Introduction to Lighting, Design Elements, & Photographic Techniques

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1 Introduction to Lighting, Design Elements, & Photographic Techniques CUVPHI302A Capture Photographic Images Session 2 of 8

2 Housekeeping

3 Session 1 REVIEW 1. Prepare to capture digital images 1.1. Discuss photographic project with relevant people and select appropriate camera and accessories 1.2. Assess digital camera features to ensure that outcomes meet project requirements

4 Camera Technology

5 Digital Camera Features CAMERA CHECKLIST: Manual mode Quality & Compression Sensitivity / Film Speed (ISO) White Balance (WB) Light Meter / Exposure Aperture (e.g. f5.6) Shutter Speed (e.g.1/125th)

6 Useful Accessories

7 Session 2 Plan 1. Prepare to capture digital images 1.3. Plan shots for the project taking into account digital camera features, lighting, photographic design elements and photographic techniques

8 Session 2 Plan 1. Prepare to capture digital images Lighting Photographic Design Elements Photographic Techniques

9 LIGHTING Quality: (1) Colour (2) Intensity (3) Size (4) Direction Trent Parke

10 LIGHTING Quality: (1) Colour (2) Intensity (3) Size (4) Direction Trent Parke

11 White Balance

12 White Balance

13 White Balance

14 LIGHTING Quality: (1) Colour (2) Intensity (3) Size (4) Direction

15 ISO - Film Speed / Sensitivity

16 LIGHTING Quality: (1) Colour (2) Intensity (3) Size (4) Direction

17

18

19 Soft Light Soft shadows Low contrast Soften edges Beautiful Shade Cloud Dusk/Dawn Window Light Size

20 Hard Light Hard shadows High contrast Emphasize edges Dramatic Light Size Direct sun Direct light bulb/flash

21 LIGHTING Quality: (1) Colour (2) Intensity (3) Size (4) Direction

22 Lighting Direction

23 Lighting Direction

24 Lighting Direction

25 Lighting Direction "Rembrandt lighting" position main light 45 from subject

26 Lighting Direction Three Point Lighting

27 Hard direct light Difficult to soften i.e. bounce or reflect Head-on position has no shadows - no volume Foreground often blown out - difficult to vary flash intensity Only use for fill On-Camera Flash

28 On-Camera Flash

29 Reflectors & Diffusers

30 Windows & Shade

31 Golden Hour

32 DESIGN ELEMENTS (1) Proportions (2) Balance (3) Brightness & Contrast

33 DESIGN ELEMENTS (1) Proportions (2) Balance (3) Brightness & Contrast

34 Proportions Horizontal Left to right Stability Landscapes TV / Computer James Nachtwey New York, Searching for survivors.

35 Proportions Horizontal Left to right Stability Landscapes TV / Computer Elliot Erwitt New York, 1974

36 Proportions Horizontal Left to right Stability Landscapes TV / Computer Walter Looss Jr, Banzai Pipeline, Oahu, Hawaii, 1990

37 Proportions Vertical Pull' effect Top and bottom Vertical lines Walter Looss Jr, Greg Louganis, 1984

38 Proportions Vertical Pull' effect Top and bottom Vertical lines Benoit Gysembergh, Bamako, Mali

39 Proportions Vertical Pull' effect Top and bottom Vertical lines Carolina Salguero, New York, September 11, 2001

40 Proportions Vertical Pull' effect Top and bottom Vertical lines Dennis Stock, Tokyo, Japan, 1974

41 Proportions Square Symmetrical Diagonals Diane Arbus, Child with Toy Hand Grenade, Central Park, NYC, 1962

42 Proportions Square Symmetrical Diagonals Walter Looss, Tiger Woods, 2002

43 Proportions Square Symmetrical Diagonals Nick Brandt

44 Proportions Square Symmetrical Diagonals Brent Stirton, fetching water, 2003

45 Rule of Thirds Divide frame in 3 sections Points of emphasis Sebastião Salgado Refugees in the Korem camp Ethiopia, 1984

46 Rule of Thirds Divide frame in 3 sections Points of emphasis Stefano Rellandini, Kashmir earthquake, 2006

47 DESIGN ELEMENTS (1) Proportions (2) Balance (3) Brightness & Contrast

48 Balance Weight Tone Colour Texture Space Mary Ellen Mark Falkland Road, Bombay

49 Balance Weight Tone Colour Texture Space Jonas Bendisken, Satellites, Russia, 2000

50 Balance Weight Tone Colour Texture Space Walter Looss Jr, Michael Jordan, 1987

51 Balance Weight Tone Colour Texture Space Shehza Noorani, carbon dust, Dhaka, Bangladesh

52 DESIGN ELEMENTS (1) Proportions (2) Balance (3) Brightness & Contrast

53 Brightness & Contrast

54 Brightness & Contrast

55 PHOTO TECHNIQUE (1) Focus (2) Depth of Field (3) Motion (4) Lens & Perspective

56 PHOTO TECHNIQUE (1) Focus (2) Depth of Field (3) Motion (4) Lens & Perspective

57 Focus

58 Focus

59 Focus

60 Title: "Afghan Girl" (detail) Photographer: Steve McCurry Subject: Sharbat Gula Camera: Nikon FM2 Film: Kodachrome 64 Lens: Nikkor 105mm f/2.5 "Afghan Girl" was featured on the front cover of the June 1985 issue of National Geographic Magazine. Tip: Make sure the eyes are sharp

61 PHOTO TECHNIQUE (1) Focus (2) Depth of Field (3) Motion (4) Lens & Perspective

62 Depth of Field Aperture Lens focal length Subject distance

63 Depth of Field Shallow DOF Large Aperture Long lens Close subject distance Wide DOF Small Aperture Wide angle lens Far subject distance

64 Depth of Field Aperture Lens focal length Subject distance

65 Depth of Field

66 Lauren Greenfield, Prom in the OC

67 Jonas Bendiksen, Satellites, , Abkhazia

68 Jonas Bendiksen, Satellites, , Russia

69 Eddie Adams, Mother Theresa

70

71 PHOTO TECHNIQUE (1) Focus (2) Depth of Field (3) Motion (4) Lens & Perspective

72 Motion

73 Motion Shutter Speed 1 sec 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 Tip: To prevent camera shake set the shutter speed above the focal length of the lens i.e. use at least 1/500 sec shutter speed with a 300mm lens or 1/60 sec with a 50mm lens

74 John Mabanglo, Diver Chelsea Davis at Fina World Championships, 2006

75 Vincent Larofet, Beijing Olympics, 2008

76 Vincent Larofet, Beijing Olympics, 2008

77

78 Sydney Seshibedi

79 Motion Shutter Speed Fast paced sports require at least 1/500 sec for sharp images often 1/1000 or 1/2000 sec Slow shutter useful for panning Slow shutter for night shoots Slower than 1/30 sec will almost certainly result in camera shake - use tripod/monopod Tip: 1/125 sec a good starting point

80 Panning - follow the subject while pressing the shutter so the subject remains sharp and the background is blurred

81

82

83 Ronald Modra, Ben Johnson, Olympics, 1988

84 PHOTO TECHNIQUE (1) Focus (2) Depth of Field (3) Motion (4) Lens & Perspective

85 35mm Lens Focal Lengths Wide-angle (short lens) 18mm - 100º 20mm - 94º 28mm - 74º 35mm - 62º Normal / Standard (similar to vision) 50mm - 46º Telephoto (long lens) 85mm - 28º 135mm - 18º 300mm - 8.5º 500mm - 6º Zoom Lens & Perspective

86

87 Lens & Perspective Charlie Cole, The Tiananmen Square Massacre, 1989

88 Lens & Perspective Charlie Cole, The Tiananmen Square Massacre, 1989

89 Lens & Perspective James Nachtwey, Nicaragua, 1984

90 Lens & Perspective Steepening Perspective Close to subject Wide angle lens Flattening Perspective Large subject distance Telephoto lens

91 Lens & Perspective Thomas Hoepker, Muhammad Ali, Chicago, 1966

92 Session 2 1. Prepare to capture digital images 1.3. Plan shots for the project taking into account digital camera features, lighting, photographic design elements and photographic techniques LIGHTING Quality: (1) Colour (2) Intensity (3) Size (4) Direction DESIGN ELEMENTS (1) Proportions (2) Balance (3) Brightness & Contrast PHOTO TECHNIQUE (1) Focus (2) Depth of Field (3) Motion (4) Lens & Perspective

93 Session 3 NEXT WEEK 2. Preview and experiment with image capture 2.1. Operate digital camera according to manufacturer specifications 2.2. Set digital camera preferences and use photographic techniques to achieve desired results

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