545 nm: 56 % (electrons per photons) Saturation reached with: photons Detection limit: photons Max SNR: 2 7 ) bits 43 db ( = Dynamic range: saturation cap./dark noise =
15 Examples: Sony ICX274 Dynamic range: saturation cap./dark noise = 16000/16 = bits 60 db ( = 2 10 ) Saturation capacity: 8000 electrons Dark noise: 8 electrons 545 nm: 50 % (electrons per photons) Saturation with photons Detection limit photons Max SNR: bits 39 db (89 is between 64 = 2 6 and 128 = 2 7 )
16 Limitations in the Diagram Image quality depends on the signal to noise ratio (SNR). Total noise consists of: Temporal Noise (~ number of photons) Dark Noise (~ number of photons) SNR ~ # Photons 100 ~# Photons Number of Photons
17 Today's CMOS Sensors Today's CMOS sensors are able to achieve the same low read noise as CCD sensors (about 7 to 10 electrons). In sensors with a rolling shutter, it can be even less, due to less transistors being used.
18 Progressive Scan vs. Interlaced Scan Why is progressive scan important? Progressive scan gives you a full image for all lines (or pixels). Interlaced scan uses the odd & even lines separately. This can result in a fringe effect like you see in a TV's news ticker. Progressive Scan: Interlaced Scan:
19 Standard Resolution, Progressive Scan
20 Standard Resolution, Interlaced
21 Interlaced Artifacts
22 Global Shutter vs. Rolling Shutter Why is global shutter important? Global shutter has the start and stop of exposure time for all pixels at the same time. A rolling shutter starts and stops exposure one line after the other (sequentially). This is like a flatbed scanner. Global Shutter: Rolling Shutter:
23 Flash Window and Hybrid Mode Rolling shutter cameras can offer a offer a flash window. When the last line starts exposure, the flash window opens until the first line stops exposure. Using a strobe light during this time can freeze the image, effectively becoming a global shutter. Flash Window: Some "hybrid" sensors exist that start exposure like a global shutter, and end exposure like a rolling shutter. Downside is uneven exposure times.
24 Standard Resolution, Global Shutter
25 Standard Resolution, Rolling Shutter
26 Global Shutter Artifacts Source: Wikipedia
27 Resolution What is the best or required resolution? Most people think, the higher the resolution, the better. This is not true for machine vision, because all data have to be calculated and displayed. Often the higher sensor resolution results in a smaller pixel size. Smaller pixels are often below optical resolution and have a lower saturation capacity. A lower saturation capacity results in a worse signal-to-noise ratio and a lower dynamic range. Saturation Capacity Refilled Level Dark Noise
28 Standard Resolution
29 High Resolution
30 Column Noise Usually a CMOS sensor has one ADC (analog to digital converter) per column, a CCD has only one (per tap), meaning typically 1 to 4 ADCs for a CCD. In the case of a 4 Mpixel CMOS camera, there are 2048 ADCs. All of them will be slightly different. A correction done in the dark and without power to the sensor can calibrate all ADCs.
31 FPN or DSNU Fixed pattern noise (FPN) or Dark Signal Non-Uniformity (DSNU) occurs, when all voltages are applied to the sensor, but no light is collected. This can be corrected by adding a certain offset per pixel. CMOS s FPN is up to 10x worse than a CCD s, but latest designs are rather equal!! CMOS CCD
32 PRNU Photo Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) describes the different gain per pixel. With an illuminated sensor, the different (conversion-) gains can be corrected to create an homogeneous image unter bright light conditions. CMOS and CCD behave the same. Raw data Through a low pass shading corrected
33 Spectral Response The spectral response depends on wavelength and sensor type. CMOS sensors often have a wavy curve due to interferometric issues. 60% Total Quantum Efficiency [%] 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% CMOS sensors Wavelength [nm]
34 Penetration Depth Cameras cover a spectral range of the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR), wavelengths from 400 to 1100 nm λ Wavelength [nm] Wavelength : 1/100 of a human hair Penetration depth: 1/10000 of a human hair
35 Area Scan and Line Scan Scan types can be separated by area scan and line scan. Area scan is analogous to a digital still camera. 1 shot and the 2D image is taken. As an example: resolution 1300 x 1000 pixels. After an exposure time of 10 ms, everything is captured. All pixels have an exposure time of 10 ms. Line scan is analogous to a Xerox machine. One line after the other is taken to get the total image. As an example: resolution 1000 pixels, 1300 lines. With a total exposure time of 10 ms the image is taken, BUT: every single line (or each pixel) has only an exposure time of 7.7 µs! This is a very short exposure time You need much more light!
36 The Need of Spatial Trigger Camera speed independent of object speed can distort. (e.g. acceleration after a traffic light). Only a spatial trigger gives the right information. It synchronizes the camera with the object (e.g., an encoder).
37 Color: Area Scan Color on area scan can be taken either with a: 3 CCD setup: a beamsplitter separates the colors to three different CCDs. Advantage: Every pixel has the full color information. Disadvantages: Expensive, special lenses, alignment, color shades. In most cameras a Bayer pattern is used.
38 Color: Line Scan I Single Line Dual Line
39 Color: Line Scan II Triple Line 3 CCD Line
40 How to Match RGB to One Image I The object on the conveyer belt is moved beneath the camera.
41 How to Match RGB to One Image II Take 1, 8, and 15, but there is a color shade within one group RGB. Lines 1, 8, 15: 100% 100% 100% Lines 2, 9, 16: 100% 80% 20% Lines 3, 10, 17: 0% 0% 10% Lines 4, 11, 18: 60% 100% 100%
42 What is Possible with the Camera? Raw Image Raw Corrected Corrected Image
43 TDI Line Scan Sensor TDI stands for Time Delay and Integration. The object is exposed several times across many lines, charges are accumulated and shifted simultaneously with the trigger. Signal t 1 is taken t 2 N times, t 3 Noise t 4 reduces t N by Read N. Out Time
44 Depth of Focus (DOF) The depth of focus (DOF) depends on the pixel size, the diameter of the iris and the focal length of the lens.
45 Depth of Focus (DOF) The depth of focus (DOF) depends on the pixel size, the diameter of the iris and the focal length of the lens. d: Diameter Depth of Focus Pixelsize f: Focal Length DOF = 2 * Pixelsize * f / d = 2 * Pixelsize * F/#
46 Tilt of the Sensor The sensor has to be aligned perpendicular to the optical axis. Angle Given max Depth of Focus The whole sensor has to be taken into account
47 Examples of Geometrical DOF Real numbers: Pixel size = 5 µm F/# = 4 Depth of Focus: ±20 µm (40µm) Real numbers: Pixel size = 4 µm F/# = 2 d: Diameter f: Focal Length Depth of Focus Pixelsize Depth of Focus: ±8 µm (16 µm)
48 Diffraction Due to the physical structure of light as an electromagnetic wave, the rays are blurred by diffraction. Diffraction depends on the F-number and wavelength λ. Ø Airy = 2.44 * λ * F/# As a rule of thumb, the diameter of the Airy disc is F/# in microns, like F/# is 4, the diameter of the Airy disc is approx. 4 µm. Barely resolved resolved No longer
49 Real Spot-size and DOF The real spot-size and DOF is the geometrics folded with the diffraction. To make life a little easier we will treat the diameter as independent errors (deviations): Ø total = Ø geom 2 + Ø diff 2 Total DOF Geometric DOF
50 Errors of Higher Order In case of an 8k line scan sensor with 10 µm pitch we might have a further issue: The sensor might be bent by Δz = 50 to 80 µm (acceptable) Optical Axis Sensor Focal Plane The lens (e.g. 5.6/90mm) will cause a field curvature of Δz = 50 to 100 µm, whereas the astigmatism might occur and the meridional and sagittal focal plane might run the opposite direction. Δz = 50 to 80 µm
51 Field Curvature and Astigmatism In case of an 8k line scan sensor with 10 µm pitch we might have a difference of about 100 µm between both focal planes (meridional and sagittal).
52 Pixel Size Pixels are mainly between 10 to 3.5 µm. Trend is toward smaller pixels, because they allow higher resolution with less silicon More sensors from a single wafer lower cost. "Reasonable" limit: 5 µm for monochrome, 2.5 µm for color. Full-Well capacity (saturation capacity, resp.) is lower for smaller pixels. Therefore the max SNR is not as good as on a larger pixel. $ System Optics Sensor µm
53 CCD and CMOS Sensors Sony: Diagonal: 1 Tube Deflection yoke Image Format The image size in inches relates back to the tube camera. The image format of a tube which could be placed in a 1 deflection coil was called 1 format. The active image size is 16 mm in diagonal. It is the same as for a 16 mm film format. BIPM (Bureau International des Poids & Mesures) recommend to use metric designation. Below is the most common image formats shown. 1 format 2/3 format 1/2 format 1/3 format Type 1 Type 2/3 Type 1/2 Type 1/3 16 mm 11 mm 8 mm 6 mm Image size 12.8 mm 8.8 mm 6.4 mm 4.4 mm
54 Optical Sizes In case of C-mount lenses are usually restricted to 2/3 optical format imagers. Longer focal length or higher f-stop lenses may work up to 1 format The CMOSIS sensor 2MP is 2048 x 1088 pixels with a mm in diagonal and fits 2/3 optical format. The 4MP sensor is 2048 x 2048 pixels, with a diagonal of mm requiring a 1 format lens. The 4 MP sensor must use proper lenses! Otherwise there is a shading or vignetteing seen in the image. CCD 1 ^ = 25.4 mm CMOS CMOS 16 mm sensor with 1 format 16 mm sensor with 2/3 format will cause vignetting
55 Recommended Mechanical Interfaces (Mounts) Class Min. Image Size [mm] Max. Image Size [mm] Optical Size [type] Mechanical Interface (1st Choice) I 0 4 ¼ C-, CS-, NF-, S-Mount II C-, CS-, NF-, S-Mount III F-Mount, 48 mm Ring, M42 x 1, M48 x 0.75 IV M58 x 0.75 (and F- Mount if possible) V M72 x 0.75 VI M95 x 1 VII M105 x 1 Please check with JIIA LER for more details.
57 Contact Information Steve Kinney Imaging Professional AIA Camera Link Chairman Phone: +1 (408)
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