A New Measurement Method of the Dynamic Contact Resistance of HV Circuit Breakers

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1 A New Measuremen Mehod of he Dynamic Conac Resisance of HV Circui Breakers M. Landry*, A. Mercier, G. Ouelle, C. Rajoe, J. Caron, M. Roy Hydro-Québec Fouad Brikci Zensol Auomaion Inc. (CANADA) Inroducion The design of modern high-volage puffer-ype SF 6 gas circui breakers is based on he swiching of wo parallel conac ses. Firs, he low-resisance silver-plaed conacs or he main conacs are specifically designed o carry he load curren wihou any excessive emperaure rise. Second, following he main conac par, he ungsen-copper arcing conacs are finally opened, hus iniiaing arc quenching and curren inerrupion. To assess he condiion of he breaker conacs, he main conac resisance measuremen is usually performed. However, he saic resisance measured when he breaker remains in a closed posiion does no give any indicaion of he condiion of he arcing conacs. To evaluae he laer s condiion, an inernal inspecion can be done, bu ime-consuming and cosly mainenance procedures mus be followed in order o securely handle he SF 6 gas and arc by-producs. I should be remembered ha excessive arcing-conac wear and/or misalignmen may resul in a decrease of he circui breaker s breaking capaciy. The dynamic conac resisance measuremen (DRM) was developed over years ago o assess he condiion of he arcing conacs wihou dismanling he breaker. This mehod is no longer widely used since he inerpreaion of he resisance curve remains ambiguous. Previously published es resuls usually depiced several spikes [-] in he resisance curve which could be he resul of a parial conac par during he conac movemen. The following paper presens a new dynamic-conac-resisance measuremen mehod ha has been validaed by field ess which were performed on air-blas and SF 6 gas circui breakers. The new mehod is based on he breaker conac resisance measuremen during an opening operaion a low speed. Afer reviewing he characerisics of he dynamic resisance curve and he measuring sysem and parameers, he paper deals wih relevan values ha can be exraced from he resisance curve for deecing conac anomalies wear and/or misalignmen. Finally, case sudies are presened and es resuls are discussed.. Measuring sysem and sensors For dynamic conac resisance measuremens (DRMs), hree signals mus be recorded: - he injeced curren (I DC ) of a leas A in order o minimize relaive noise level; - he volage drop (V D ) across he breaker conacs; - he breaker conac ravel curve. *

2 Since he new DRM mehod presened in his paper will be performed during an opening operaion a low conac speed when he breaker is off-line, some commercial acquisiion unis wih he following feaures may be used: - analog inpus wih a leas -bi resoluion and appropriae range of volage inpus; - a sampling frequency of khz; - a oal acquisiion ime of - s; - connecion o a porable compuer for calculaion of he insananeous conac resisance (V D /I DC ), daa analysis and inerpreaion using dedicaed sofware. Finally, he following sensors are required: - Hall-effec curren sensor allowing accurae measuremen of boh he curren ampliude and he abrup curren variaion a he arcing conac par ha corresponds o he complee breaker conac opening; - linear or roary conac ravel sensor depending upon he breaker echnology.. Measuring parameers. Closing operaions DRMs during closing operaions are no generally useful since he measuremen mus be performed during a ransien sae, i.e. from open o closed conacs. There are wo main reasons why he measuremen in his condiion is impracical: - he abrup resisance variaion from infiniy (open conacs) o he arcing conac resisance is difficul o measure, making he resisance level of he arcing conac difficul o deec; - he ransien DC curren a he momen of arcing conac ouch generaes undesired noise level and herefore jeopardizes he measuremen.. Opening operaions a low conac speed DRM should be raher performed during opening operaions a low conac speed (.-. m/s). Figure a shows superimposed ypical resisance curves of wo consecuive measuremens a raed speed on break A (Table ). The wo races have been synchronized by superimposing insans of he main conac par which is idenified as m in he Figure a graph. Noe ha no filering has been applied. A he raed speed, i can be observed ha he resisance curves are no reproducible from one es o anoher. Moreover, his phenomenon is more marked in he viciniy of he arcing conac par. During he validaion es program, i was observed ha his behaviour is compleely random. On he conrary, for he same breaker A, Figure b shows wo dynamic conac resisance curves obained a low conac speeds of. and.5 m/s. The wo races have also been synchronized by superimposing insans of he main conac par. Excep for he fac ha he curves exhibi differen insans of he arcing conac par which are due o measuremens a differen conac speeds, he wo resisance curves appear o be almos idenical. To eliminae hese ime deviaions resuling from he conac speed, he dynamic conac resisance may be ploed as a funcion of he conac ravel (secion.). For break B (Table I), Figure c depics anoher DRM curve ha was recorded a he raed conac speed. Several spikes can be observed. Moreover, i is absoluely impossible o idenify he main conac par. The presumed main conac par is indicaed based on oher measuremens a low conac speed. As for break A, i is anicipaed ha his phenomenon is caused by parial conac par due o high conac speed and acceleraion. A low conac speed, he DRM curve is far smooher and he main conac par can be easily idenified (Fig. d). I mus be poined ou ha parial conac par does no occur when a high curren is inerruped since elecromagneic forces are exered on he conacs, mainaining hem ogeher unil final conac separaion. Therefore, i is assumed ha he low-speed DRM more adequaely simulaes he acual operaing condiions of an in-service HV circui breaker.

3 a) R (micro-ohms) R (micro-ohms) 5 µω Main conac par m.5 ms No reproducible measuremens c) Arcing ms d) conac par A raed speed 5 µω Presumed main conac par A raed speed Arcing conac par b) R (micro-ohms) R (micro-ohms) µω 5 ms Conac speed=. m/s Main conac par m 5 µω A low speed 5 s A low speed Main conac par Arcing conac par.5 m/s Arcing conac par Conac speed=. m/s Figure - Comparison of he dynamic conac resisance curves according o he convenional (a raed speed) and he new (a low speed) mehods a) A raed speed on break A b) A low speed on break A c) A raed speed on break B d) A low speed on break B. Parameers o be exraced from he dynamic resisance curve. Conac wear algorihm A conac wear algorihm was developed for he new DRM mehod. Figure b depics he conac resisance curve for differen conac ses of an HV air-blas circui breaker: one relaively new fixed conac (F) and four moving conacs in differen sages of wear (Fig. a): a new conac (M), a slighly worn conac (M), a worn conac (M) and a seriously damaged conac (M4), hus forming 4 complee conac ses (F-M, F-M, F- M and F-M4). These conac ses were mouned in a laboraory es se-up comprising a verical compuer-numerical-conrol milling machine, hus allowing he conacs o be closed and opened a a relaively consan and low conac speed. For each conac se, Figure c shows he curves of he cumulaive area beneah he dynamic conac resisance curves of Figure b. The area value (A r ) jus before he beginning of he verical slope corresponds o he maximum value reached jus before he arcing conac par. For he differen conac ses, he A r value is: -.7 mω.s for he new conac se F-M; -.8 mω.s for he slighly worn conac se F-M; -.9 mω.s for he worn conac se F-M; mω.s for he seriously damaged conac se F-M4. These A r values provide an excellen assessmen of he acual condiion of he conac ses. In

4 a) Relaively new fixed conac (F) New moving conac (M) Slighly worn moving conac (M) b) R (mω) c) A r (mω.s) mω.5 s 4 mω.s Worn moving conac (M).5 s 5.4 mω.s.9 mω.s.8 mω.s 4 Seriously damaged moving conac (M4).7 mω.s : Conac se F-M : Conac se F-M : Conac se F-M 4: Conac se F-M4 Figure - Wear conac analysis by evaluaing he area beneah he dynamic conac resisance curve for differen conac ses a) View of he fixed and moving conacs b) Graph of he dynamic conac resisance curves c) Graph of he cumulaive area beneah he dynamic conac resisance curves fac, he A r value increases based on conac wear. The seriously damaged conac is clearly idenified since he A r value (i.e. 5.4 mω.s) is wice ha for he new conac se (.7 mω.s).. Graph of he conac ravel curve and resisance curve Figure a depics a ypical dynamic resisance curve during an opening operaion a low speed where corresponds o he beginning of he breaker conac moion. In mos breaker operaing manuals, he procedure for performing such a low speed opening is given. I is always relevan o superimpose he ravel curve of he breaker conac in order o exrac diagnosic parameers relaed o he posiion of boh he main conacs and he arcing conacs. a) Arcing conac par b) Arcing conac par R and Conac ravel R p Conac ravel curve Dynamic resisance curve Main conac par D p D a P a R (milliohms) Main conac par R p R a * D a R a Time Conac ravel (mm) D p D a Figure - Parameers o be exraced from he dynamic conac resisance curve a) Conac resisance and conac moion as a funcion of ime b) Conac resisance as a funcion of conac ravel P a 4

5 These parameers are: - R p (µω): Average main conac resisance - D p (mm): Main conac wipe - D a (mm): Arcing conac wipe - P a (mm): Posiion of he breaker conacs a he arcing conac par. Graph of he resisance curve as a funcion of he conac ravel To compensae for he fac ha he dynamic resisance curve is measured a a low conac speed ha is no necessarily consan for he wo es series (Fig. a), he conac resisance graph mus be ploed as a funcion of he conac ravel (Fig. b) in order o evaluae wo addiional parameers for diagnosing he arcing conac condiions: - R a (µω): Average arcing conac resisance = (Σ R i=,n ) / N (Fig. b), N= Number of samples in he inerval D a - R a *D a (mω.mm): Area beneah he resisance curve as a funcion of he conac ravel (Fig. b) The laer parameer provides a crierion for evaluaing he global breaker conac wear and/or conac alignmen saus. Once he graph is ploed, all diagnosic parameers can be deduced, including hose in secion.. Since his graph can be considered as complee for diagnosing he breaker conac condiion, i will be given for each case sudy presened in he following secion. 4. Case sudies The new DRM mehod was validaed in he field on SF 6 gas circui breakers. Three case sudies are presened in he following secion. Table I summarizes he measuremen resuls for which abnormal values are highlighed. 4. Case sudy No. : One break of a 5-kV capacior-bank SF 6 gas circui breaker Figure 4 presens he DRM resuls on a break (Break A, Table I) of a 5-kV capacior-bank SF 6 gas circui breaker which has performed 49 operaions. Based on his graph and he resuls lised in Table I, i can be deduced ha he arcing conacs are in excellen condiion. In fac, he R a value of 85 µω is almos consan hroughou he conac moion. The global crieria R a *D a is also relaively low, i.e..6 mω.mm. In addiion, he main conac par can be easily deeced. Table I Summary of DRM resuls Case sudy No. (Fig. 4) (Fig. 5) Break descripion Operaion couner reading R p (µω) R a (µω) D p (mm) D a (mm) P a (mm) R a *D a (mω.mm) A B C (Conac < overhaul) D (Fig. 6) (Inernal resrike) E (Normal break) Break A: Break of a 5-kV capacior-bank SF 6 gas circui-breaker Break B: Break of a -kv capacior-bank SF 6 gas circui-breaker Break C: Same as break B, excep ha arcing conacs were overhauled Break D: Break (wih inernal resrike) of a -kv SF 6 gas reacor circui-breaker Break E: Same as break D, bu wihou inernal resrike 5

6 4. Case sudy No. : One break of a -kv capacior-bank SF 6 gas circui breaker Case sudy No. (Fig. 5) presens he DRM resuls on a break (Break B, Table ) of a Break A -kv capacior-bank SF 6 gas circui breaker which has performed 687 operaions. In February, a major failure occurred on his circui breaker which caused imporan damage o he surrounding equipmen. An invesigaion of he breaker Main conac par failure revealed ha an arcing conac ip appeared o have broken off during an opening operaion and hus impaired he subsequen closing operaion. In he fall of, he DRM was Conac ravel (mm) Figure 4-DRMs on break A performed. Based on he Figure 5a graph, he parameers defined in secion were exraced R (milliohms) a) Break B b) Break C R (milliohms) c) 4 5 Conac ravel (mm) Conac ravel (mm) Break B Break B off-cener moving arcing conac ip Damaged fixed arcing conac Figure 5- Dynamic conac resisance measuremens on one break of a -kv capaciorbank SF 6 gas circui-breaker a) Dynamic resisance curve before conac dismanling b) Dynamic resisance curve afer conac overhaul c) View of he damaged moving and fixed arcing conacs 6

7 and lised in he case sudy No. row in Table I. The insananeous arcing conac resisance reaches an abnormal peak of mω while he average value (R a ) of 4 µω could be inerpreed as normal. The mos relevan facor is he produc R a *D a ha reaches. mω.mm, hus suggesing a conac anomaly. As menioned in secion, his facor represens he cumulaive area beneah he resisance curve, hus summing he resisance variaions or he conac wear during arcing conac opening. Phoos of he moving and fixed arcing conacs of he esed break are shown in Figure 5c. On he moving arcing conac, i can be observed ha one arcing conac ip is off cener. This abnormaliy caused damage o he fixed arcing conac (see righ-hand side phoo). I is believed ha his condiion occurred due o a misalignmen of he arcing conacs a he break assembly. Afer an arcing conac overhaul and careful conac alignmen, he DRM was performed one more ime. Figure 5b presens he measuremen resuls ha showed ha he arcing conac condiion was definiely resored. In fac, he R a value of 7 µω is low. Furhermore, he low R a *D a value of.4 mω.mm indicaes ha he arcing conac is in excellen condiion. 4. Case sudy No. : One break of a -kv reacor SF 6 gas circui breaker Figure 6a presens he DRM resuls for break D (Table I) for which an inernal breakdown occurred wihou a major failure. In his case, he R a value is abou mω, which indicaes very severe damage o he arcing conacs. The global value R a *D a of 6 mω.mm is he highes value ha was ever obained during he validaion es program. The break was dismanled and arcing races on boh he moving and fixed arcing conacs as well as on he supporing ube of he main conacs were observed. For comparison purposes, Figure 6b gives he DRM resuls for a normal break (Break E, Table I) of he same circui breaker. Based on he curves and he exraced value in Table I, he arcing conacs of his break are clearly in excellen condiion. In fac, he R a value of around µω is almos consan from he main conac par up o he arcing conac par. a) Break D b) Break E R (milliohms) Main conac par 4 6 Conac ravel (mm) Figure 6- DRM resuls on breaks of a -kv reacor SF 6 gas circui-breaker a) Resisance curve following an inernal resrike of he break D b) Normal break E 4 6 Conac ravel (mm) Conclusion This paper presens a new dynamic conac resisance measuremen mehod performed during opening operaions a low conac speed aimed a evaluaing he breaker condiion wihou dismanling i. Compared o he DRM curves a he raed conac speed, he new mehod allows reproducible curves o be obained which are easy o analyze and inerpre. 7

8 Three signals mus be measured: he injeced DC curren ha mus be produced by a sable source, he volage drop across he breaker conacs and he conac ravel. To exrac he diagnosic parameers, a dedicaed sofware program was developed in order o plo he dynamic resisance curve as a funcion of he conac ravel, i.e. mω versus mm. Six vial diagnosic parameers values are herefore deermined: - average main conac resisance; - average arcing conac resisance; - main conac wipe; - arcing conac wipe; - posiion of he breaker conac a he arcing conac par; - and he cumulaive area beneah he resisance curve. The las parameer is he mos relevan one since i allows he overall conac wear and/or conac alignmen saus o be assessed. Moreover, values obained from differen breaker echnologies can be compared. For example, values of abou mω.mm indicae healhy breaker conacs while values of abou mω.mm indicae fauly conacs. The hree case sudies presened in his paper prove ha he new DRM mehod provides vial informaion abou he breaker conac condiion. Wihou dismanling he breaker, he mainenance crew can hus plan mainenance work for specific breakers for which he DRMs reveal conac anomalies. References [] Salamanca F., Borras F., Egger H., Seingräber W., Prevenive Diagnosis on High- Volage Circui Breakers, Paper No. -, CIGRE Symposium, Berlin, 99. [] Kumar Tyagi R., Singh Sodha N., Condiion-Based Mainenance Techniques for EHV- Class Circui Breakers, Doble Clien Conference. [] Ohlen M., Dueck B, Wernli H., Dynamic Resisance Measuremens A Tool for Circui Breaker Diagnosics, Sockholm Power Tech Inernaional Symposium on Elecric Power Engineering, Vol. 6, p. 8-, Sweden, June 8-,

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