Tech Paper. Anti-Sparkle Film Distinctness of Image Characterization

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1 Tech Paper Anti-Sparkle Film Distinctness of Image Characterization

2 Anti-Sparkle Film Distinctness of Image Characterization Brian Hayden, Paul Weindorf Visteon Corporation, Michigan, USA Abstract: The amount of sparkle associated with automotive anti-glare display surfaces is generally worsened with increasing display resolutions. One sparkle countermeasure recently introduced by 3M is the use of an anti-sparkle optically clear adhesive (OCA). The distinctness of image (DOI) properties of the 3M anti-sparkle OCA are further investigated. Keywords: Anti-glare; anti-sparkle; sparkle; distinctness; image; DOI; OCA, MTF 1. Introduction Anti-glare (AG) surface treatments are often utilized on automotive displays in order to minimize specular reflection components by scattering the rays from the light sources as shown in Figure 1-1. Figure 1-3. Wyko 3D Surface Analyses - High Sparkle (Left), Low Sparkle (Right) [3] 3M has developed a unique anti-sparkle (AS) optically clear adhesive (OCA) film that uses a diffraction grating structure to be situated between the display and the anti-glare cover lens as depicted in Figure 1-4. Figure 1-1. Diffuse Reflection from Anti-Glare Surface [1] The use of AG surface treatments may cause a sparkle phenomenon often described as a grainy or scintillating effect when used in conjunction with a display. Sparkle is caused by the randomized light refraction coupled with the pixel orientation that leads to non-uniform lighting [2] as shown in Figure 1-2. Figure 1-4. Anti-sparkle Film Diagram [Courtesy of 3M] The 3M AS OCA is based on a 2-dimentional diffraction grating approach that essentially replicates the light from each sub-pixel into nine equally illuminated dots as shown in Figure 1-5. Figure 1-2. Depiction of Sparkle Production [2] Most current attempts to reduce sparkle have concentrated on reducing the size and pitch of the anti-glare surface features as shown in Figure 1-3. Figure 1-5. Individual Light Dot Multiplied by 2-Dimensional Anti-Sparkle Grating [Courtesy of 3M] Although the 3M AS OCA does a good job of significantly reducing sparkle, there are other optical consequences that need to be understood. 3M wrote a helpful paper [2] that addressed most of the optical effects associated with the use of the 3M AS OCA: Sparkle Reduction Showed significant reduction, but did not address effect as a function for distance from the display Gloss the AS film causes a reduction in the gloss level Image Sharpness the AS film reduces image clarity, but generally in the area of acceptability. In addition, Visteon wrote a paper [4] regarding the reflection properties of the anti-sparkle film and concluded that the 3M AS film contributes only a very small amount of reflectance if the optical stack is optically bonded. One final area that merits further

3 investigation is the effect of the AS film on the image quality (image sharpness). The objective of this paper is to provide some guidance as to the expected image quality degradation with the use of the AS film. 2. Background/Objective The objective of this paper is to measure the clarity of image performance of the 3M anti-sparkle OCA and to make an assessment of what image degradation would be seen by the user. The sample configurations measured are depicted in Figures 2-1. Figure 3-1. Applied Image Sinusoidal Array SINE M-14 The sinusoidal array description is outlined in Figure 3-2 where the cycles/mm is notated for each of the target sinusoidal patterns. Figure 2-1. Optical Sample Configurations The various materials in the optical samples were: AG film HM01 Mitsubishi super extra minute AG AG film LM302 Clear version of Bayer LM296 tinted film AG film HM02 Mitsubishi extra minute AG 3M Anti-Sparkle OCA film Easy x7 3M OCA Glass 3mm soda lime type 3. Measurement Results The Display Messtechnik SMS-1000 was utilized to capture images of the optical performance. Images collected were: MTF utilizing sinusoidal arrays from Applied Image Inc. Knife edge measurements using black to white density targets on the sinusoidal arrays from Applied Image Inc. The sinusoidal array from Applied Image Inc. is shown in Figure 3-1. Figure 3-2. SINE M-14 Pattern Description Figure 3-3 shows the SMS-1000 raw image of the sinusoidal array which has been annotated. The SMS-1000 had a resolution of camera pixels/mm with the following set up parameters: Objective lens: 50 mm Aperture: f/5.6 Imaging distance: 300 mm Figure 3-3. SMS-1000 Image of the M-14 Sinusoidal Array Images utilizing the various anti-glare samples with and without the AS OCA are depicted in Figure 3-4. Figure 3-5 shows the modulation measurement results using the SMS-1000.

4 Figure 3-4. Images for the Various AG Samples

5 Sinusoidal Target Array (no AG sample) Contrast C M 82% 81% 82% 79% 75% 73% 69% HM01 (Standard OCA) Contrast C M 81% 79% 78% 77% 70% 71% 65% HM01 (Anti-Sparkle OCA) Contrast C M 37% 21% 32% 22% 8% 9% 24% HM02 (Standard OCA) Contrast C M 76% 68% 65% 60% 50% 51% 45% HM02 (Anti-Sparkle OCA) Contrast C M 35% 26% 28% 19% -- 11% 15% LM302 (Standard OCA) Contrast C M 60% 32% 20% 7% 3% 2% LM302 (Anti-Sparkle OCA) Contrast C M 31% 18% Figure 3-5. Modulation Depiction for the Various AG Films

6 Table 3-1 summarizes the contrast modulation response data for the various optical configurations which are plotted in Figure 3-6. Figure 3-6 shows a considerable reduction in the modulation contrast response for the frequencies tested when the AS film is utilized. Table 3-1. Contrast Modulation Summary Figure 3-6. Contrast Modulation Summary 4. Analysis In order to better understand the frequency response characteristics of the AS film, a knife edge test using the black to white density pattern on the M-14 sinusoidal array was utilized. Knife edge test methods to extract the modulation transfer function (MTF) are discussed per Information Display Measurements Standard (IDMS) section 7.7 EFFECTIVE RESOLUTION [5]. The knife edge results were analyzed by taking the derivative of the edge transition and performing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the derivative function (line-spread function) to obtain the MTF function [6] as shown in Figure 4-1. Furthermore in reference [6], for reasonable clarity at a 24 inch viewing distance, an MTF > 0.6 at 5.8 cycles/mm was asserted. However this was based on AG films that are Gaussian in nature and generally have a monotonically decreasing MTF as a function of frequency. The first column of the knife edge results in Figure 4-1 shows the captured image for the black to white density patterns. The second column in Figure 4-1 shows the actual optical edge transition (blue curve) and the associated derivative function (purple curve). Finally the third column in Figure 4-1 shows FFT of the derivative function which is the MTF of the system. It is interesting to note that per Figure 3-5, the HM01 with the AS film shows an increase in the MTF at 8 cycles/mm with the antisparkle film which is consistent with results per Figure 4-1, thus confirming the validity of knife edge test. Also for the HM01 with the AS film, at spatial frequencies of 5 and 6 cycles/mm, the MTF is almost zero for both Figures 3-5 and 4-1. One thing to keep in mind is that for the knife edge test, the frequency response of the optical system has a monotonically decreasing MTF and is not perfect as can be observed in the edge transition reference with no AG MTF plot in Figure 4-1 (upper right corner). For the LM302 AG film the, the DOI is reduced below the recommended MTF of 0.6 at 5.8 cycles/mm at a 24 inch viewing distance [6]. However it should be noted that the LM302 film is a clear version of the tinted LM296 film that has been used successfully in front of a TFT display for dead front instrument applications although DOI is reduced. Therefore if the LM302 is used as a reference limit of acceptability, it suggests that the 3M AS film may provide suitable performance with the use of less aggressive AG films such as HM01 and HM02 films.

7 Step Reference (no AG) HM01 (Standard OCA) HM01 (Anti-Sparkle OCA) HM02 (Standard OCA) HM02 (Anti-Sparkle OCA) LM302 (Standard OCA) LM302 (Anti-Sparkle OCA) Figure 4-1. Knife Edge Image, Edge Transition and FFT MTF Results

8 Another metric useful to understand the performance characteristics of the AS film is the contrast sensitivity. The contrast sensitivity function of the human eye may be approximated by Equation 4-1 [7] and is an analytical approximation for the average threshold curve. (4-1) It should also be noted that the term Contrast Sensitivity is related to contrast threshold by the relationship per Equation 4-2. (4-2) The two curves are plotted on Figure 4-2A where the Contrast Sensitivity axis is on the left and the Contrast Threshold axis is on the right. The meaning of the curves is that everything below the Contrast Sensitivity curve can be seen. Likewise everything above the Contrast Threshold curve can be seen. Figure 4-2B. Contrast Sensitivity and Contrast Threshold at 24 in cycles/mm As a practical example, images of the various AG films with a standard test pattern were taken with a Radiant Imaging colorimeter. The test equipment setup is shown in Figure 4-3 and an image of the test pattern with no film is shown in Figure 4-4. The characters in the test pattern ( 1x,2x,3x ) were measured to be approximately 4.7 mm high with the measurement distance 24 inch. The 1x line pair grille pattern measured approximately 1.9 cycles/mm. Figures 4-5, 4-6 and 4-7 show the various AG films both with and without the AS OCA. Figure 4-2A: Contrast Sensitivity and Contrast Threshold Figure 4-2A is plotted in terms of cycles/degree for the ordinate axis. It is helpful to convert cycles/degree to cycles/mm at a viewing distance of 24 inches as all of the data is presented in terms of cycles/mm. Equation 4-3 shows how the conversion is accomplished where D is the viewing distance. Figure 4-3. Radiant Imaging Colorimeter Test Setup (4-3) When the contrast sensitivity function is plotted in terms of spatial frequency at a 24 inch viewing distance, Figure 4-2B shows that at 2 to 4 cycles/mm, the human eye contrast sensitivity has dropped significantly from the peak value further supporting the position that the AS film performance may be acceptable Figure 4-4. Test Pattern with no Films

9 Figure 4-5. HM01 (left), HM01 with AS (right) Figure 4-6. HM02 (left), HM02 with AS (right) Figure 4-7. LM302 (left), LM302 with AS (right) 5. Conclusion/Summary The 3M AS film does degrade image clarity and therefore its application may be somewhat dependent on the type of AG film used and the viewing distance. For a viewing distance of 24 inches and a 3 mm substrate thickness, some image clarity degradation will be visible due to the AS film, but may be acceptable based on its outstanding performance in reducing sparkle to an acceptable level. As this study was performed with only a 3 mm substrate thickness, one area that warrants further investigation is how the DOI varies as a function of the distance between the AS film and the TFT image plane. Another area which requires further investigation is to reduce the substrate thickness from 3 mm used in this study, to determine if the MTF would be improved. In general for AG films, a reduced distance between the AG film and the TFT image plane will improve the image sharpness [6], however it is not known whether this principle applies also to the AS film. 6. References [1] Diffuse Reflection, < bert2.gif> (June 2017). [2] Sitter, B., Tebow, C., Zhang, Z., Anti-Glare Solutions for Automotive Displays, Society for Information Display 2016 Vehicle Displays and Interfaces Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. [3] Hayden, B., et al, Anti-Glare Sparkle Optical Modeling & Prediction Method, Society for Information Display 2015 Vehicle Displays and Interfaces Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. [4] Weindorf, P., Hayden, B., Lor, K., Characterization of Anti- Sparkle Film for Automotive Applications, Society for Information Display 2017, International Symposium Technical Paper, [5] Society for Information Display, International Committee for Display Metrology, Information Display Measurements Standard, Version 1.03, < [6] Weindorf, P., Hayden, B., Anti-glare Film Sharpness Measurement Investigations, Society for Information Display 2012, Vehicle Displays and Interfaces Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. [7] Kopeika, Norman S., A System Engineering Approach to Imaging, Bellingham, Washington: SPIE Publications, 1998.

10 White Paper About Visteon Visteon is a global company that designs, engineers and manufactures innovative cockpit electronics products and connected car solutions for most of the world s major vehicle manufacturers. Visteon is a leading provider of instrument clusters, head-up displays, information displays, infotainment, audio systems, telematics and SmartCore cockpit domain controllers. Visteon also supplies embedded multimedia and smartphone connectivity software solutions to the global automotive industry. Headquartered in Van Buren Township, Michigan, Visteon has approximately 10,000 employees at more than 40 facilities in 18 countries. Visteon had sales of $3.16 billion in Learn more at Visteon Corporation One Village Center Dr. Van Buren Township, MI VISTEON Copyright 2017 Visteon Corporation

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