FIM FUNDAMENTALS OF FILMMAKING CINEMATOGRAPHY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "FIM FUNDAMENTALS OF FILMMAKING CINEMATOGRAPHY"

Transcription

1 Color Temperature and Filters SCHOOL OF FILMMAKING 1533 S. Main Street Winston-Salem, North Carolina FIM FUNDAMENTALS OF FILMMAKING CINEMATOGRAPHY So what is color temperature and why is it so important? In 1900, a German physicist by the name of Max Planck discovered that a black body, such as a piece of iron, gives off various colors of light as it is heated. For example, imagine a piece of iron heated in a blacksmith s furnace: the iron starts off black but begins to glow red when it is placed in the coals. As the temperature rises, the iron goes from red to yellow until it eventually glows bluish-white as it reaches its maximum temperature. Planck took his discovery and developed what he called Planck s radiation formula, which defined a standard for the color of light based on the temperature of a theoretical black body measured in degrees Kelvin. Because of this standard of measure, which we now call color temperature, we can accurately identify, match, and compare different colors of light. For example, candlelight has a color temperature of 1850 K, while a 1000W incandescent Tungsten lamp has a color temperature of 3200 K. Sunlight has a color temperature of 5600 K. If we think back to the iron being in the blacksmith s fire, the candle would be in the red zone while the 1000W incandescent Tungsten lamp would be more yellow, and the sunlight would be approaching blue. Color temperature is important to understand, because digital and video photography want light sources of the same color temperature illuminating a scene for accurate reproduction of colors. Some other Color Temperatures Light Source Match Flame Candle Flame Sunrise/Sunset Household Tungsten Bulbs Tungsten Studio Lights Quartz Lights Fluorescent Lights Early Morning or Late Afternoon Direct Sun at Noon Average Daylight (Sunlight + Skylight) RGB Monitor Overcast Sky Color Temperature K K K K 3200 K K K 4300 K K K 6500 K 6000 K 1

2 Filters 3 Key Categories The easiest way to understand the world of filters is to group them by function. Almost every filter falls under one of the following 3 categories: Chromatic, Non-Chromatic, and Special Effect. Chromatic (color) filters are used to change, alter, or balance the color content of light. Chromatic filters include several sub groups all of which affect color in some way or another: color compensating, color conversion, color enhancing, color balancing, and black-&-white contrast effects. Non-Chromatic filters are used to change or modify the behavior or intensity of light. This group includes: polarizers, NDs, UV-absorbing, and optical flats. Special-Effect filters are used to change or modify the physical aspects of the image. This category is quite diverse and includes many groups: diffusions, mists, frosts, low cons, fogs, star effects, center clears, diopters, and multi-image attachments. With the use of certain filters we can alter the color temperature of the light source. NOTE: ALL IMAGES ARE FROM THE TIFFEN FILTERS WEB SITE. Chromatic Filters Color Conversion There are basically two types of light sources used for filming Tungsten Light and Daylight. Tungsten - (3200 K) Standard studio lighting fixtures are called TUNGSTEN LIGHTS because originally the filaments in all studio lamps were made of tungsten. Tungsten balanced lights have a color temperature of roughly 3200 K. Film labeled "Tungsten" is designed to reproduce light of 3200 K as white. 2

3 Daylight - (5600 K) Daylight is generally considered to have a color temperature of around 5600 K, although various sources sometimes put it at 5400 K or 5800 K. This reading is an average of both direct sunlight and skylight taken at midday. Any film labeled "daylight balanced" is designed to reproduce light of near 5600 K as white. Conversion Filters All color films come balanced for use in either daylight or tungsten light. By using a conversion filter you can use either film in either lighting situation and still achieve a proper color balance. CONVERSION FILTERS are filters designed to convert one color balance to another. Since there are two major types of color balance (tungsten and daylight) there are two major conversion filters for use in either situation. 85 FILTER The #85 Filter corrects the color when using tungsten balanced film in daylight. Light entering the filter with a temperature of 5600 K (daylight) leaves the filter with a temperature of 3400 K (tungsten). The filter appears amber or orange in color because it "warms" light passing through it. Since not all of the light which enters the filter leaves it (some blue light is absorbed and prevented from passing through) there is a certain amount of light loss associated with this filter and an adjustment must be made in the exposure of the film. When using a #85 filter an exposure compensation of 2/3 of a stop is required. When shooting with film, the #85 filter is probably the most commonly used filter. 80A FILTER The #80A Filter - corrects the color when using daylight balanced film under tungsten lights. Light entering the filter with a color temperature of 3200 K (tungsten) leaves the filter with a temperature of 5600 K (daylight). The filter appears blue in color because it "cools" the light passing through it. Because a #80A filter absorbs so much more light than a #85, when using a #80A filter an exposure compensation of 2 full stops is required. Without 80A Filter With 80A Filter 3

4 Because a #80A filter eats up so much light, and because there is usually so much more daylight available outside, from the sun, than there is tungsten light available inside, from the less powerful studio lights, most motion picture film is balanced for tungsten illumination. For this reason the #85 filter is used much more frequently then the #80A. Coral Filters Enhancing Filters In order to "warm" up a scene, a director of photography may use a coral filter on the camera. This may be done when filming a sunset or a fireside scene in order to make the scene appear slightly warmer. Another use of the coral filter is when filming outside in daylight. Because the color temperature of daylight changes from early morning to late afternoon, the director of photography may use a specific coral filter along with, or in place of, the 85 filter to give the scene a slightly warmer look. Coral filters come in varying densities and an exposure compensation is required based on the density of the filter. In order to create brighter reds, oranges and rust browns when filming, a director of photography may use the enhancing filter. While creating spectacular effects on the reds and oranges in the shot, it has very little effect on other colors. This filter is especially useful when filming fall foliage. The enhancing filter requires an exposure compensation of 1 1/2-2 stops. Without Enhancing With Enhancing 4

5 Without Enhancing With Enhancing & Polarizer Graduated Filters Sometimes we only want to alter a portion of the frame with a specific filter. To do this the director of photography would use a graduated or grad filter. Only half of the filter contains the specific filter while the remaining half is clear. For example we may use a Neutral Density Grad or a Coral Grad for certain effects. Some graduated filters also come in varying densities. Without Blue Grad With Blue Grad Without Blue Grad With Blue Grad 5

6 Non-Chromatic Filters Neutral Density ND3 ND6 ND9 NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS (ND's) are used to reduce the amount of light reaching the film or the sensor if shooting in the digital format. This is often necessary when shooting outdoors under extremely bright conditions. It may be that the existing light would require you to stop down to an T-stop greater than the lens has. As an example: Let s say you're shooting at the beach on a bright sunny day with EI 200 film. It would not be unusual to have need of an T-stop around T-22 or even T-32, but most lenses only stop down to T-16 and high speed lenses only to T-11. A neutral density filter would block some of the bright light before it gets to the lens and allow you to continue shooting at a suitable aperture. Another use of ND Filters is to reduce the depth of field by allowing us to shoot at a wider aperture. This is often done to throw a background out of focus or to get a more pronounced "rack focus" effect at a specific moment in the shot. Whatever the reason, ND filters can often be used to reduced depth of field. ND filters use a numeric designation to indicate how much they reduce the exposure. These ND numbers are each equal to one EI increment (1/3 of a stop). Three ND values are equal to one full stop. The most commonly used ND filters are the full stop increments, ND3, ND6 and ND9. When using these, you must remember to adjust your exposure accordingly. The ND 3 requires an exposure compensation of 1 stop, the ND6, 2 stops and the ND9, 3 stops. Without ND6 Filter With ND6 Filter 6

7 Polarizing Filters POLARIZERS are used to reduce reflections from shiny, nonmetallic surfaces such as glass, water or wet pavement. A polarizing filter can be rotated to block light traveling along a given plane, greatly reducing or even eliminating reflections from that surface. Polarizers do their best at reducing reflections when the camera can be positioned at an angle close to 45 o to the object being photographed. Without Polarizer With Polarizer Without Polarizer With Polarizer In addition to reducing reflections, polarizers may be used to darken the sky at certain angles to the sun. Much of what we see as blue sky is actually composed of sun light reflected by air and dust particles. A polarizer can reduce some of these reflections and give the sky a darker appearance. Polarizers work best on areas of the sky which are near 90 to the sun. When using a polarizer filter, you must adjust your exposure by 1 1/2 to 2 stops. Check the polarizer you are using in order to know exactly what your exposure compensation should be. 7

8 Without Polarizer With Polarizer Optical Flat (Clear) A special filter, which should be included in every camera package, is the optical flat. It is an optically corrected, clear piece of glass which has many uses. Many times during filming there may be something being projected towards the camera for the particular shot. The optical flat may be placed in front of the lens to protect it from the projectile. You also may be shooting in windy situations where dust and dirt may be blown towards the lens or if on the beach, water may be blown towards the lens. The optical flat will protect the front element of the lens from these objects. In addition, the optical flat can be used to cut down on the noise level of the camera. Much of the noise from the camera comes out through the lens. By placing an optical flat in front of the lens, you can reduce this noise and achieve a quiet sync sound take during shooting. So, if the sound mixer asks you to place an optical flat on the camera, it usually means that he is hearing some camera noise through the microphone. Special-Effect Filters Diffusion Filters When we talk about diffusion filters, there are many types and styles of filters that we are referring to. A general definition of a diffusion filter is, a filter which is used to soften the image or look of the picture. A diffusion filter is usually made of glass containing a rippled surface which prevents the light from focusing sharply. It will produce an image where fine details are not clearly visible. Some diffusion filters give the appearance that the image is out of focus. One of the most common uses of diffusion filters is to soften any facial blemishes on an actor or to help soften the image of an actor or actress who has many wrinkles in their skin. Some names of the most commonly used diffusion filters are, Tiffen Diffusion, Harrison & Harrison Diffusion, Black Dot Texture Screen, Black Pro-Mist, White Pro-Mist, Soft Net, Net, and Supa-Frost. Two very popular types of diffusion filters being used today are the Tiffen Black Pro-Mist and White Pro-Mist. The White Pro-Mist softens the image without causing it to appear out of focus. It also spreads light slightly by creating a small amount of flare from light sources and it will slightly reduce the contrast. The Black Pro-Mist softens the image with a more subtle flare from light sources and slightly reduces contrast by lightening shadows and darkening highlights. Soft Nets and Nets actually are in a separate category called nets. A net may be any fine mesh type material which is placed on the camera and acts as a diffuser. In the early days of filmmaking, many Directors of Photography would stretch a stocking material over the front of the lens to create the diffusion effect. With the exception of the Black Dot Texture Screens and some nets, diffusion filters require no exposure compensation. All diffusion filters are available in sets ranging in density from very light to heavy diffusion. Through experimentation and use of the filters, a director of photography usually knows which filter to use for a specific application or effect. 8

9 Without Diffusion Without Diffusion With Pro-Mist 2 With Pro-Mist 3 Fog Filters and Double Fog Filters In order to simulate the effects of fog we would use what is called a fog filter or double fog filter. In a real fog situation, the fog causes lights to flare and this is produced by the fog or double fog filter. The fog filters are also available in sets ranging in density from very light to very heavy. No exposure compensation is needed when using these filters. Without Fog With Fog 3 With Double Fog 3 9

10 Low Contrast Filters In order to lighten the shadow areas of a scene, a director of photography may use a low contrast filter on the camera. This causes the light from the highlight areas of the scene to bleed into the shadow areas which produces a lower contrast. In other words, it lightens the shadows without affecting the highlight areas. They do not soften the image or make it appear out of focus like diffusion filters do. As with diffusion and fog filters they are available in varying densities. No exposure compensation is required for these filters. Soft Contrast Filters A director of photography may also use a soft contrast filter to lower the contrast in a slightly different manner. It is different from the low contrast filter because it darkens highlights without affecting the shadow areas. They are also available in varying densities. No exposure compensation is required for these filters. Ultra Contrast Filters Another way to lower the overall contrast of a scene is to use the ultra contrast filter. This filter lowers the contrast evenly throughout the scene by equally lightening the shadow areas and darkening the highlight areas. They are available in varying densities and require no exposure compensation. Without Filter With Utra Contrast 3 10

11 Star Filters STAR FILTERS are used to produce lines from bright objects (point sources) in the scene to produce star like effects. The surface of the filter has lines etched into it which run in the direction of the star points. Depending how many lines are etched you may have 2, 4, 6 or 8 pointed stars (4 and 6 are the most commonly used). Because the lines form a texture screen star filters tend to act as diffusers and often "soften" shots they are used to photograph. As with other texture screens, care must be taken to avoid getting too much depth of field and focusing on the filter itself. No exposure compensation is required for star filters. Without Filter North Star Hyper Star Vector Star Holywood Star There are currently over two hundred types of filters available for your use. The above named filters are only a sampling of what may be available to the cinematographer. This small listing is intended to give you a basic understanding of the most commonly used filters. 11

12 Filter Sizes Filters are manufactured in a wide variety of sizes and formats for use in many types of media, with different aspect ratios, different types of lenses, cameras, etc... COMMON FILTER SIZES 6.6 X 6.6 Square 4 X mm Round 4.5 Round 4 X 4 Square 3 X 3 Square Series 9 Round Filter F-Stop/T-Stop Compensation (Open Aperture) Filter F-Stop/T-Stop Compensation (Open Aperture) 85 2/3 80A 2 85 N3 1 2/3 80B 1 2/3 85 N6 2 2/3 80C 1 85 N9 3 2/3 81A, 81B, 81C 1/3 LLD 0 81EF 2/3 ND /3 ND A 1/3 ND B 2/3 Polarizer 1 ½ B 2/3 Optical Flat 0 85C 1/3 Enhancer 1 Diopter 0 FLB 1 UV 0 FLD 1 Sky 1-A 0 Fog, Double Fog 0 Haze 1 0 Contrast (Low, Soft, Ultra) 0 Haze 2 0 Black Dot 1 Warm UV 1/3 Pro Mist 0 Soft Net 1/3 2/3 Warm Pro Mist 1/3 Coral, Sepia Based on Density Soft F/X 0 12

13 COMPARISON OF FILTER SIZES The following is from the Arri 35 Book, Second Edition by Jon Fauer, published by Arriflex Corporation,

Color Temperature Color temperature is distinctly different from color and also it is different from the warm/cold contrast described earlier.

Color Temperature Color temperature is distinctly different from color and also it is different from the warm/cold contrast described earlier. Color Temperature Color temperature is distinctly different from color and also it is different from the warm/cold contrast described earlier. Color temperature describes the actual temperature of a black

More information

sunpak picturesplus filters

sunpak picturesplus filters a lifetime of better pictures guaranteed! sunpak picturesplus filters see us in a new light for film cameras digital cameras camcorders cine cameras introducing sunpak picturesplus filters Our trusted

More information

LIGHTING HANDBOOK. How to Get The Most. From Your New ARRI Kit. b y B i l l H o l s h e v n i k o f f SECOND EDITION

LIGHTING HANDBOOK. How to Get The Most. From Your New ARRI Kit. b y B i l l H o l s h e v n i k o f f SECOND EDITION LIGHTING HANDBOOK SECOND EDITION How to Get The Most From Your New ARRI Kit b y B i l l H o l s h e v n i k o f f I m a g e s a n d T e x t 2 0 0 5 b y B i l l H o l s h e v n i k o f f For more detailed

More information

UV Protector. UV Haze-1 STANDARD & WIDE ANGLE PROTECTION AND UV FILTERS

UV Protector. UV Haze-1 STANDARD & WIDE ANGLE PROTECTION AND UV FILTERS PROTECTION & UV FILTERS FILTERS Film is very sensitive to ultraviolet light. This often shows up as a bluish cast in images or as a low-contrast haze that diminishes details. UV filters absorb ultraviolet

More information

Travel Photography & Advanced Photographic Techniques

Travel Photography & Advanced Photographic Techniques Travel Photography & Advanced Photographic Techniques Presented by Tallahassee Senior Center Volunteer Instructor: Dr. Mike Francis Email: drmikef@comcast.net Website: http://www.maf1.com/dcc 2006-2016

More information

Filters & Lens Accessories

Filters & Lens Accessories Tiffen is a leading manufacturer and distributor of photo accessories and related products. For more information on any of our product lines, visit our website at: www.tiffen.com or for technical assistance,

More information

Photoshop Elements 3 Filters

Photoshop Elements 3 Filters Photoshop Elements 3 Filters Many photographers with SLR cameras (digital or film) attach filters, such as the one shown at the right, to the front of their lenses to protect them from dust and scratches.

More information

KODAK EKTACHROME 64 Professional Film

KODAK EKTACHROME 64 Professional Film TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR TRANSPARENCY FILM June 2003 E-8 KODAK EKTACHROME 64 Professional Film This color transparency film has become the standard of the industry for use in the studio or under controlled

More information

KODAK EKTACHROME 64 Professional Film

KODAK EKTACHROME 64 Professional Film TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR REVERSAL FILM September 2005 E-8 KODAK EKTACHROME 64 Professional Film This color transparency film has become the standard of the industry for use in the studio or under controlled

More information

LITESTAGE USER'S GUIDE

LITESTAGE USER'S GUIDE LITESTAGE USER'S GUIDE Note: This is a general user's guide for all of the Litestage models. Equipment shown is not included on all models. For more information on additional equipment and accessories,

More information

A collection of example photos SB-910

A collection of example photos SB-910 A collection of example photos SB-910 This booklet introduces various SB-910 flash techniques and example photos. 1 En Take a step forward into creative lighting Revealing the textures of your subjects

More information

EDITION 2017/2018 FILTERS CATALOGUE

EDITION 2017/2018 FILTERS CATALOGUE EDITION 2017/2018 FILTERS CATALOGUE DHG FILTERS UV FILTERS & POLARIZING FILTERS NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS SPECIAL EFFECT FILTERS ACHROMATIC CLOSE-UP LENS 03 04 06 08 09 DIGILINE FILTERS UV FILTERS & POLARIZING

More information

aperture, shutter speed

aperture, shutter speed CUDGEGONG C A M E R A C L U B aperture, shutter speed and ISO exposure When you think of the craft or art of photography, you must immediately think of exposure. Exposure is a critical element that determines

More information

Using Auto FP High-Speed Sync to Illuminate Fast Sports Action

Using Auto FP High-Speed Sync to Illuminate Fast Sports Action Using Auto FP High-Speed Sync to Illuminate Fast Sports Action by Today s sports photographer not only needs to capture the action, but oftentimes produce a unique feature image for a client. Using Nikon

More information

The Unsharp Mask. A region in which there are pixels of one color on one side and another color on another side is an edge.

The Unsharp Mask. A region in which there are pixels of one color on one side and another color on another side is an edge. GIMP More Improvements The Unsharp Mask Unless you have a really expensive digital camera (thousands of dollars) or have your camera set to sharpen the image automatically, you will find that images from

More information

Fact sheet: Documenting artworks

Fact sheet: Documenting artworks Fact sheet: Documenting artworks A key skill you need as an emerging visual artist is to take photographs of your artwork. An outline of how to use your camera and key considerations in taking photos follows.

More information

Lesson 1 Course Notes

Lesson 1 Course Notes 4 Week Online Photography Course Exposure: Understanding Light A Guide to Understanding Light & Exposure Lesson 1 Course Notes By Nigel Hicks PAGE 2 Introduction Welcome to this course on Making Use of

More information

CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER (CPP) TEST SPECIFICATIONS CAMERA, LENSES AND ATTACHMENTS (12%)

CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER (CPP) TEST SPECIFICATIONS CAMERA, LENSES AND ATTACHMENTS (12%) CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER (CPP) TEST SPECIFICATIONS CAMERA, LENSES AND ATTACHMENTS (12%) Items relating to this category will include digital cameras as well as the various lenses, menu settings

More information

High Speed Sync: A Flash Technique To Add a Pro Touch to Your Photographs

High Speed Sync: A Flash Technique To Add a Pro Touch to Your Photographs DECEMBER 6, 2017 ADVANCED High Speed Sync: A Flash Technique To Add a Pro Touch to Your Photographs Featuring KEVIN KUBOTA Kevin Kubota Kevin needed a fast shutter speed to balance the scene's ambient

More information

Cinematic Drone. https://vimeo.com/

Cinematic Drone. https://vimeo.com/ Cinematic Drone https://vimeo.com/174064811 Some basic moves How to pull off five essential drone shots and uplift your videos https://vimeo.com/blog/post/how-to-pull-off-5-essential-drone-shots-and-uplift

More information

A collection of example photos SB-900

A collection of example photos SB-900 A collection of example photos SB-900 This booklet introduces techniques, example photos and an overview of flash shooting capabilities possible when shooting with an SB-900. En Selecting suitable illumination

More information

Tokina AT-X F2 PRO DX. Short zoom that took all the best from prime lenses

Tokina AT-X F2 PRO DX. Short zoom that took all the best from prime lenses Tokina AT-X 14-20 F2 PRO DX Short zoom that took all the best from prime lenses Tokina gives you a new lens that is called AT-X 14-20mm. The lens covers 14mm to 20mm of focus distance (21mm-30mm for full

More information

We will look at two different, yet very popular, lighting techniques: high key and low key. High key lighting is just what you would imagine - very

We will look at two different, yet very popular, lighting techniques: high key and low key. High key lighting is just what you would imagine - very We will look at two different, yet very popular, lighting techniques: high key and low key. High key lighting is just what you would imagine - very bright, even light, whereas low key emphasizes midtones

More information

GIMP More Improvements

GIMP More Improvements GIMP More Improvements The Unsharp Mask Unless you have a really expensive digital camera (thousands of dollars) or have your camera set to sharpen the image automatically, you will find that images from

More information

A Glossary of Photographic Terms

A Glossary of Photographic Terms TECHNICAL DATA / March 1999 AA-9 A Glossary of Photographic Terms Adjustable camera A camera with manually adjustable settings for distance, lens openings, and shutter speeds. Adjustable-focus lens A lens

More information

Weather & Time of Day

Weather & Time of Day Weather & Time of Day Here is another page with my blether where I will try to share my thoughts how weather and time of the day may affect the photograph and, of course, how to use it in expressing mood

More information

ULTRAVIOLET and INFRARED Photography Summarized

ULTRAVIOLET and INFRARED Photography Summarized ULTRAVIOLET and INFRARED Photography Summarized Andrew Davidhazy School of Photographic Arts and Sciences Imaging and Photographic Technology Department Rochester Institute of Technology A large part of

More information

Art Filters, Multi Exposure, Wireless flash, Multiaspect. Filter

Art Filters, Multi Exposure, Wireless flash, Multiaspect. Filter E-620 The world s smallest and lightest D-SLR* with Builtin Image Stabilisation and a portable creative studio! High Speed 12.3 Megapixel Live MOS sensor 7 point AF system High-performance built-in image

More information

KODAK VISION Expression 500T Color Negative Film / 5284, 7284

KODAK VISION Expression 500T Color Negative Film / 5284, 7284 TECHNICAL INFORMATION DATA SHEET TI2556 Issued 01-01 Copyright, Eastman Kodak Company, 2000 1) Description is a high-speed tungsten-balanced color negative camera film with color saturation and low contrast

More information

Using Auto FP High-Speed Sync to Illuminate Fast Sports Action

Using Auto FP High-Speed Sync to Illuminate Fast Sports Action JANUARY 18, 2018 ADVANCED Using Auto FP High-Speed Sync to Illuminate Fast Sports Action Featuring DAVE BLACK Today s sports photographer not only needs to capture the action, but oftentimes produce a

More information

A Beginner s Guide To Exposure

A Beginner s Guide To Exposure A Beginner s Guide To Exposure What is exposure? A Beginner s Guide to Exposure What is exposure? According to Wikipedia: In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane

More information

KODAK EKTACHROME 100 Plus Professional Film

KODAK EKTACHROME 100 Plus Professional Film KODAK EKTACHROME 100 Plus Professional Film TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR REVERSAL FILM July 2007 E-113 This versatile, 100-speed, color transparency film features high color saturation and dependable neutrals

More information

KODACHROME 25, 64, and 200 Professional Film

KODACHROME 25, 64, and 200 Professional Film TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR TRANSPARENCY FILM June 009 E-55 KODACHROME 5, 64, and 00 Professional Film NOTICE Discontinuance of KODACHROME Film KODACHROME Film has been discontinued. Film will be sold while

More information

Photographing Waterfalls

Photographing Waterfalls Photographing Waterfalls Developed and presented by Harry O Connor oconnorhj@yahoo.com May 3, 2010 All photos by Harry O Connor Introduction Waterfall photographs are landscapes Typical landscape considerations

More information

Neuron Bundle 12: Digital Film Tools

Neuron Bundle 12: Digital Film Tools Neuron Bundle 12: Digital Film Tools Neuron Bundle 12 consists of two plug-in sets Composite Suite Pro and zmatte from Digital Film Tools. Composite Suite Pro features a well rounded collection of visual

More information

White paper. Wide dynamic range. WDR solutions for forensic value. October 2017

White paper. Wide dynamic range. WDR solutions for forensic value. October 2017 White paper Wide dynamic range WDR solutions for forensic value October 2017 Table of contents 1. Summary 4 2. Introduction 5 3. Wide dynamic range scenes 5 4. Physical limitations of a camera s dynamic

More information

KODAK TRI-X Pan and KODAK TRI-X Pan Professional Films

KODAK TRI-X Pan and KODAK TRI-X Pan Professional Films TECHNICAL DATA / BLACK-AND-WHITE FILM July 996 F-9 TRI-X Pan and TRI-X Pan Professional Films s8f-9 July 996 DESCRIPTION TRI-X Pan Film / 5063 and 6043 TRI-X Pan Professional / 6049 and 464 TRI-X Pan Film

More information

Sunrise and Sunset Photography

Sunrise and Sunset Photography Sunrise and Sunset Photography Ben Weeks, November 2010 Sunrise. It happens every day, 365 days a year, yet the vast majority of these solar ascents will go by completely unnoticed by most of us. At the

More information

E T W GLOSSARY OF LIGHTING TERMS

E T W  GLOSSARY OF LIGHTING TERMS GLOSSARY OF LIGHTING TERMS Ballast A device used to start and operate discharge lamps. It may include a dimmer. Beam A cone of light emitted by a luminaire. Beam Angle If you re into reading light-performance

More information

Sony PXW-FS7 Guide. October 2016 v4

Sony PXW-FS7 Guide. October 2016 v4 Sony PXW-FS7 Guide 1 Contents Page 3 Layout and Buttons (Left) Page 4 Layout back and lens Page 5 Layout and Buttons (Viewfinder, grip remote control and eye piece) Page 6 Attaching the Eye Piece Page

More information

40 Digital Photo Retouching Techniques COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

40 Digital Photo Retouching Techniques COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 40 Digital Photo Retouching Techniques COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL C h a p t e r Correcting Contrast If you are a photography enthusiast, you know that light is the defining factor in photography. You probably

More information

Black and White Photoshop Conversion Techniques

Black and White Photoshop Conversion Techniques Black and White Photoshop Conversion Techniques Andrew Gibson on Jan 27th 2011 Final Product What You'll Be Creating A quick glance through any photography or fashion magazine, or at the photos on social

More information

LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES, COMPOSITION, AND PROCESSING

LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES, COMPOSITION, AND PROCESSING LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES, COMPOSITION, AND PROCESSING Tom Price LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY TIPS AND TRICKS Wide angle lens desirable 16-18 mm good focal length for APC-C sensor Telephoto also produce

More information

PHOTOGRAPHER S GUIDE TO THE CANON POWERSHOT S110

PHOTOGRAPHER S GUIDE TO THE CANON POWERSHOT S110 PHOTOGRAPHER S GUIDE TO THE CANON POWERSHOT S110 merical value. If you had it set to Auto before selecting Manual mode, the camera will reset it to ISO 80. And, as with Shutter Priority mode, if you set

More information

KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME. Films E100S and E100SW TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR REVERSAL FILM KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME DESRIPTION FILM E100S

KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME. Films E100S and E100SW TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR REVERSAL FILM KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME DESRIPTION FILM E100S TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR REVERSAL FILM December 1998 E-164 KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Films E0S and E0SW DESRIPTION KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Films E0S and E0SW are versatile, daylight-balanced, color

More information

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 13: LIGHT WAVES This lecture will help you understand: Electromagnetic Spectrum Transparent and Opaque Materials Color Why the Sky is Blue, Sunsets are Red, and

More information

Light. Master VITAL SKILLS GUIDE. Complete photography guide TAKE DRAMATIC PHOTOS USING OUR EXPERT TIPS

Light. Master VITAL SKILLS GUIDE. Complete photography guide TAKE DRAMATIC PHOTOS USING OUR EXPERT TIPS Complete photography guide Master Light TAKE DRAMATIC PHOTOS USING OUR EXPERT TIPS How to control and enhance natural light Creative ways to shoot with flash Simple techniques for spectacular results VITAL

More information

100 mm. the. filter system

100 mm. the. filter system 100 mm the filter system 2 Introduction There is a reason why LEE Filters has established a worldwide reputation for quality that is second to none. It is because every filter that leaves the factory has

More information

Human Retina. Sharp Spot: Fovea Blind Spot: Optic Nerve

Human Retina. Sharp Spot: Fovea Blind Spot: Optic Nerve I am Watching YOU!! Human Retina Sharp Spot: Fovea Blind Spot: Optic Nerve Human Vision Optical Antennae: Rods & Cones Rods: Intensity Cones: Color Energy of Light 6 10 ev 10 ev 4 1 2eV 40eV KeV MeV Energy

More information

Wonderlab The Statoil Gallery

Wonderlab The Statoil Gallery Wonderlab The Statoil Gallery and maths s Age (s) Topic 7 11 LIGHT INFORMATION 11-14 Location WONDERLAB: THE STATOIL GALLERY LEVEL 3, SCIENCE MUSEUM LONDON 1 What s the science? What more will you wonder?

More information

Architectural Photography. Urban Landscapes

Architectural Photography. Urban Landscapes Architectural Photography Urban Landscapes Who uses architectural photos? Designers needing to capture inspiration Firms needing to represent their work to future clients Stylists who use these trends

More information

28 Color. The colors of the objects depend on the color of the light that illuminates them.

28 Color. The colors of the objects depend on the color of the light that illuminates them. The colors of the objects depend on the color of the light that illuminates them. Color is in the eye of the beholder and is provoked by the frequencies of light emitted or reflected by things. We see

More information

skip chap. 8 for now Chap. 9 Color (continued) Lecture 19 Tuesday, October 26

skip chap. 8 for now Chap. 9 Color (continued) Lecture 19 Tuesday, October 26 skip chap. 8 for now Chap. 9 Color (continued) Lecture 19 Tuesday, October 26 Next time: Chapter 10, start reading. Nov. 2: exam review Nov. 4: exam II There are computer problems with clicker registration.

More information

Light Right - A Crash Course In Lighting Video. By John Jackman, July 15, 2003

Light Right - A Crash Course In Lighting Video. By John Jackman, July 15, 2003 Light Right - A Crash Course In Lighting Video By John Jackman, July 15, 2003 source: http://www.techlearning.com/article/1162 Digital video has introduced all kinds of possibilities for do-it-yourself

More information

Funded from the Scottish Hydro Gordonbush Community Fund. Metering exposure

Funded from the Scottish Hydro Gordonbush Community Fund. Metering exposure Funded from the Scottish Hydro Gordonbush Community Fund Metering exposure We have looked at the three components of exposure: Shutter speed time light allowed in. Aperture size of hole through which light

More information

KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Film E100VS

KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Film E100VS TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR TRANSPARENCY FILM %FDFNCFSÁ & KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Film E100VS KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Film E100VS is a daylight-balanced, transparency film designed for KODAK Chemicals,

More information

Requirement of Photograph for Indian Passport. The photograph should be in colour and of the size of 4 cm x 4 cm.

Requirement of Photograph for Indian Passport. The photograph should be in colour and of the size of 4 cm x 4 cm. Sample Photo Requirements Requirement of Photograph for Indian Passport The photograph should be in colour and of the size of 4 cm x 4 cm. The photo-print should be clear and with a continuous-tone quality.

More information

INSPIRING PROFESSIONALS THE LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHER'S GUIDE TO USING FILTERS

INSPIRING PROFESSIONALS THE LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHER'S GUIDE TO USING FILTERS INSPIRING PROFESSIONALS THE LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHER'S GUIDE TO USING FILTERS Foreword My aim as a landscape photographer is simple, I want my photographs to express the sense of wonder the landscape inspires

More information

Translating the Actual into a Digital Photographic Language Working in Grayscale

Translating the Actual into a Digital Photographic Language Working in Grayscale Translating the Actual into a Digital Photographic Language Working in Grayscale Overview Photographs are informed by considered and intentional choices. These choices are suggested by a need or desire

More information

KODAK High Definition 400 Film

KODAK High Definition 400 Film TECHNICAL DATA / COLOR NEGATIVE FILM January 2003 E-7013 KODAK High Definition 400 Film KODAK High Definition 400 Film is the world s finest grain 400-speed color print film. It provides a unique balance

More information

Outline for Tutorials: Strobes and Underwater Photography

Outline for Tutorials: Strobes and Underwater Photography Outline for Tutorials: Strobes and Underwater Photography I - Strobes Conquering the Water Column Water column - depth plus distance from camera to subject; presents challenges with color, contrast, and

More information

KODAK PROFESSIONAL T400 CN Film (Process C-41)

KODAK PROFESSIONAL T400 CN Film (Process C-41) TECHNICAL DATA / BLACK-AND-WHITE FILM April 2003 F-2350 KODAK PROFESSIONAL T400 CN Film (Process C-41) NOTICE This film has been discontinued. As a recommended alternative, we suggest KODAK PROFESSSIONAL

More information

X-E1, a camera that improves your photography [ THE Photography Techniques ]

X-E1, a camera that improves your photography [ THE Photography Techniques ] Section 2 X-E1, a camera that improves your photography [ THE Photography Techniques ] Convenient operation buttons to remember Shooting mode Lens aperture Shutter speed Exposure compensation White balance

More information

Get the Most From Your Digital SLR

Get the Most From Your Digital SLR Get the Most From Your Digital SLR Lesson Three: Metering, Histograms and ISO Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Definitions... 2 Metering Modes... 2 Area (or Evaluative) Metering... 2 Center-Weighted

More information

How to photograph small to medium 2-D artwork

How to photograph small to medium 2-D artwork University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Art & Art History Lia Pileggi Lia.Pileggi@colorado.edu http://cuart.colorado.edu/resources/vrc/ How to photograph small to medium 2-D artwork Hanging your

More information

Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography

Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography Purdue University Purdue e-pubs Photographing Turkey Run Purdue University Press Supplementary Content 8-12-2016 Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography Daniel P. Shepardson Purdue University,

More information

Contents. 14 Adaptor rings. 9 The system. 10 The filter holder. 4 Getting started. 19 Filters. 16 Lens hoods. Neutral density.

Contents. 14 Adaptor rings. 9 The system. 10 The filter holder. 4 Getting started. 19 Filters. 16 Lens hoods. Neutral density. the System Contents 4 Getting started 9 The system 0 The filter holder 4 Adaptor rings Contents There is a reason why LEE Filters has established a worldwide reputation for quality that is second to none.

More information

The Fundamental Problem

The Fundamental Problem The What, Why & How WHAT IS IT? Technique of blending multiple different exposures of the same scene to create a single image with a greater dynamic range than can be achieved with a single exposure. Can

More information

Light. Architecture2. ursrecher

Light. Architecture2. ursrecher Light Architecture2 ursrecher Contents 1. Introduction: Light Follows Rules 5 1.1 Hard, Soft And Diffused Light 5 1.2 Five Parameters To Classify Light 7 1.3 The Inverse Square Law 8 1.4 Direct And Diffused

More information

Essential Elements of a Good Photograph

Essential Elements of a Good Photograph 1 Module # 1 Component # 6 Essential Elements of a Good Photograph In the last Component, we looked at preparing your equipment for the field. In this section, we look at preparing yourself to take a good

More information

Cinematography. The art or technique of film photography, including both the shooting and development of the film. Director Of Photography (DP)

Cinematography. The art or technique of film photography, including both the shooting and development of the film. Director Of Photography (DP) Cinematography Cinematography The art or technique of film photography, including both the shooting and development of the film. Cinematographer Director Of Photography (DP) Cameraman/Camerawoman Tools

More information

PHOTOGRAPHING THE LUNAR ECLIPSE

PHOTOGRAPHING THE LUNAR ECLIPSE 1/29/18 PHOTOGRAPHING THE LUNAR ECLIPSE NICK SINNOTT CHICAGO PHOTOGRAPHY CLASSES PREPARATION TIMING AND FINDING LOCATION https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/ - Dates of Lunar Phases 1 PREPARATION TIMING

More information

Maine Day in May. 54 Chapter 2: Painterly Techniques for Non-Painters

Maine Day in May. 54 Chapter 2: Painterly Techniques for Non-Painters Maine Day in May 54 Chapter 2: Painterly Techniques for Non-Painters Simplifying a Photograph to Achieve a Hand-Rendered Result Excerpted from Beyond Digital Photography: Transforming Photos into Fine

More information

How to Photograph a Lunar Eclipse

How to Photograph a Lunar Eclipse JANUARY 10, 2018 ADVANCED How to Photograph a Lunar Eclipse Featuring FRED ESPENAK Fred Espenak Oct. 28, 2004 total lunar eclipse, widely visible from the USA. Composite of images captures the Moon at

More information

Understanding Focal Length

Understanding Focal Length JANUARY 19, 2018 BEGINNER Understanding Focal Length Featuring DIANE BERKENFELD, DAVE BLACK, MIKE CORRADO & LINDSAY SILVERMAN Focal length, usually represented in millimeters (mm), is the basic description

More information

Sigma Imaging (UK) Ltd is pleased to announce that the SRP of the new mm F2.8 DG OS HSM

Sigma Imaging (UK) Ltd is pleased to announce that the SRP of the new mm F2.8 DG OS HSM January 2013 S Sports SIGMA 120-300mm F2.8 DG OS HSM Sigma Imaging (UK) Ltd is pleased to announce that the SRP of the new 120-300mm F2.8 DG OS HSM lens is 3,599.99. Sigma and Canon fit will be available

More information

FOR 353: Air Photo Interpretation and Photogrammetry. Lecture 2. Electromagnetic Energy/Camera and Film characteristics

FOR 353: Air Photo Interpretation and Photogrammetry. Lecture 2. Electromagnetic Energy/Camera and Film characteristics FOR 353: Air Photo Interpretation and Photogrammetry Lecture 2 Electromagnetic Energy/Camera and Film characteristics Lecture Outline Electromagnetic Radiation Theory Digital vs. Analog (i.e. film ) Systems

More information

White Light Emitting Diodes. Erick J. Michel Energy Law Spring 2009 Professor Bosselman

White Light Emitting Diodes. Erick J. Michel Energy Law Spring 2009 Professor Bosselman White Light Emitting Diodes Erick J. Michel emichel@kentlaw.edu Energy Law Spring 2009 Professor Bosselman Outline Lighting Energy Use Types of Lighting Some Physics Generating White Light Issues/ Features

More information

EXPERIMENT WITH KODAK'S TECHNICAL PAN FILM, By Jack and Sue Drafahl

EXPERIMENT WITH KODAK'S TECHNICAL PAN FILM, By Jack and Sue Drafahl EXPERIMENT WITH KODAK'S TECHNICAL PAN FILM, 2415 By Jack and Sue Drafahl 40 PhotoGraphic/March 1982 A high-contrast scientific film can render beautiful pictorial studies, yield continuous-tone results,

More information

loss of detail in highlights and shadows (noise reduction)

loss of detail in highlights and shadows (noise reduction) Introduction Have you printed your images and felt they lacked a little extra punch? Have you worked on your images only to find that you have created strange little halos and lines, but you re not sure

More information

When you shoot a picture the lighting is not always ideal, so pictures sometimes may be underor overexposed.

When you shoot a picture the lighting is not always ideal, so pictures sometimes may be underor overexposed. GIMP Brightness and Contrast Exposure When you shoot a picture the lighting is not always ideal, so pictures sometimes may be underor overexposed. A well-exposed image will have a good spread of tones

More information

SUBCOURSE EDITION SS BASIC TELEVISION LIGHTING TECHNIQUES

SUBCOURSE EDITION SS BASIC TELEVISION LIGHTING TECHNIQUES SUBCOURSE EDITION SS 0549 7 BASIC TELEVISION LIGHTING TECHNIQUES US ARMY AUDIO/TELEVISION SPECIALIST MOS 84F SKILL LEVELS 1 AND 2 COURSE AUTHORSHIP RESPONSIBILITY: SSG David Boyer/SSG Tony Summers US Army

More information

Photo Workshop. Make better pictures on your trip Photo tips from Oceanwide Expeditions

Photo Workshop. Make better pictures on your trip Photo tips from Oceanwide Expeditions Photo Workshop Make better pictures on your trip Photo tips from Oceanwide Expeditions Protect your gear During your trip in the Arctic or Antarctic you and your camera equipment will be exposed to a variety

More information

the RAW FILE CONVERTER EX powered by SILKYPIX

the RAW FILE CONVERTER EX powered by SILKYPIX How to use the RAW FILE CONVERTER EX powered by SILKYPIX The X-Pro1 comes with RAW FILE CONVERTER EX powered by SILKYPIX software for processing RAW images. This software lets users make precise adjustments

More information

Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO

Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO Before you start your journey to becoming a Rockstar Concert Photographer, you need to master the basics of photography. In this lecture I ll explain the 3 parameters aperture,

More information

However, it is always a good idea to get familiar with the exposure settings of your camera.

However, it is always a good idea to get familiar with the exposure settings of your camera. 296 Tips & tricks for digital photography Light Light is the element of photography. In other words, photos are simply light captured from the world around us. This is why bad lighting and exposure are

More information

Chapter 23 Study Questions Name: Class:

Chapter 23 Study Questions Name: Class: Chapter 23 Study Questions Name: Class: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When you look at yourself in a plane mirror, you

More information

Simulating a Polarizing Filter Page 1. N. David King

Simulating a Polarizing Filter Page 1. N. David King Simulating a Polarizing Filter Page 1 SIMULATING A POLARIZING FILTER N. David King T he Polarizing Filter is the landscape photographer s not-so-secret weapon. Because of the way it filters out unpolarized

More information

Acknowledgments 13 Introduction 14 Chapter 1: Preliminary Setup Chapter 2: Basic Operations Chapter 3: Th e Shooting Modes

Acknowledgments 13 Introduction 14 Chapter 1: Preliminary Setup Chapter 2: Basic Operations Chapter 3: Th e Shooting Modes Contents Acknowledgments 13 Introduction 14 Chapter 1: Preliminary Setup 17 Setting Up the Camera 17 Charging and Inserting the Battery 17 Inserting the Memory Card 19 Setting the Language, Date, and Time

More information

Super macro photography is when our image has a subject to sensor magnification

Super macro photography is when our image has a subject to sensor magnification Outline for Tutorials: Super Macro Underwater Photography 1. Introduction Super macro photography is when our image has a subject to sensor magnification ratio of greater than 1:1. Super macro opens up

More information

Dynamic Range. H. David Stein

Dynamic Range. H. David Stein Dynamic Range H. David Stein Dynamic Range What is dynamic range? What is low or limited dynamic range (LDR)? What is high dynamic range (HDR)? What s the difference? Since we normally work in LDR Why

More information

A CAMERA IS A LIGHT TIGHT BOX

A CAMERA IS A LIGHT TIGHT BOX HOW CAMERAS WORK A CAMERA IS A LIGHT TIGHT BOX Pinhole Principle All contemporary cameras have the same basic features A light-tight box to hold the camera parts and recording material A viewing system

More information

Lumen lm 1 lm= 1cd 1sr The luminous flux emitted into unit solid angle (1 sr) by an isotropic point source having a luminous intensity of 1 candela

Lumen lm 1 lm= 1cd 1sr The luminous flux emitted into unit solid angle (1 sr) by an isotropic point source having a luminous intensity of 1 candela WORD BANK Light Measurement Units UNIT Abbreviation Equation Definition Candela cd 1 cd= 1(lm/sr) The SI unit of luminous intensity. One candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source

More information

Discover the Fine Art of the Black and White Photograph

Discover the Fine Art of the Black and White Photograph The Speaker s Notes that follow are to accompany a lecture presented at the 2011 Summer Conference Discover the Fine Art of the Black and White Photograph Presented by Janice Wendt from Nik Software Warning:

More information

V S C O F I L M M A N UA L

V S C O F I L M M A N UA L VSCO FILM MANUAL GETTING STARTED WITH VSCO FILM LIGHTROOM 4, 5 & 6 ACR FOR PS CS6 & CC Thank you for buying VSCO Film, the best way to emulate film in Adobe Lightroom and Camera Raw. Combining the speed

More information

2 Copyright COPYRIGHT

2 Copyright COPYRIGHT 2 Copyright COPYRIGHT No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the

More information

Importance of Illumination Rendering Index in Image Capture and Printing

Importance of Illumination Rendering Index in Image Capture and Printing Importance of Illumination Rendering Index in Image Capture and Printing Ron Kubara, Noritsu Koki Works Company Ltd Abstract Traditionally, the color balance of illumination in Degrees Kelvin has been

More information

Commercial Art 1 Photoshop Study Guide. 8) How is on-screen image resolution measured? PPI - Pixels Per Inch

Commercial Art 1 Photoshop Study Guide. 8) How is on-screen image resolution measured? PPI - Pixels Per Inch Commercial Art 1 Photoshop Study Guide To help prepare you for the Photoshop test, be sure you can answer the following questions: 1) What are the three things should you do when you first open a Photoshop

More information

How SoftBoxes Work. Here is an example of using a camera flash to take a picture of a blue bottle against a white background.

How SoftBoxes Work. Here is an example of using a camera flash to take a picture of a blue bottle against a white background. How SoftBoxes Work Generally, the purpose of a photograph is to represent something as it would appear in person. Because a photograph is a flat piece of paper and most objects are 3 dimensional, this

More information

Physics 1230 Homework 8 Due Friday June 24, 2016

Physics 1230 Homework 8 Due Friday June 24, 2016 At this point, you know lots about mirrors and lenses and can predict how they interact with light from objects to form images for observers. In the next part of the course, we consider applications of

More information