Sony PXW-FS7 Guide. October 2016 v4

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1 Sony PXW-FS7 Guide 1

2 Contents Page 3 Layout and Buttons (Left) Page 4 Layout back and lens Page 5 Layout and Buttons (Viewfinder, grip remote control and eye piece) Page 6 Attaching the Eye Piece Page 7 How to attach the grip remote control Page 8 Resetting the Camera Formatting (initialising) the Cards Initial Set Up Record Format Page 9 Shooting Mode/Base Setting Page 10 Colour Space Page 11 Setting the Codec Page 12 Basic Audio Page 14 Custom Mode and hyper gammas Page 15 What hyper gammas look like Page 16 Which hyper gamma to use Setting the white clip Page 17 Custom Mode Matrix Settings Page 18 What each matrix looks like Page 19 Multi Matrix Page 20 White Balance Page 21 Focus controls and aids Page 22 Exposure Tools Page 24 - Histograms Page 25 - Waveforms Page 28 Slow and Quick Motion Page 29 ND Filters Page 30 - Gain Page 31 Gain to ISO conversion Chart Shutter Speed Page 32 CineEI Mode Monitoring and Viewing S-Log 2/3 Page 33 Monitor Look up Table Page 34 High and Low Key Function Page 35 CineEI and Exposure Index 2

3 Layout and Buttons (Left) Slow & Quick Motion (Page 28) Button to open QXD card slots ND Filter Rotate to engage (Page 29) Start & Stop Record Audio controls (Page 12) Headphone socket Focus Controls (Page 21) Gain Switch White Balance (Page 20) On/Off Switch Menu and selection 3

4 Layout and Buttons (Back) Battery Release XLR Inputs Lens SDI and HDMI outputs Remote grip input Focus Ring (Page 21) Zoom Ring Iris Ring Manual to power zoom. Optical steady shot on and off Powered Zoom 4

5 Layout and Buttons (Viewfinder, grip remote control and eye piece) 5

6 Attaching the Eye Piece 6

7 How to attach and adjust the grip remote control 7

8 Resetting the Camera It is good practice to reset the camera when you get it so all the setting are correct. Menu > System > All reset (Execute when prompt to) Follow the on screen instructions. Do look at setting the clock to the correct time Formatting (initialising) the Cards Make sure before you start filming that you format the cards so you do not have other people s footage. Menu > Media > Format Media > A or B (Execute when prompt to) Initial Set Up Frame rate setting Menu > System > Country > Pal Record Format This defaults to 1920 x i, this is correct if you are shooting for TV broadcast. Anything else change to 1920 x p 50. Menu > System > Rec Format > Video Format 8

9 Shooting Mode Custom Mode (Easiest) Conventional video camera operation, what you see is what is recorded (Page 13) CineEI Mode (Advance) Film style shooting mode, flat, low contrast recording with a wide dynamic range. Contains lots of information to then grade in post-production. CineEI is a more complex work flow and what you see in the viewfinder may not be what is recorded. (Page 31 for more details) To change the base settings Menu > System > Base Settings > Custom or CineEI 9

10 To set mode Menu > Base Setting > Shooting Mode > Custom / CineEI (Execute when prompt to) Colour Space In custom mode this is greyed out. But in CineEI mode you have the following options. S-Gamut/Slog2 S-Gamut3.Cine/Slog3 S-Gamut3/Slog3 S-Log 2 and 3 have the same dynamic and contrast range. The difference is with the colour space where these capture the most colour. S-Gamut3.Cine records a smaller colour range that S-Gamut/Slog2 and S-Gamut3/Slog but it is still a larger range than rec709, that has a similar shape to rec709 that makes it a very natural colour space that then makes it easier to grade in post production. 10

11 Setting the Codec All the codec that works with Avid so depending on what you are doing. To select the codec Menu > System > Codec > Select your codec (Execute when prompt to) MPEG HD422 MPEG 2 HD Only (only records 1920 x 1080p/i or 1280 x 720p) Can be progressive and Interlaced No Slow and Quick (S&Q) Motion 1 min = 500mb XAVC-I High Quality HD Smaller file sizes S&Q Motion 1 min = 1Gb If you have the space this is what is recommended to use. XAVC L Long G.O.P (Group of Pictures) Codec. This compresses every frame individually More efficient with the way it records frames If a frame doesn t change it doesn t record it. Needs more processing power to edit Only requires ¼ storage space 1 min = 400mb You get 2 x 32gb QXD cards with the camera there are no other cards available. To record in S&Q motion go to page

12 Basic Audio XLR Inputs 1 & 2 Changing the input from line, Mic & Mic +48v Phantom power Switching each channel from manual to automatic Adjustment for the audio levels To control inputs 1 and 2 there are external controls on the opposite side to adjust levels. You want to be filling around 80% of the metre There is a mic on the body for ambient sound. The internal levels are only controlled in auto there are no manual settings. Menu > Audio > Audio Inputs > CH 3 > Internal Mic 12

13 Custom Mode Conventional, simple and fast work flow. What you see is what you get with limited range of incamera picture adjustment. Factory gamma setting are Rec709 (This is the standard for all TV s and monitors, it is best to stay on this setting). To change the gamma curve Menu > Paint > Gamma > Gamma Category > STD (Standard Rec709) or HG HG = Hyper gammas. To select a hyper gamma Menu > Paint > Gamma > Gamma Category > Gamma Select Ungraded Broadcast TV standards Fine for any other production and on the internet Dynamic range in % relative to normal gamma HG G36 HG G30 HG G40 HG G33 HG G40 HG G33 Recommended exposure for middle grey The maximum recording level of white 0 = 100% Peak White 9 = 109% Peak White When recording using these hyper gammas we under expose leaving more room to capture a wider dynamic range. 13

14 What each gamma looks like 14

15 Normal 709 gamma middle grey is exposed at 42%. These are lower to capture a greater dynamic range to create room at the top and handles highlight roll off and over exposure. Do a small colour correction to make the image pop. 15

16 Which hyper gamma to use? For a high contrast image look to use HG2 4600G30 (This is suitable for TV broadcast) HG4 4609G33 HG7 8009G40 HG8 8009G33 For medium contrast and low light images HG1 3250G36 (This is suitable for TV broadcast) HG3 3259G40 This is what is recommended to use For TV broadcast HG1 3250G36 for indoor scenes HG2 4600G30 for exterior and bright scenes For any production HG3 3259G40 for indoor scenes HG4 4609G33 for exterior and bright scenes Setting the White Clip To change the settings for the following hyper gammas HG3 3259G40 HG4 4609G33 HG7 8009G40 HG8 8009G33 Menu > Paint > White Clip > Set White clip to level 109%. For HG1 and HG2 keep the white clip setting to 100/105% 16

17 Custom Mode Matrix Settings A matrix is how what comes in to the camera is converted to what comes out, e.g. A studio matrix might convert a signal from a camera to a composite or component output. The same could be aid for camera sensor, the RGB information from a sensor might be converted to a log space or rec709. The colour matrix controls the way the camera responds to colour. Menu > Paint > Matrix > Pre-set Matrix Standard High Saturation (Boosts colours) FL Light (help to shoot under fluorescent lighting or lights with large amount of green) Cinema (desaturated look) F55 709Like (To match a F55 camera) 17

18 What each matrix looks like 18

19 Multi Matrix This allows you to adjust individual colours in the camera. Menu > Paint > Multi Matrix > Settings > On Centre the colour in the middle of the frame and use colour detection. You can manually select colours within the multi matrix under axis option where R = Red, Y = Yellow and B = Blue. You can now adjust the Hue (tint) and saturation (intensity) within the multi matrix menu. 19

20 White Balance The white balance is very similar to most cameras, where you will set the switch to either A or B then holding a white card in front of the camera in the lighting conditions you will be filming in. Then press and hold the WB set button on the front by the lens and the screen will tell you when it has finished. Manually setting White Balance Manually adjusting the white balance after you set the white balance and it still doesn t look right. Change the preset by going into Menu > Paint > White > Preset White Within the preset you will get a list of all the available preset whites and scrolling through them all you will see changes, click enter to set the white you require. 20

21 Focus Controls and Aids There is an auto focus switch on the side. Auto focus only works with the correct lens. The focus ring can be in 2 positions; in the forward position the lens is in AF/MF mode with the switch on the main body being in the correct position. In the back position it s in full manual mode that overrides the camera body switch. Focus Aids Focus magnifier (Assign button 4, on the handle), push once x4, push twice x8, push three times returns to normal. Peaking adds a coloured edge around objects in focus. The button is on the left hand side of the monitor. The colours can be changed in the peaking by going to Menu > VF > Peaking > Peaking Type > Select your colour 21

22 Focus Aids Continued Focus Assist indicator As the shot comes into focus the graph will start to fill from the right but will never go all the way. Aim for about ½ to 2/3 full for a sharp image. Frame your object you want in focus inside or near the white box Exposure Tools You have the standard exposure tools of zebras, waveform and histograms that are all set and controlled under the VF page of the menu. In custom mode everything is measure of what you are recording. In CineEI the zebras measure the view finder image and the waveform and histograms measure the SDI 2 signal. Zebras Measures the viewfinder LUT on = Measures the MLUT LUT off = Measures S-Log Waveform and Histogram Measures SDI 2 LUT on = Measures the MLUT LUT off = Measures S-Log Zebras are set in VF menu; zebra 1 default is 70% (Standard for skin tones using 709 gamma) so when exposure reach s 70% zebras will appear but with the zebra aperture set to to 10% zebras will start to appear between 65% and 75%. Zebra 2 is slightly different to zebra 1 where it looks at the over exposure so when it is set to 100% it will come on and stay on for anything 100% and above. This can be changed in the VF settings in the menu. 22

23 Exposure Tools Continued See that Zebra 1 the lines are \\\\\\\\ highest point on the left and lowest on the right. See that Zebra 2 the lines are //////// highest point on the right and lowest on the left. White clip default setting is 105% so the camera can record anything above 100%, so having zebra 2 set to 100% it indicates that last bit of range you have available when using the standard rec709 gamma. It is recommended that when you are using hyper gamma 1 or 2 that you set zebra 2 to 90/95%. When using CineEI zebras measure the MLUT output, if you use the rec709 MLUT then normal zebra levels should be used (Zebra 1 = 70% and Zebra 2 = 100%). 23

24 Histograms Histograms measure blacks on the left, whites on the right and the height shows the level. A good image has an even spread with a bump in the middle for skin tones. To turn on the histograms, it is in the VF menu under displays on/off. 24

25 Histograms continued Waveforms To turn on the waveform, it is in the VF menu under displays on/off. This is important to have shown specially when using hyper gammas (Page 12) to expose middle grey at the correct level. 25

26 Below are examples of where highlights, shadows and skin tones should fall within the waveform using rec709 gamma. 26

27 Waveforms Continued 27

28 Slow and Quick Motion Slow and quick motion (S&Q) increases the recording frame rate of the camera. Standard frame rate is 25 frames per second (FPS). This only works in progressive. The camera must in using the XAVC-I codec and the maximum frame rate is 150fps. Press the S&Q button on the left hand side of the camera to enable S&Q mode. Once S&Q is active it defaults to 60FPS. This indicates that S&Q has been activated on the right you see 60FPS To change the frame rate, go to Menu > Recording > S&Q Motion To get beyond 60FPS you must go to high frame rate and activate full scan then you can change the frame rate. 28

29 ND Filters There is a silver dial on the front left that controls the ND filters with the options of clear, ¼ = 2 stops, 1/16 = 4 stops and 1/64 = 6 stops. What is a stop using ISO? Doubling the ISO number gives an increase of 1 stop, while halving gives it a decrease of 1 stop. What is a stop using aperture? Because of the way f-numbers are calculated, a stop doesn't relate to a doubling or halving of the value, but to a multiplying or dividing by 1.41 (the square root of 2). For example, going from f/2.8 to f/4 is a decrease of 1 stop because 4 = 2.8 * Changing from f/16 to f/11 is an increase of 1 stop because 11 = 16 / Below shows what everything is doing inside the camera and lens 29

30 Gain Gain is an electronic amplification of the video signal. This means that the signal is boosted electronically, adding more voltage to the pixels on your imager (CCD or CMOS) causing them to get amplify their intensity and therefore brighten your image. Gain is measured in db with the following values and what they mean in terms of how many stops of light do they add L +6dB = Adds 1 F Stop M +12dB = Adds 2 F Stops H +18dB = Adds 3 F Stops On the left hand side there is a switch that has 3 positions (L,M,H). These values can be changed by going to Menu > Camera > ISO/Gain/EI > You will see the options to change low, medium and high Gain Switch Shutter Speed 30

31 Gain to ISO conversion chart Gain db Level ISO Rating 0 db 500 ISO +3 db 800 ISO +6 db 1000 ISO +9 db 1600 ISO +12 db 2000 ISO +15 db 3200 ISO +18 db 4000 ISO +21 db 6400 ISO +24 db 8000 ISO +27 db ISO +30 db ISO Shutter Speed Shutter speed is the length of time when the sensor inside the camera is exposed to light. The amount of light that reaches the film or image is proportional to the exposure time. 1/500th of a second will let half as much light in as 1/250th. When shooting in 25p the standard shutter speed tends to be 1/50 or 1/60. The rule is what your frame rate is you double for the shutter speed to get a nice image. The higher you go the smooth your image will be. To change the shutter speed press the shutter speed button on the left hand side and select what speed you want. 31

32 CineEI Mode This mode captures everything the camera can see. When viewed on a normal monitor the images look flat and washed out. All images shot using CineEI will need to be graded in post. When changing the base setting to go from custom to CineEI (page 9) you will also need to set the colour space as well (page 10). Monitoring and Viewing S-Log 2/3 To make life easier when shooting with S-Log 2/3 use a monitor look up table (MLUT) To set the MLUT to in to Menu > monitor LUT > SDI 2 (IMPORTANT leave MLUT off SDI 1 and internal recording). Use the Rec709(800) gamma curve MLUT it converts the image to standard TV gamma so that if the image looks right it is right. This makes exposing your images easy as you can see a true image but still recording in S-Log. You would do everything as you would be using the LUT as you would with S-Log. To set the Rec709 MLUT Menu > Video > Monitor LUT > Viewfinder > On SDI 2 > On HDMI > On LUT select P1: 709(800%) standard TV. Zebra s not effected use as normal can use 70% or 90%. 32

33 Monitor Look Up Table (MLUT) 33

34 High and Low Key Functions The MLUT cannot show you everything that the camera is seeing, the camera is recording 14 stops of dynamic range where the MLUT can only show you a small amount of that. The high and low key function can help with that but it must be assigned to a button. To assign a button go to Menu > System > Assignable Button > Button 2 Auto Iris (change this as auto iris does not work in CineEI mode) Press assign button 2 once and the image darkens to show the highlight areas to check they are not over exposed. Press assign button 2 a second time and the image lightens for the shadows to check for under exposure. 34

35 By going through this cycle you can see the whole of the dynamic range that the camera is recording. Press the assign button 2 a third time and will return to normal. CineEI and Exposure index EI = Exposure Index, this allows you to rate the cameras ISO to alter the midpoint of the dynamic rate. The cameras native setting is 2000 ISO. Changing the EI doesn t change the recording ISO but changes how affective it is. To adjust the EI you use the gain switch on the left hand side but you want the gain/ei high, medium and low settings to be less than the native 2000 ISO to get the best image. To change time, go to Menu > Camera > ISO/Gain/EI and change the setting to be high at 2000/6.0 E, medium to be 1000/5.0 E and low at 500/4.0 E Recording at 2000 ISO can effect grading where it produces too much noise. EI does not change the sensitivity of the camera it only effects the MLUT. Halving the ISO = minus 1 stop, doubling the iso = plus 1 stop. Stopping the EI down and opening the aperture to expose your image so the camera is still recording at 2000 iso your image is brighter so when you go into post you bring your levels down reducing the noise and a clear image. It does have cons that some highlights maybe over exposed but you can see more into the shadows. Use 1000EI or 800EI for most general filming. 35

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