# Image and Video Processing

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1 Image and Video Processing () Image Representation Dr. Miles Hansard

2 Segmentation 2

3 Today s agenda Digital image representation Sampling Quantization Sub-sampling Pixel interpolation 3

4 Today s agenda Digital image representation Sampling Quantization Sub-sampling Pixel interpolation 4

5 Image and video processing Relationship between image & video processing and signal processing Signal processing Image and video processing Analysis Compression 5

6 Image and video processing Relationship between image & video processing and signal processing Capture Signal Processing Image and video processing Human Visual System Display 6

7 Introduction Complete image & video processing flow diagram real world (4D) capture processing display human visual system 7

8 Analogue to digital Colour in the real world and how humans perceive it Input of colour images to PC via scanner or camera Conversion to digital rep. for storage, transmission, display & printing 8

9 Continuous image representation An image can be represented f ( x, y) with a function defined on a support D the variables x and y represent the coordinates of an image point in the space, with the value of the function (real number) that defines the grey level associated to the point (x,y) Y y 0,0 x X 9

10 Discrete image representation Consider a digital image g(i,j) of size M N. Array representation in C, C++ or Java: g( i, j) g(0,0) g(1,0) g( M 2,0) g( M 1,0) g(0,1) g(1,1) g( M 2,1) g( M 1,0) s(0, N 2) s(1, N 2) g( M 2, N 2) g( M 1, N 2) g(0, N 1) g(1, N 1) g( M 2, N 1) g( M 1, N 1) 10

11 Be careful! 0,Y X,Y Cartesian: x,y 0,0 X,0 0,0 0,N-1 1,1 1,N C/C++/Java: i,j Matlab: i,j M-1,0 M-1,N-1 M,1 M,N 11

12 Pictorial intensity representation For simplicity, a grey-level image can be represented as a table, with each cell representing a pixel of the image 12

13 Pictorial colour representation A colour image can be represented with its components Each component is then represented as a grey-level image R G B 13

14 What is a pixel? It is not a little square! It is a sample from a continuous 2D function Where does the word come from? When was the word invented? 14

15 What is an image? This 1D function (time series) is not an image What about if we chop it up, and stack into a 2D table? Then it is a 2D function (month,year) temperature But is that an image?

16 Are these images? Violin sound Speech: nineteenth century These are audio spectrograms They are 2D functions (time,frequency) energy. But are they images?

17 An intuitive definition Recall the definition as a mapping (x,y) F(x,y) Intuitively, x and y should be spatial coordinates So they should have the same units Could be pixels or degrees of visual angle 2D rotation and translation should make sense No special coordinates, like time or temperature Think of looking down and photographing objects on a table-top (no horizon!) There would be no preferred direction

18 An exception White-noise time series f(t) Chop and stack into a 2D table This 2D table is an image (in my opinion) Rotation and translation make sense, because there is no structure in F(x,y) by definition

19 Today s agenda Digital image representation Sampling Quantization Sub-sampling Pixel interpolation 19

20 Digitization 1D Why do we need to digitize? Microphones, video cameras produce analogue signals (continuous-valued voltages) To get audio or video into a computer, we must digitize it by converting it into a stream of bits Amplitude Time One Period 20

21 Digitization Sampling Divide the time axis into discrete pieces Quantization Divide the vertical axis (signal strength - voltage) into pieces 8-bit quantization divides the vertical axis into 256 levels 16 bit levels. The lower the quantization the lower the quality of the signal 21

22 Sample Sampling Sampling rate number of samples per second (measured in Hz) Time Sampling 22

23 Sample Example Quantization 3-bit quantization 8 possible sample values Digitization is the reason to do quantization 3-bit quantization Time 23

24 For lossless digitization Nyquist theorem the sampling rate should be at least twice the maximum frequency responses Sampling once a cycle coded as constant signal Sampling 1.5 times each cycle coded as low freq. signal 24

25 2D Domain Image representation - pixels A single sampling position and its function value Sampling Positions 25

26 What does this mean? Function values at discrete grid points

27 Digital images A digital image is a array of pixel values E.g., in the 2D case the image data contains information of the graylevel at each position in the image Magnified pixels at few sampling positions 27

28 Digital images Pixels Corresponding array 28

29 A digital image

30 Image digitization digitizer (e.g.,scanner) Scene g(i,j) 30

31 Image digitization The continuous image domain is scanned - the brightness values are measured or sampled at discrete locations to form an array of intensity values sampler Continuous domain g(i,j) array of sampling positions 31

32 What about cameras? Each CCD-element measures scalar intensity So we need to filter the light, and measure each spectral band How can this be done on a rectangular array? Bayer filter (standard) Fuji EXR 32

33 Retinal cone mosaic What about eyes? Very few blue cones (none in fovea) 33

34 Scanline Converting the continuous 2D signal in a digital image by sampling per scanlines 34

35 Example 35

36 Image sampling 36

37 Image sampling

38 Image sampling

39 Image sampling

40 Image sampling 64 40

41 Image sampling 32 41

42 Image resolution Full resolution 1/4 resolution 42

43 Image resolution Full resolution 1/8 resolution 43

44 Low resolution The image appears blocky To accurately represent the original continuous scene, the sampling rate must be sufficiently high 1/8 resolution 44

45 Image sampling methods Uniform - same sampling frequency everywhere Adaptive - higher sampling frequency in areas with greater detail - compression strategy 45

46 Sampling effects How to represent this line with discrete pixel values? 46

47 Sampling effects Standard midpoint line on a binary representation Representing a line with discrete pixel values can lead to sampling error and loss of information 47

48 Sampling effects Sampling Effects Same line with twice the linear resolution 48

49 Sampling effects Sampling errors in representing a line Doubling resolution does not solve the problem It costs 4 times memory, bandwidth and scan conversion time! The problem can be alleviated using more grey-levels 49

50 Relationship between pixels Depending on the neighbourhood definition, a pixel has 4 or 8 neighbours 4-neighbourhood: each neighbour shares a single edge with the pixel 8-neighbourhood: each neighbour shares an edge or a corner with the pixel 50

51 Shape representation 51

52 Shape representation internal external inter-pixel 4-neighbourhood 8-neighbourhood 52

53 Alternative sampling schemes Cartesian sampling pattern is convenient Is it optimal in any formal sense? Hexagonal lattice is more isotropic. Less important for high-resolution images. 53

54 Quantization g(i, j) Quantizer Each element in the matrix is quantized, i.e, replaced by an integer Quantized values are called gray levels 54

55 Digital image visualization Each pixel in the image is usually shown by a single pixel on the screen Example for L = 256 gray levels 0 maps into black 255 into white values in between map linearly into various levels of gray Image Screen

56 Gray level of image Intensity resolution Intensity resolution - refers to how accurately a pixel s gray level represents the brightness of the corresponding point in the original scene - during quantization, the brightness sampled at each point in the continuous-tone image is replaced by an integer value 7 B = 3 bits 0 Scene brightness f max 56

57 Quantization formula First round the signal f to the nearest number of steps Then multiply the count by the step-size Δ g = sign(f) floor f floor(x) is the largest integer that is smaller than x 57

58 Intensity resolution Intensity resolution depends on the number of bits available Digital image quantized with 8 bits (256 gray levels) Note that the image appears continuous 58

59 Intensity resolution The same image quantized with only 4 bits (16 gray levels) Now the image brightness appears discontinuous 59

60 Intensity resolution Intensity resolution -with fewer bits, we cannot accurately represent the gradual intensity variations in the original scene because a wider range of intensities in the original scene is mapped into a single gray level - generally: more bits better brightness resolution 60

61 Dithering and halftoning Dithering and halftoning used to render images and graphics with more apparent colours than are actually displayable when the HVS is confronted with large regions of high-frequency colour changes they tend to blend the individual colours into uniform colour field use this property of perception to represent colours that cannot be directly represented 61

62 Artistic halftoning 62

63 Classical halftoning Classical halftoning uses dots of various sizes to represent intensity used in newspapers and magazines 63

64 Example 64

65 Halftoning examples 65

66 Halftoning with pixel patterns 66

67 Dithering HVS can discern ~100 brightness levels depends on hue and ambient lighting (e.g., we can see more distinct shades of green than blue) True-colour displays 256 colours available for each primary usually adequate under normal indoor lighting (when the nonlinearities of the display are properly compensated for) usually no need to dither a true-colour display High-colour displays only 32 shades of each primary HVS sees contours between two colours that vary by only one level HVS even amplifies the variation! This apparent amplification of contours is called Mach-banding need dithering 67

68 Dithering Dithering process of juxtaposing pixels of two colours to create the illusion that a third colour is present largely used in printed media (newsprint, laser printers) 68

69 Another example Original image and four-colour version: 69

70 Zoomed 70

71 Dithering Dithering requires the addition of spatial offsets to the original pixels can be summarized as a quantization process where noise has been introduced to the input The character of the dither is determined entirely by the structure of the noise This noise can be regular (a repeated signal that is independent of either the input or output) correlated (a signal that is related to the input) random or some combination Note: Dithering decreases the SNR yet improves the perceived quality of the output 71

72 image intensity image intensity Quantization methods Uniform or linear - intensity of object is lineary mapped to gray-levels of image Logarithmic - higher intensity resolution in darker areas (the human eye is logarithmic) object intensity object intensity 72

73 Gamma transformation Transform the intensity by power, gamma f = f γ Emphasize dark regions if γ < 1, or emphasise bright regions if γ > 1 Models human perception 73

74 Common quantization levels g(i,j) is given by integer values [0-max], max=2 n -1 n= binary image n= byte, very common n= common in research n= common in color images (i.e. 3*8 for RGB) 74

75 Gray-level quantization

76 Gray-level quantization 32 76

77 8 Gray-level quantization 77

78 2 Gray-level quantization 78

79 quantization index Non-uniform quantization Non-uniform quantization Better choice when probability density of a signal is not uniform Allow to take into account the characteristics of the HVS output black white input 79

80 Quantizing colour images Each component can be quantized separately Easy, but not very satisfactory (see next slide) Some colour compontents can be Quantized with different steps Sampled with different steps Quantization of a colour image with a Look-Up Table (LUT) 80

81 original Colour Quantization quantized Algorithm chooses a number of colours (sites) in the Red/Green plane Central plot shows Voronoi regions: all points closer to this site than any other 81

82 B G R Look-up table (LUT) Valeur value R G B True colours Look-up table 82

83 False colour images A special look-up table... Colour Grey 83

84 Example original image false colour image 84

85 Choice of sampling and quantization What will the image be used for? What are the limitations in memory and speed? Will the image be used for visual interpretation only or for any image analysis/processing? What information is relevant for the analysis (i.e. color, spatial and/or gray-level resolution)? 85

86 Old BBC TV test-card Note the grey-level steps, straight lines, and fine-stripes. 86

87 Zooming and shrinking Zooming Can be seen as over sampling Creation of new pixel locations Assignment of grey level to those locations Pixel replication (NN) Bilinear interpolation Shrinking Can be seen as under sampling 87

88 Today s agenda Digital image representation Sampling Quantization Sub-sampling Pixel interpolation 88

89 Sub-sampling Pixels are removed according to a given pattern original sampling 2:1 subsampling 89

90 Sub-sampling 4:1 subsampling 8:1 subsampling 90

91 Image sub-sampling original sampling 512x x128 64x64 32x32 91

92 Objective to increase the resolution Procedure Up-sampling requires generation of additional pixels from available ones usually geometric transforms require interpolation Example the simplest form is approximation by the nearest available pixel 92

93 Nearest neighbour interpolation Pixels are generated by copying the nearest available pixel?? 93

94 General interpolation Forward mapping map the input grid to non-integer-located positions in the output image interpolate to obtain pixels on the output image problem redundant conversions (adjacent output pixels may use same data) Backward interpolation estimate integer output grid inverse map integer output grid estimate pixels at input (continuous image by interpolation) preferred method it only converts data required for generating output pixels 94

95 Bilinear interpolation Assumes 4 pixels on a regular grid are known Pixels inside can be interpolated?? 95

96 Bilinear interpolation 96

97 Bilinear interpolation Mathematical solution is over-determined using a plane (only 3 points needed) Bilinear use the simplest second order form f x, y ax by cxy d interpolate linear on each horizontal edge interpolate linear in the vertical direction using obtained results 97

98 Fourier information Fourier transform splits the image into Amplitude and Phase spectra Interesting experiment, using two images Compute (A1,P1) and (A2,P2) Reconstruct from (A1,P2) and (A2,P1) Phase is perceptually more important than amplitude. Example from Skarbnik et al. 98

99 What did we learn today? Digital image representation Sampling Quantization Sub-sampling Pixel interpolation 99

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