# Cameras. Digital Visual Effects Yung-Yu Chuang. with slides by Fredo Durand, Brian Curless, Steve Seitz and Alexei Efros

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1 Cameras Digital Visual Effects Yung-Yu Chuang with slides by Fredo Durand, Brian Curless, Steve Seitz and Alexei Efros

2 Announcements Do subscribe the mailing list Check out scribes from past years

3 Camera trial #1 scene film Put a piece of film in front of an object.

4 Pinhole camera pinhole camera scene barrier film Add a barrier to block off most of the rays. It reduces blurring The pinhole is known as the aperture The image is inverted

5 Shrinking the aperture Why not making the aperture as small as possible? Less light gets through Diffraction effect

6 Shrinking the aperture

7 High-end commercial pinhole cameras \$200~\$700

8 Adding a lens scene lens film

9 Lenses Thin lens equation:

10 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! y /y = D /D y D f D y Frédo Durand s slide

11 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! D D f y y /y = D /D y /y = (D -f)/f y Frédo Durand s slide

12 Thin lens formula = 1 D D f D f D The focal length f determines the lens s ability to bend (refract) light. It is a function of the shape and index of refraction of the lens. Frédo Durand s slide

13 Adding a lens circle of confusion scene lens film A lens focuses light onto the film There is a specific distance at which objects are in focus other points project to a circle of confusion in the image Thin lens applet:

14 Zoom lens 200mm 28mm Nikon mm zoom lens. simplified zoom lens in operation From wikipedia

15 Field of view vs focal length i o Scene w α Sensor f Gaussian Lens Formula: 1 i 1 o 1 f Field of View: α = 2arctan(w/(2i)) 2arctan(w/(2f)) Example: w = 30mm, f = 50mm => α 33.4º Slides from Li Zhang

16 Focal length in practice 24mm 50mm 135mm

17 Distortion No distortion Pin cushion Barrel Radial distortion of the image Caused by imperfect lenses Deviations are most noticeable for rays that pass through the edge of the lens

18 Correcting radial distortion from Helmut Dersch

19 Vignetting Vignetting L3 L 2 L 1 B A more light from A than B! Slides from Li Zhang

20 Vignetting Vignetting L3 L 2 L 1 B A more light from A than B! original corrected Goldman & Chen ICCV 2005 Slides from Li Zhang

21 Chromatic Aberration Lens has different refractive indices for different wavelengths. 1.htm Special lens systems using two or more pieces of glass with different refractive indexes can reduce or eliminate this problem. Slides from Li Zhang

22 Exposure = aperture + shutter speed F Aperture of diameter D restricts the range of rays (aperture may be on either side of the lens) Shutter speed is the amount of time that light is allowed to pass through the aperture

23 Exposure Two main parameters: Aperture (in f stop) Shutter speed (in fraction of a second)

24 Effects of shutter speeds Slower shutter speed => more light, but more motion blur Faster shutter speed freezes motion From Photography, London et al. Walking people Running people Car Fast train 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000

25 Aperture Aperture is the diameter of the lens opening, usually specified by f-stop, f/d, a fraction of the focal length. f/2.0 on a 50mm means that the aperture is 25mm f/2.0 on a 100mm means that the aperture is 50mm When a change in f-stop occurs, the light is either doubled or cut in half. Lower f-stop, more light (larger lens opening) Higher f-stop, less light (smaller lens opening)

26 Depth of field Changing the aperture size affects depth of field. A smaller aperture increases the range in which the object is approximately in focus Diaphragm sensor lens Point in focus Object with texture

27 Depth of field Changing the aperture size affects depth of field. A smaller aperture increases the range in which the object is approximately in focus Diaphragm sensor lens Point in focus Object with texture

28 Depth of field From Photography, London et al.

29 Exposure Two main parameters: Aperture (in f stop) Shutter speed (in fraction of a second) Reciprocity The same exposure is obtained with an exposure twice as long and an aperture area half as big Hence square root of two progression of f stops vs. power of two progression of shutter speed Reciprocity can fail for very long exposures From Photography, London et al.

30 Reciprocity Assume we know how much light we need We have the choice of an infinity of shutter speed/aperture pairs What will guide our choice of a shutter speed? Freeze motion vs. motion blur, camera shake What will guide our choice of an aperture? Depth of field, diffraction limit Often we must compromise Open more to enable faster speed (but shallow DoF)

31 Exposure & metering The camera metering system measures how bright the scene is In Aperture priority mode, the photographer sets the aperture, the camera sets the shutter speed In Shutter-speed priority mode, photographers sets the shutter speed and the camera deduces the aperture In Program mode, the camera decides both exposure and shutter speed (middle value more or less) In Manual mode, the user decides everything (but can get feedback)

32 Pros and cons of various modes Aperture priority Direct depth of field control Cons: can require impossible shutter speed (e.g. with f/1.4 for a bright scene) Shutter speed priority Direct motion blur control Cons: can require impossible aperture (e.g. when requesting a 1/1000 speed for a dark scene) Note that aperture is somewhat more restricted Program Almost no control, but no need for neurons Manual Full control, but takes more time and thinking

33 Sensitivity (ISO) Third variable for exposure Linear effect (200 ISO needs half the light as 100 ISO) Film photography: trade sensitivity for grain Digital photography: trade sensitivity for noise From dpreview.com

34 Summary in a picture source hamburgerfotospots.de

35 Demo See

36 Film camera aperture & shutter scene lens & motor film

37 Digital camera aperture & shutter scene lens & motor sensor array A digital camera replaces film with a sensor array Each cell in the array is a light-sensitive diode that converts photons to electrons

38 CCD v.s. CMOS CCD is less susceptible to noise (special process, higher fill factor) CMOS is more flexible, less expensive (standard process), less power consumption CCD CMOS

39 Sensor noise Blooming Diffusion Dark current Photon shot noise Amplifier readout noise

40 SLR (Single-Lens Reflex) Reflex (R in SLR) means that we see through the same lens used to take the image. Not the case for compact cameras

41 SLR view finder Prism Your eye Mirror (flipped for exposure) Film/sensor Light from scene Mirror (when viewing) lens

42 Color So far, we ve only talked about monochrome sensors. Color imaging has been implemented in a number of ways: Field sequential Multi-chip Color filter array X3 sensor

43 Field sequential

44 Field sequential

45 Field sequential

46 Prokudin-Gorskii (early 1900 s) Lantern projector

47 Prokudin-Gorskii (early 1900 s)

48 Multi-chip wavelength dependent

49 Embedded color filters Color filters can be manufactured directly onto the photodetectors.

50 Color filter array Kodak DCS620x Color filter arrays (CFAs)/color filter mosaics CMY

51 Why CMY CFA might be better

52 Color filter array Bayer pattern Color filter arrays (CFAs)/color filter mosaics

53 Bayer s pattern

54 Demosaicking CFA s bilinear interpolation original input linear interpolation

55 Demosaicking CFA s Constant hue-based interpolation (Cok) Hue: Interpolate G first

56 Demosaicking CFA s Median-based interpolation (Freeman) 1. Linear interpolation 2. Median filter on color differences

57 Demosaicking CFA s Median-based interpolation (Freeman) original input linear interpolation color difference (e.g. G-R) median filter (kernel size 5) Reconstruction (G=R+filtered difference)

58 Demosaicking CFA s Gradient-based interpolation (LaRoche-Prescott) 1. Interpolation on G

59 Demosaicking CFA s Gradient-based interpolation (LaRoche-Prescott) 2. Interpolation of color differences

60 Demosaicking CFA s bilinear Cok Freeman LaRoche

61 Demosaicking CFA s Generally, Freeman s is the best, especially for natural images.

62 Foveon X3 sensor light penetrates to different depths for different wavelengths multilayer CMOS sensor gets 3 different spectral sensitivities

63 Color filter array red green blue output

64 X3 technology red green blue output

65 Foveon X3 sensor Bayer CFA X3 sensor

66 Cameras with X3 Sigma SD10, SD9 Polaroid X530

67 Sigma SD9 vs Canon D30

68 Color processing After color values are recorded, more color processing usually happens: White balance Non-linearity to approximate film response or match TV monitor gamma

69 White Balance warmer +3 automatic white balance

70 White Balance illumination reflectance perception

71 Color constancy What color is the dress?

72 Color constancy

73 Human vision is complex

74 Autofocus Active Sonar Infrared Passive

75 Digital camera review website A cool video of digital camera illustration

76 Camcorder

77 Interlacing without interlacing with interlacing

78 Deinterlacing blend weave

79 Deinterlacing Discard (even field only or odd filed only) Progressive scan

80 Hard cases

81 Computational cameras

82 More emerging cameras

83 References Ramanath, Snyder, Bilbro, and Sander. Demosaicking Methods for Bayer Color Arrays, Journal of Electronic Imaging, 11(3), pp Rajeev Ramanath, Wesley E. Snyder, Youngjun Yoo, Mark S. Drew, Color Image Processing Pipeline in Digital Still Cameras, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine Special Issue on Color Image Processing, vol. 22, no. 1, pp , ex.mhtml

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