Revision History. VX Camera Link series. Version Data Description

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2 Revision History Version Data Description Initial release Added Canon-EF adapter mechanical dimension Modified the minimum shutter speed Modified the Exposure Start Delay values Applied new CI Changed environmental specification Page 2 of 111

3 Contents 1 Precautions Warranty Compliance & Certifications FCC Compliance CE : DoC KC Package Components Product Specifications Overview Specifications Camera Block Diagram Spectral Response Mechanical Specification Connecting the Camera Mount Plate Precaution to Center the Image Sensor Precaution about Blurring Compared to Center Controlling the Camera Camera Interface General Description Camera Link Connector Control Receptacle Power Input Receptacle Trigger Input Circuit Strobe Output Circuit Acquisition Control Overview Exposure Start Trigger Trigger Mode Using a CC1 Trigger Signal Using an External Trigger Signal Setting the Exposure Time Auto Exposure Page 3 of 111

4 8.4 Overlapping Exposure with Sensor Readout Real Exposure Timed Exposure Mode Trigger Width Exposure Mode Acquisition Timing Chart Maximum Allowed Frame Rate Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate Camera Features Image Region of Interest Binning Exposure Control Aperture Control Auto Exposure, Auto Gain and Auto Aperture Sensor Tap Settings Pixel Format Pixel Clock Data ROI Auto White Balance (Color Cameras) Auto Focus Gain and Offset Analog Domain Digital Domain LUT Defective Pixel Correction Correction Method Correction Method in Binning Mode Flat Field Correction Smear Correction Temperature Monitor Fan Control Status LED Test Image Horizontal Flip Programmable Output Control Field Upgrade Page 4 of 111

5 10 Camera Configuration Setup Command Actual Time Applied for Commands Parameter Storage Space Command List Configurator GUI Camera Scan Menu File Start-Up Tool About Tab VIEW Tab MODE/EXP Tab ANALOG Tab LUT Tab FFC Tab ROI Tab AUTO Tab OUTPUT Tab Appendix A Defective Pixel Map Download Appendix B LUT Download B.1 Luminance LUT B.1.1 Gamma Graph Download B.1.2 CSV File Download B.2 Knee Graph Download Appendix C Field Upgrade C.1 MCU C.2 FPGA Page 5 of 111

6 1 Precautions General Do not drop, disassemble, repair or alter the device. Doing so may damage the camera electronics and cause an electric shock. Do not let children touch the device without supervision. Stop using the device and contact the nearest dealer or manufacturer for technical assistance if liquid such as water, drinks or chemicals gets into the device. Do not touch the device with wet hands. Doing so may cause an electric shock. Make sure that the temperature of the camera does not exceed the temperature range specified in 5.2 Specifications. Otherwise the device may be damaged by extreme temperatures. Installation and Maintenance Do not install in dusty or dirty areas - or near an air conditioner or heater to reduce the risk of damage to the device. Avoid installing and operating in an extreme environment where vibration, heat, humidity, dust, strong magnetic fields, explosive/corrosive mists or gases are present. Do not apply excessive vibration and shock to the device. This may damage the device. Avoid direct exposure to a high intensity light source. This may damage the image sensor. Do not install the device under unstable lighting conditions. Severe lighting change will affect the quality of the image produced by the device. Do not use solvents or thinners to clean the surface of the device. This can damage the surface finish. Power Supply Applying incorrect power can damage the camera. If the voltage applied to the camera is greater or less than the camera s nominal voltage, the camera may be damaged or operate erratically. Please refer to 5.2 Specifications for the camera s nominal voltage. Vieworks Co., Ltd. does NOT provide power supplies with the devices. Make sure the power is turned off before connecting the power cord to the camera. Otherwise, damage to the camera may result. Page 6 of 111

7 2 Warranty Do not open the housing of the camera. The warranty becomes void if the housing is opened. For information about the warranty, please contact your local dealer or factory representative. 3 Compliance & Certifications 3.1 FCC Compliance This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expenses. 3.2 CE : DoC EMC Directive 2004/108/EC. Testing Standard EN 55022:2006+A1:2007, EN 55024:1998+A1:2001+A2:2003 Class A 3.3 KC KCC Statement Type Class A (Broadcasting Communication Device for Office Use) Description This device obtained EMC registration for office use (Class A), and may be used in places other than home. Sellers and/or users need to take note of this. Page 7 of 111

8 4 Package Components Package Components VX Camera with F mount or VX Camera with an Interface for Canon-EF adapter Mount Plate (Optional) M3 Set Screws for Tilt Adjustment (Provided only with F-mount camera) : Interface for Canon-EF adapter (except Canon-EF adapter) option is also available upon request. You can adjust the tilt using the M3 set screws, however it is not recommended since it is adjusted as factory default settings. If the tilt settings need to be adjusted inevitably, please contact your local dealer or factory representative for technical support. Page 8 of 111

9 5 Product Specifications 5.1 Overview VX Camera Link series is made for Aerial Imaging and High-end Surveillance applications which require the highest attention to detail. The camera incorporates an interline transfer CCD with resolution of 6,576 4,384 providing not only auto exposure, gain and aperture controls but also auto focus and Canon-EF adapter control. Main Features 29 Megapixel Resolution (Truesense Imaging, Inc. IT Progressive) Auto Exposure, Auto Gain, Auto Aperture Controls Auto Focus Real Exposure Canon-EF adapter Control for Canon EF lens (Optional) Smear Correction User Adjustable BFL Field Upgradable Firmware Pixel Defect Correction Excellent Anti-Blooming and Anti-Smear Horizontal Flip Base Camera Link Flat Field Correction Analog Offset adjustment feature Analog Gain adjustment feature Strobe Output Binning Mode Page 9 of 111

10 5.2 Specifications VX Camera Link series technical specifications are as follows. Item VX-29MC Active Image (H V) Sensor Type Truesense Imaging KAI Pixel Size 5.5 μm 5.5 μm Sensor Output 1, 2 or 4 Tap output Video Output 8/10/12 bits Camera Interface Camera Link (SDR) Electronic Shutter Global Shutter Max. Frame Rate at Full Resolution 4.6 fps (quad) / 2.3 fps (dual) / 1.2 fps (single) Pixel Clock 30/40 MHz Shutter Speed 14/1,000,000 ~ 7 sec Partial Scan (Max. Speed) 17.3 fps at 500 Lines Binning 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 (Horizontal and Vertical Independent) Look Up Table G=1.0, Knee control, User defined Look Up Table (LUT) Black Level Adjustable (0 ~ 127 LSB at 12 bit, 256 steps) Analog Gain 1 ~ 40 (0 ~ 32 db ) Digital Gain 1 ~ 64 (1/1024 step) Exposure Mode Timed Exposure, Trigger Width Exposure, Double Exposure External Trigger 3.3 V ~ 5.0 V, 10 ma, Asynchronous, optically isolated Software Trigger Camera Link CC1, Programmable Exposure Dynamic Range > 64 db Camera Image Memory 1 Gbit Lens Mount F-mount or Interface for Canon-EF adapter Power 10 ~ 15 V DC, Max. 10 W Environmental Operating: -40 ~ 85 Storage: -40 ~ 90 Vibration / Shock 10G (20 ~ 200 Hz ) XYZ / 70G 10 ms Mechanical (W H L) 74 mm 65 mm 103 mm, 570 g (with F-mount) 74 mm 65 mm 101 mm, 570 g (with Canon-EF adapter) Table 5.1 Specifications of VX Camera Link Series Page 10 of 111

11 5.3 Camera Block Diagram Figure 5.1 Camera Block Diagram All controls and data processing of VX CL cameras are carried out in one FPGA chip. The FPGA generally consists of a 32 bit RICS Micro-Controller and Processing & Control Logic. The Micro-Controller receives commands from the user through the Camera Link interface and then processes them. The FPGA controls the Timing Generators (TGs) and the Analog Front End (AFE) chips where the TGs generate CCD control signals and AFE chips convert analog CCD output to digital values to be accepted by the Processing & Control Logic. The Processing & Control Logic processes the image data received from AFE and then transmits data through the Camera Link interface. And also, the Processing & Control Logic controls the trigger input and output signal which are sensitive to time. Furthermore, FLASH for operating Micro-Controller, SDRAM for used as a frame buffer to process images are installed outside FPGA. Page 11 of 111

12 5.4 Spectral Response The following graphs show the spectral response for VX-29MC monochrome and color cameras. Figure 5.2 Spectral Response (Top: Monochrome, Bottom: Color) Page 12 of 111

13 5.5 Mechanical Specification The camera dimensions in millimeters are as shown in the figure below. Figure 5.3 VX CL Camera F-mount Mechanical Dimension Page 13 of 111

14 Figure 5.4 VX CL Camera Interface for Canon-EF adapter (Birger Mount) Mechanical Dimension Page 14 of 111

15 Figure 5.5 VX CL Camera + Canon-EF adapter (Birger Mount) Mechanical Dimension Vieworks does not provide a Canon-EF adapter (Birger Mount). Page 15 of 111

16 6 Connecting the Camera The following instructions assume that you have installed a Camera Link frame grabber in your PC including related software. For more information, refer to your Camera Link frame grabber User Manual. To connect the camera to your PC, follow the steps below. 1. Make sure that the power supply is not connected to the camera and your PC is turned off. 2. Plug one end of a Camera Link cable into the Camera Link connector on the camera and the other end of the Camera Link cable into the Camera Link frame grabber in your PC. 3. Connect the plug of the power adapter to the power input receptacle on the camera. 4. Plug the power adapter into a working electrical outlet. 5. Verify all the cable connections are secure. 6.1 Mount Plate The mount plate is provided as an optional item. The camera can be fixed without using this mount plate. Page 16 of 111

17 6.2 Precaution to Center the Image Sensor Users do not need to center the image sensor as it is adjusted as factory default settings. When you need to adjust the center of the image sensor, please contact your local dealer or the manufacturer for technical assistance. 6.3 Precaution about Blurring Compared to Center Users do not need to adjust the tilt as it is adjusted as factory default settings. If the tilt settings need to be adjusted inevitably, please contact your local dealer or factory representative for technical support. 6.4 Controlling the Camera You can control the camera by executing the Configurator.exe file. You can download the latest Configurator at machinevision.vieworks.com. Please refer to your Camera Link frame grabber user manual. Page 17 of 111

18 7 Camera Interface 7.1 General Description As shown in the following figure, three types of connectors and a status indicator LED are located on the back of the camera have the functions as follows: 1 Status LED: displays power status and operation mode. 2 2-pin Camera Link Connector: controls video data transmission and the camera. 3 6-pin Control Receptacle: inputs external trigger signals and outputs strobe signals. 4 6-pin Power Input Receptacle: supplies power to the camera Figure 7.1 VX Camera Link Series Back Panel 7.2 Camera Link Connector Figure 7.2 SDR Camera Link Connector Page 18 of 111

19 Camera Link connectors comply with Camera Link standard and the following table shows the pin assignments. PAIR List Pin Signal Name Type Description PAIR 0 PAIR 1 PAIR 2 PAIR 3 PAIR 4 PAIR 5 PAIR 6 PAIR 7 PAIR 8 PAIR 9 PAIR 10 PAIR 11 PAIR 12 1 Ground Ground Cable Shield 14 Ground Ground Cable Shield 2 -X0 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 15 +X0 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 3 -X1 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 16 +X1 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 4 -X2 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 17 +X2 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 5 -XCLK LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 18 +XCLK LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 6 -X3 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 19 +X3 LVDS - Out Camera Link Transmitter 7 +SerTC LVDS - In Serial Data Receiver 20 - SerTC LVDS - In Serial Data Receiver 8 - SerTFG LVDS - Out Serial Data Transmitter 21 + SerTFG LVDS - Out Serial Data Transmitter 9 - CC 1 LVDS - In Software External Trigger 22 + CC 1 LVDS - In Software External Trigger 10 N/C N/C N/C 23 N/C N/C N/C 11 N/C N/C N/C 24 N/C N/C N/C 12 N/C N/C N/C 25 N/C N/C N/C 13 Ground Ground Cable Shield 26 Ground Ground Cable Shield Table 7.1 Pin Assignments for Camera Link Base Configuration Page 19 of 111

20 7.3 Control Receptacle The control receptacle is a Hirose 6-pin connector (part # HR10A-7R-6SB) and consists of an external trigger signal input and strobe output ports. The pin assignments and configurations are as follows: Figure 7.3 Pin Assignments for Control Receptacle Pin Number Signal Type Description 1 Trigger Input + Input Voltage difference of 3.3 V ~ 5.0 V, 10 ma, 2 Trigger Input - Input optically isolated 3 Programmable Output 3.3 V TTL Output Output (Default: Strobe Out) Output resistance : 47 Ω 4 DC Ground - DC Ground 5 RS-232 RX Input Canon-EF adapter interface 6 RS-232 TX Output Canon-EF adapter interface Table 7.2 Pin Configurations for Control Receptacle The mating connector is a Hirose 6-pin plug (part # HR10A-7P-6SB) or the equivalent connectors. Page 20 of 111

21 7.4 Power Input Receptacle The power input receptacle is a Hirose 6-pin connector (part # HR10A-7R-6PB). The pin assignments and configurations are as follows: Figure 7.4 Pin Assignments for Power Input Receptacle Pin Number Signal Type Description 1, 2, V DC Input DC Power Input 4, 5, 6 DC Ground Input DC Ground Table 7.3 Pin Configurations for Power Input Receptacle The end of power cable that connects to the camera s power input receptacle must be terminated with a Hirose 6-pin plug (part # HR10A-7P-6S) or the equivalent. The power adapter is recommended to have at least 1 A current output at 12 V DC 10% voltage output (Users need to purchase the power adapter separately). Precaution for Power Input Make sure the power is turned off before connecting the power cord to the camera. Otherwise, damage to the camera may result. If the camera input voltage is greater than 15 V, damage to the camera may result. Page 21 of 111

22 7.5 Trigger Input Circuit The following figure shows a trigger signal input circuit of the 6-pin connector. Transmitted trigger signal is applied to the internal circuit through a photo coupler. The minimum trigger width that can be recognized by the camera is 1 μs. If transmitted trigger signal is less than 1 μs, the camera will ignore the trigger signal. An external trigger circuit example is shown below. +3.3~5.0V Camera +5.0V Trigger K Trigger+ Trigger- A 1SS400 K 47 1K K Trigger_Input Your GND HR10-7R-6SB GND GND GND Figure 7.5 Trigger Input Schematic 7.6 Strobe Output Circuit The strobe output signal comes out through a 3.3 V output level of Line Driver IC. You can change the strobe output by setting the Digital IO Control (refer to chapter 9.22 Programmable Output Control). +3.3V 0V +3.3V Camera Strobe Line Driver Strobe_Output Your GND HR10-7R-6SB GND GND Figure 7.6 Strobe Output Schematic Page 22 of 111

23 8 Acquisition Control This chapter provides detailed information about controlling image acquisition. Triggering image acquisition Setting the exposure time Controlling the camera s image acquisition rate Variation of the camera s maximum allowed image acquisition rate according to the camera settings 8.1 Overview This section presents an overview of the elements involved with controlling the acquisition of images. Two major elements are involved in controlling the acquisition of images: The exposure start trigger Exposure time control When reading the explanations in the overview and in this entire chapter, keep in mind that the term frame is typically used to mean a single acquired image. Page 23 of 111

24 Exposure Start Trigger Applying an exposure start trigger signal to the camera will exit the camera from the waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status and will begin the process of exposing and reading out a frame (Figure 8.1). As soon as the camera is ready to accept another exposure start trigger signal, it will return to the waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status. A new exposure start trigger signal can then be applied to the camera to begin another frame exposure. The exposure start trigger has two modes: off and on. If the Trigger Mode parameter is set to Off, the camera will generate all required exposure start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply exposure start trigger signals to the camera. The rate at which the camera will generate the signals and acquire frames will be determined by the way that you set several frame rate related parameters. If the Trigger Mode parameter is set to On, you must trigger exposure start by applying exposure start trigger signals to the camera. Each time a trigger signal is applied, the camera will begin a frame exposure. When exposure start is being triggered in this manner, it is important that you do not attempt to trigger frames at a rate that is greater than the maximum allowed (There is a detailed explanation about the maximum allowed frame rate at the end of this chapter.). Exposure start trigger signals applied to the camera when it is not in a waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status will be ignored. Figure 8.1 Exposure Start Triggering Page 24 of 111

25 Applying Trigger Signals The paragraphs above mention "applying a trigger signal". There are two ways to apply an exposure start trigger signal to the camera: via CC1 (Software) or via External (commonly referred to as hardware). To apply trigger signals via CC1, you must set the Source parameter to CC1. To apply trigger signals via External, you must set the Source parameter to External. At that point, each time a proper electrical signal is applied to the camera, an occurrence of the exposure start trigger signal will be recognized by the camera. Exposure Time Control When an exposure start trigger signal is applied to the camera, the camera will begin to acquire a frame. A critical aspect of frame acquisition is how long the pixels in the camera s sensor will be exposed to light during the frame acquisition. If the Source parameter is set to CC1 or External, there are two modes of operation: Timed and Trigger Width. With the Timed mode, the Exposure Time parameter will determine the exposure time for each frame. With the Trigger Width mode, the way that you manipulate the rise and fall of the external signal will determine the exposure time. The Trigger Width mode is especially useful if you want to change the exposure time from frame to frame. Page 25 of 111

26 8.2 Exposure Start Trigger The exposure start trigger is used to begin frame acquisition. Exposure start trigger signals can be generated within the camera or may be applied externally as CC1 or External exposure start trigger signals. If an exposure start trigger signal is applied to the camera, the camera will begin to expose a frame Trigger Mode The main parameter associated with the exposure start trigger is the Trigger Mode parameter. The Trigger Mode parameter for the exposure start trigger has two available settings: Off and On Trigger Mode = Off When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to Off, the camera will generate all required exposure start trigger signals internally, and you do not need to apply exposure start trigger signals to the camera. This use case is commonly referred as Free Run. Figure 8.2 Free-Run Mode As shown in the figure above, the exposure for a new frame overlaps the sensor readout for the previous frame. At this time, the camera will be operated in a slightly different fashion depending on the length of exposure and readout time. Page 26 of 111

27 When the exposure time is shorter than the readout time, an exposure start trigger signal will be applied while reading out the previous image. Once the readout process for the previous image is complete, the camera will begin the process of reading out the next image (Figure 8.3). In this case, the frame rate will stay the same regardless of the change in the exposure time. When the exposure time is longer than the readout time, an exposure start trigger signal will be applied when the camera begin the process of reading out the previous image. Even if the readout process for the pervious image is complete, the camera will not begin the process of reading out the next image until the exposure time of the previous image is complete (Figure 8.4). In this case, the frame rate will be decreased as you increase the exposure time. Figure 8.3 Exposure Time is shorter than Readout Time Figure 8.4 Exposure Time is longer than Readout Time Page 27 of 111

28 Exposure Time Control with Trigger Mode = Off When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to Off, the exposure time for each frame acquisition is determined by the camera s Exposure Time parameter. For more information about the Exposure Time parameter, see 8.3 Setting the Exposure Time Trigger Mode = On When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to On, you must apply an exposure start trigger signal to the camera each time you want to begin a frame acquisition. The Source parameter specifies the source signal that will act as the exposure start trigger signal. The available settings for the Source parameter are: CC1: You can apply an exposure start trigger signal to the camera by injecting an externally generated electrical signal into CC1 in the Camera Link interface. For more information, refer to your Camera Link frame grabber User Manual. External: You can apply an exposure start trigger signal to the camera by injecting an externally generated electrical signal (commonly referred to as a hardware trigger signal) into the Control Receptacle pin 1 on the camera. If the Source parameter is set to External, you must also set the Activation parameter. The available settings for the Activation parameter are: Rising Edge: Specifies that a rising edge of the electrical signal will act as the exposure start trigger. Falling Edge: Specifies that a falling edge of the electrical signal will act as the exposure start trigger. Exposure Time Control with Trigger Mode = On When the Trigger Mode parameter is set to On and the Source parameter is set to CC1 or External, the exposure time for each frame acquisition can be controlled with the Exposure Time parameter or it can be controlled by manipulating the external trigger signal. Page 28 of 111

29 8.2.2 Using a CC1 Trigger Signal If the Trigger Mode parameter is set to On and the Source parameter is set to CC1, you must apply a CC1 trigger signal (exposure start) to the camera to begin each frame acquisition. Assuming that the camera is in a waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status, frame exposure will start when the CC1 trigger signal is received by the camera. Figure 8.5 illustrates frame acquisition with a CC1 trigger signal. When the camera receives a CC1 trigger signal and begins exposure, it will exit the waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status because at that point, it cannot react to a new exposure start trigger signal. As soon as the camera is capable of reacting to a new exposure start trigger signal, it will automatically return to the waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status. When you are using a CC1 trigger signal to start each frame acquisition, the camera s Exposure parameter must be set to Timed or Trigger Width. The exposure time for each acquired frame will be determined by the value of the camera s Exposure Time parameter. Figure 8.5 Frame Acquisition with CC1 Trigger Signal When you are using a CC1 trigger signal to start each frame acquisition, the frame rate will be determined by how often you apply a CC1 trigger signal to the camera, and you should not attempt to trigger frame acquisition at a rate that exceeds the maximum allowed for the current camera settings. (There is a detailed explanation about the maximum allowed frame rate at the end of this chapter.) CC1 trigger signals that are applied to the camera when it is not ready to receive them will be ignored. Page 29 of 111

30 8.2.3 Using an External Trigger Signal If the Trigger Mode parameter is set to On and the Source parameter is set to External, an externally generated electrical signal injected into the Control Receptacle pin 1 will act as the exposure start trigger signal for the camera. This type of trigger signal is generally referred to as a hardware trigger signal. A rising edge or a falling edge of the external signal can be used to trigger frame acquisition. The Activation parameter is used to select rising edge or falling edge triggering. Assuming that the camera is in a waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status, frame acquisition will start whenever the appropriate edge transition is received by the camera. When the camera receives an external trigger signal and begins exposure, it will exit the waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status because at that point, it cannot react to a new exposure start trigger signal. As soon as the camera is capable of reacting to a new exposure start trigger signal, it will automatically return to the waiting for exposure start trigger acquisition status. When the camera is operating under control of an external signal, the period of the external trigger signal will determine the rate at which the camera is acquiring frames: For example, if you are operating a camera with an External trigger signal period of 500 ms (0.5 s): So in this case, the frame rate is 2 fps. Page 30 of 111

31 Exposure Modes If you are triggering the start of frame acquisition with an externally generated trigger signal, two exposure modes are available: Timed and Trigger Width. Timed Exposure Mode When the Timed mode is selected, the exposure time for each frame acquisition is determined by the value of the camera s Exposure Time parameter. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure time starts when the external trigger signal rises. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the exposure time starts when the external trigger signal falls. Figure 8.6 illustrates timed exposure with the camera set for rising edge triggering. Figure 8.6 Timed Exposure Mode Note that if you attempt to trigger a new exposure start while the previous exposure is still in progress, the trigger signal will be ignored. Figure 8.7 Trigger Overlapped with Timed Exposure Mode Page 31 of 111

32 Trigger Width Exposure Mode When the Trigger Width exposure mode is selected, the length of the exposure for each frame acquisition will be directly controlled by the external trigger signal. If the camera is set for rising edge triggering, the exposure time begins when the external trigger signal rises and continues until the external trigger signal falls. If the camera is set for falling edge triggering, the exposure time begins when the external trigger signal falls and continues until the external trigger signal rises. Figure8.8 illustrates Trigger Width exposure with the camera set for rising edge triggering. Trigger Width exposure is especially useful if you intend to vary the length of the exposure time for each frame. Figure 8.8 Trigger Width Exposure Mode Page 32 of 111

33 Double Exposure When the Double Exposure mode is selected, two frames can be acquired in rapid succession using a single trigger signal. The exposure time for the first frame begins according to the current camera settings when the trigger signal is applied to the camera. Once the exposure for the first frame is complete, the camera reads out the sensor data. At this point, the exposure time for the second frame begins. Then, the camera reads out the sensor data for the second frame after reading out the sensor data for the previous frame. In the Double Exposure mode, the exposure time for the second frame equals to the readout time of the first frame. There is a just few microseconds (or dozen of microseconds) between the point where the exposure time for the first frame ends and the point where the exposure time for the second frame begins. This is because the camera cannot react to the exposure start trigger signal while reading out the sensor data for the first frame. At this point, the camera outputs a strobe out signal reflected the exposure time for the first frame. Figure 8.9 Double Exposure Page 33 of 111

34 8.3 Setting the Exposure Time This section describes how the exposure time can be adjusted manually by setting the value of the Exposure Time parameter. The VX camera also has an Auto Exposure feature that can automatically adjust the exposure time. Manual adjustment of the exposure time parameter will only work correctly if the Auto Exposure feature is disabled. If you are operating the camera in any one of the following ways, you must specify an exposure time by setting the camera s Exposure Time parameter: the Trigger Mode is set to Off the Trigger Mode is set to On and the Source is set to CC1 (In this case, you must set the Exposure parameter to Timed.) the Trigger Mode is set to On, the Source is set to External, and the Exposure is set to Timed The Exposure Time parameter must not be set below a minimum specified value. The Exposure Time parameter sets the exposure time in μs. The minimum and maximum exposure time settings for VX camera model are shown in the following table. Camera Model Minimum Allowed Exposure Time Maximum Possible Exposure Time VX-29MC-M5 14 μs 7,000,000 μs VX-29MC-C5 14 μs 7,000,000 μs : When the Exposure is set to Trigger Width, the exposure time is controlled by the external trigger signal and has no maximum limit. Table 8.1 Minimum and Maximum Exposure Time Setting Page 34 of 111

35 8.3.1 Auto Exposure The Auto Exposure feature automatically adjusts the Exposure Time parameter within set limits until an average gray value for the pixel data from the ROI (defined in the ROI tab) reaches an Auto Exposure s Target setting value. The Auto Exposure feature can be operated in the Once or Continuous modes of operation. If the Data ROI (defined in the ROI tab) does not overlap the Image ROI (defined in the VIEW tab), the pixel data from the Data ROI will not be used to control the exposure time. The Auto Exposure feature and the Auto Gain feature can be used at the same time. When the Trigger Width parameter is selected for Exposure, the Auto Exposure feature is not available. For more information, refer to Auto Exposure, Auto Gain and Auto Aperture. Page 35 of 111

36 8.4 Overlapping Exposure with Sensor Readout The frame acquisition process on the camera includes two distinct parts. The first part is the exposure of the pixels in the imaging sensor. Once exposure is complete, the second part of the process readout of the pixel values from the sensor takes place. In regard to this frame acquisition process, there are two common ways for the camera to operate: with Overlap Off and with Overlap - Enabled. With the Overlap checkbox deselected (Off), each time a frame is acquired the camera completes the entire exposure/readout process before acquisition of the next frame is started. The exposure for a new frame does not overlap the sensor readout for the previous frame. Figure 8.10 illustrates the Overlap checkbox deselected (Off) and the Exposure parameter set to Trigger Width. Figure 8.10 Trigger Overlap Off Page 36 of 111

37 With the Overlap checkbox selected (Enabled), the exposure of a new frame begins while the camera is still reading out the sensor data for the previously acquired frame. Figure 8.11 illustrates the Overlap checkbox selected (Enabled) and the Exposure parameter set to Trigger Width. Figure 8.11 Trigger Overlap - Enabled Determining whether your camera is operating with overlapped or non-overlapped exposure and readout is not a matter of issuing a command or switching a setting on or off. Rather the way that you operate the camera will determine whether the exposures and readouts are overlapped or not. If we define the Frame Period as the time from the start of exposure for one frame acquisition to the start of exposure for the next frame acquisition, then: Non-overlapped: Frame Period Exposure Time + Readout Time Overlapped: Frame Period Exposure Time + Readout Time Page 37 of 111

38 Guidelines for Overlapped Exposure If you will be operating the camera with overlapped exposure, there are two important guidelines to keep in mind: You must not begin the exposure time for a new image acquisition while the exposure time of the previous acquisition is in progress. You must not end the exposure time of the current image acquisition until readout of the previously acquired image is complete. When you are operating a camera with overlapped exposure and using an external trigger signal to trigger image acquisition, you could use the camera s Exposure Time parameter settings and timing formulas to calculate when it is safe to begin each new acquisition. The exposure must always begin on an interline boundary of the CCD sensor. For this reason, if a trigger signal is applied during the readout process, there might be an Exposure Start Delay up to 1 horizontal line time. Page 38 of 111

39 8.5 Real Exposure Timed Exposure Mode When the Timed mode is selected, the exposure time is determined by the time interval between the point where an external trigger signal is applied and the point where the t pd (Photodiode Transfer) signal falls. The camera generates a shutter signal to clear pixels when an external trigger signal is applied. The exposure time begins when the shutter signal falls and continues until the t pd (Photodiode Transfer) signal falls. As Figure 8.12 shows, there is an Exposure Start Delay (refer to Table 8.3) between the rise of the external trigger signal and the point where exposure actually begins. The setting value on the Exposure Time parameter is equal to the exposure time, because the t sub value of the shutter signal and Transfer Pulse Offset value (t pd, t 3p ) are compensated on the exposure time by the camera s logic internally. Therefore, there is no difference between the setting value on the Exposure Time parameter and the exposure time. The t sub value and Transfer Pulse Offset value are determined by the CCD sensor used in the camera. Figure 8.12 Real Exposure with Timed Exposure Mode Page 39 of 111

40 8.5.2 Trigger Width Exposure Mode When the Trigger Width mode is selected, the exposure time is controlled by the external trigger signal. The camera generates a shutter signal to clear pixels when an external trigger signal is applied. The exposure time begins when the shutter signal falls and continues until the tpd (Photodiode Transfer) signal falls. As Figure 8.13 shows, there is an Exposure Start Delay (refer to Table 8.3) between the rise of the external trigger signal and the rise of the shutter signal. There is difference between the width of the external trigger signal and the exposure time as much as the t sub value of the shutter signal and Transfer Pulse Offset value (t pd, t 3p ). You can calculate an actual exposure time by using the following formula: Exposure Time = Trigger Width + t 3p + t pd - t sub Figure 8.13 Real Exposure with Trigger Width Exposure Mode The t sub and Transfer Pulse Offset value are determined by the CCD sensor used in the camera. The following table shows the t sub and Transfer Pulse Offset values for the VX-29MC camera. Real Exposure Parameters Value Descriptions t sub 3.0 μs Shutter Transfer t 3p 6.0 μs VCCD leading pedestal signal t pd 8.0 μs Photodiode transfer signal t 3d - VCCD trailing pedestal signal Exposure Start Delay - Trigger Latency + Trigger Jitter Table 8.2 Real Exposure Parameters Page 40 of 111

41 8.6 Acquisition Timing Chart Figure 8.14 shows a timing chart for frame acquisition and transmission. The chart assumes that exposure is triggered by an externally generated exposure start trigger signal, that the Activation parameter is set to Rising Edge and that the Exposure parameter is set to Timed. As shown in the figure below, there is a slight delay between the rise of the exposure start trigger signal and the start of exposure. After the exposure time for a frame acquisition is complete, the camera begins reading out the acquired frame data from the imaging sensor into a frame buffer in the camera. When a sufficient amount of frame data has accumulated in the frame buffer, the camera will begin transmitting the data to your computer. This buffering technique avoids the need to exactly synchronize the clock used for sensor readout with the data transmission. The camera will begin transmitting data when it has determined that it can safely do so without over-running or under-running the buffer. Exposure Start Delay: the amount of time (including trigger jitter and latency) between the point where the trigger signal rises and the point where exposure actually begins Frame Readout time: the amount of time it takes to read out the frame data from the imaging sensor into the frame buffer Frame Transmission time: the amount of time it takes to transmit an acquired frame data from the frame buffer in the camera to your computer Transmission Start Delay: the amount of time between the point where the camera begins reading out the acquired frame data from the sensor and the point where it begins transmitting the acquired frame data from the buffer to your computer Figure 8.14 Timing Chart (not drawn to scale) Page 41 of 111

42 The following table shows Exposure Start Delay for the VX-29MC camera. Model Exposure Mode Triggering during the Idle State Exposure Start Delay Triggering during the Readout State Timed 7 μs ± 0.5 μs VX-29MC Trigger Width 4.5 μs ± 0.02 μs 1 horizontal line time is based on the Pixel Clock 40 MHz μs Delay μs (1 Tap) 20.5 μs Delay μs (2 Tap) 20.5 μs Delay μs (4 Tap) 18.5 μs Delay μs (1 Tap) 18.5 μs Delay μs (2 Tap) 18.5 μs Delay μs (4 Tap) Table 8.3 Exposure Start Delay The exposure must always begin on an interline boundary of the CCD sensor. For this reason, if a trigger signal is applied during the readout process, there might be an Exposure Start Delay up to 1 horizontal line time. Page 42 of 111

43 8.7 Maximum Allowed Frame Rate In general, the maximum allowed acquisition frame rate on the camera may be limited by several factors: The amount of time it takes to transmit an acquired frame from the camera to your computer. The amount of time needed to transmit a frame depends on the bandwidth assigned to the camera. The setting for the Channel parameter. If this parameter is set for 4 Tap, you will be able to acquire frames at a higher rate than if it is set to 2 Tap/1 Tap. The Binning feature. If binning is enabled, the maximum allowed frame rate will increase. The amount of time it takes to read an acquired frame out of the imaging sensor and into the camera s frame buffer. This time varies depending on the setting for the Height parameter. Frames with a smaller height take less time to read out of the sensor. The frame height is determined by the camera s Height settings (VIEW tab). The exposure time for acquired frames. If you use very long exposure times, you can acquire fewer frames per second. Decreasing the Height parameter can increase the maximum allowed frame rate; however the Width parameter does not affect the frame rate. Page 43 of 111

44 8.7.1 Increasing the Maximum Allowed Frame Rate You may find that you would like to acquire frames at a rate higher than the maximum allowed with the camera s current settings. In this case, you must adjust one or more of the factors that can influence the maximum allowed frame rate and then check to see if the maximum allowed frame rate has increased: The time that it takes to transmit a frame out of the camera is the main limiting factor on the frame rate. You can decrease the frame transmission time (and thus increase the maximum allowed frame rate) by doing one or more of the following: Use an 8 BIT pixel data format rather than a 12 BIT pixel format. Images with fewer bits per pixel will take less time to transmit. Use a smaller ROI. Decreasing the ROI means that the camera has less data to transmit and therefore the transmission time will decrease. Use binning. When pixels are binned, there is less data to transmit and therefore the transmission time will decrease. If you have the Channel parameter set to 1 Tap/2 Tap, consider changing the value to 4 Tap. This will usually increase the maximum allowed frame rate. If you are using normal exposure times and you are using the camera at its maximum resolution, your exposure time will not normally restrict the frame rate. However, if you are using long exposure times or small region of interest, it is possible that your exposure time is limiting the maximum allowed frame rate. If you are using a long exposure time or a small ROI, try using a shorter exposure time and see if the maximum allowed frame rate increases. (You may need to compensate for a lower exposure time by using a brighter light source or increasing the opening of your lens aperture.) An important thing to keep in mind is a common mistake new camera users frequently make when they are working with exposure time. They will often use a very long exposure time without realizing that this can severely limit the camera s maximum allowed frame rate. As an example, assume that your camera is set to use a 1 second exposure time. In this case, because each frame acquisition will take at least 1 second to be completed, the camera will only be able to acquire a maximum of one frame per second. Even if the camera s nominal maximum frame rate is, for example, 2 frames per second, it will only be able to acquire one frame per second because the exposure time is set much higher than normal. Page 44 of 111

45 9 Camera Features 9.1 Image Region of Interest The Image Region of Interest (ROI) feature allows you to specify a portion of the sensor array. You can acquire only the frame data from the specified portion of the sensor array while preserving the same quality as you acquire a frame from the entire sensor array. With the ROI feature, you can achieve increased frame rates by decreasing the Height of the ROI; however, decreasing the Width of the ROI does not affect the frame rate. The ROI is referenced to the top left corner [origin (0, 0)] of the sensor array as follows. Figure 9.1 Image Region of Interest Page 45 of 111

46 You can change the size of ROI by setting the Width and Height parameters in the VIEW tab. And also, you can change the position of the ROI origin by setting the Offset X and Offset Y parameters. Make sure that the Width + Offset X value is less than 6576, and the Height + Offset Y value is less than You must set the size of the ROI first, and then set the Offset values since the Width and Height parameters are set to its maximum value by default. The Width parameter must be set to a multiple of 4, and the Height parameter must be set to a value greater than the minimum Vertical ROI size shown in the table 9.1. The Width, Height, Offset X and Offset Y parameters will be updated depending on the Horizontal and Vertical parameter settings of the Binning category respectively. ROI Size updated according to the Binning settings may not be restored to its original value. For example, if you set the Horizontal parameter of the Binning category to 3 with 500 Width, the Width parameter will be updated to 166 automatically. Then, if you set the Width parameter to 166 and the Horizontal parameter of the Binning category to 1, the Width parameter will be 498 (166 3). If you want to restore the Width to its original value, you can set the Width to 500 manually. Page 46 of 111

47 The approximate maximum frame rate depending on the change of Vertical ROI can be obtained as shown in the following expression. 1 or 2 Channel Mode : Frame Rate (fps) = / [T VCCD + T RF {V SIZE (V ROI + 12)} + (V ROI + 12) T L ] 4 Channel Mode : Frame Rate (fps) = / [T VCCD + T RF {V SIZE (V ROI + 12)}/2 + {(V ROI + 12) T L }/2) T VCCD : the amount of time required to transmit electric charges accumulated on the pixels to Vertical Register T RF : the amount of time required for 1 row flush V SIZE : the number of Vertical Line of CCD T L : the amount of time required for transmission of one line V ROI : size of the Vertical ROI The available minimum value of T VCCD, T RF, V SIZE, T L and V ROI may vary depending on the camera model. The value of T L may vary depending on the Channel parameter and High Speed (Pixel Clock) settings. The values of each item are shown below. VX Series T VCCD T L (1 channel) T L (2 channel) T L (4 channel) T RF V SIZE Minimum Vertical ROI Size Based on Pixel Clock 40 MHz (Tool > High Speed) VX-29MC 46 μs μs 99.3 μs 95.3 μs 16.0 μs 4452 Lines 500 Lines Table 9.1 Timing Value for VX-29MC Page 47 of 111

48 The following figure shows frame rate depending on Vertical ROI changes with 1 Tap, 2 Tap and 4 Tap settings. Figure 9.2 Frame Rate by Vertical ROI Changes Page 48 of 111

49 9.2 Binning Binning has the effects of increasing the level value and decreasing resolution by summing the values of the adjacent pixels and sending them as one pixel. For example, if you set 2 2 binning as shown in the figure below, four pixels will be summed into one pixel. Then, the effective maximum resolution of the sensor is reduced to 1/2. Since vertical binning is processed in the internal register of CCD, the frame rate will be increased and SNR will be improved because the number of the readout process is reduced. However, the horizontal binning does not affect the frame rate and SNR because it is processed in the FPGA. The brightness will be increased about four times because four pixels are summed as one. Figure 9.3 Binning Page 49 of 111

50 VX camera supports 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 binning factors for both vertical and horizontal direction independently. Figure 9.4 Binning factor Even if the binning is performed on the color camera, the resulting image will be monochrome. The odd number of binning factor ( 3) does not supported on the color camera due to the characteristic of Bayer pattern. Page 50 of 111

51 9.3 Exposure Control Exposure is determined by the length of time (CCD sensor is exposed to light) and the amount of light (light incident upon CCD sensor). The exposure time is controlled in the VX camera by adjusting the Exposure Time parameter and the amount of light is controlled by the lens aperture and light condition. You can set the exposure manually or automatically by combining the related parameters. The features related to aperture are only available when you equip a Canon-EF adapter with an EF lens Aperture Control Aperture control is only working with an EF lens. To equip an EF lens, you must use a Canon-EF adapter (Figure 9.5). To use a Canon-EF adapter, you have to request an interface for Canon-EF adapter (Figure 9.6) option when you make an order. Canon-EF adapter provides RS-232 connection for power supply and serial communication. The control receptacle of VX camera provides RS-232 interface to control the Canon-EF adapter (refer to Table 7.2). Figure 9.5 Canon-EF Adapter Figure 9.6 Interface for Canon-EF Adapter The procedures for power supply or communication interface connections may vary depending on the model. Please refer to the Canon-EF adapter user manual. Page 51 of 111

52 9.3.2 Auto Exposure, Auto Gain and Auto Aperture The Auto Exposure feature automatically adjusts the Exposure Time parameter until the grey level for the pixels in the given Data ROI (defined in the ROI tab) reaches an Auto Exposure Target value set by the user. The Auto Exposure feature in VX Series uses iterative algorithm which repeatedly calculates the previous exposure values until it gets new exposure value. Note that the camera needs up to 30 frames to complete the Auto Exposure feature. The Auto Exposure feature is not available if the Exposure parameter is set to Trigger Width. The Auto Exposure, Auto Gain and Auto Aperture features can be used at the same time and operated in the Off, Once and Continuous modes of operation. If you use three features at the same time, the camera will adjust the value of Aperture followed by Exposure and Digital Gain. When the Auto Exposure, Auto Gain or Auto Aperture feature is set to Once, the parameter values are automatically adjusted until the related parameter value reaches the target value. After the automatic parameter value adjustment is complete, the feature will be set to Off. When the auto feature is set to Continuous, the camera adjusts Aperture, Exposure Time or Digital Gain parameter to reach the target value every time the lighting conditions change. You can set the Auto Exposure - Tolerance parameter to adjust the sensitivity of the Auto Exposure feature. Figure 9.7 Auto Exposure Target Level and Auto Exposure Tolerance Page 52 of 111

53 Each auto feature has the following operating ranges depending on the object brightness level. You can set the operating range by adjusting the minimum and maximum value for each feature. Figure 9.8 Image Level Adjustment When the Auto Exposure, Auto Gain or Auto Aperture parameter is set to Off, the operating procedures are as follow. Auto Features Aperture Exposure Gain Operating Procedures Remarks On On Off Aperture Exposure Manually adjustable the Gain Off On On Exposure Gain Manually adjustable the Aperture On Off On Aperture Gain Manually adjustable the Exposure On Off Off Aperture Manually adjustable the Exposure/Gain Off On Off Exposure Manually adjustable the Aperture/Gain Off Off On Gain Manually adjustable the Aperture/Exposure Table 9.2 Operating Procedures for Auto Features Page 53 of 111

54 When the Canon-EF adapter is not equipped on the VX camera, the parameters related to Aperture will be disabled and the operating procedures will be the same as when the Auto Aperture parameter had set to Off. You can set the Auto Exposure, Auto Gain and Auto Aperture features in any order. However, we strongly recommend setting the one feature first while turning off the other features for the smooth operation. When you set the Auto Focus parameter to Once while using Auto Exposure Control, the camera will be paused. Then, the camera will perform the operation of the Auto Focus feature before performing Auto Exposure Control. The maximum allowed Auto Exposure Target value may vary depending on the Auto Exposure Tolerance value. Target = (0+Tolerance) ~ (4,095 Tolerance) The Auto Aperture Max value may vary depending on the lens model. Page 54 of 111

55 9.4 Sensor Tap Settings The Channel setting determines how the data that is read out of the CCD s horizontal register will be transmitted from the camera to the frame grabber in your computer via the Camera Link interface. There are three channel settings available: 1 Tap (Single Channel), 2 Tap (Dual Channel) and 4 Tap (Quadrant Channel). When the camera is set for 1 Tap, all pixel values in the horizontal register are transmitted through the left bottom Video Amplifier (Video A). When the camera is set for 2 Tap, pixel values from the left half of the sensor are transmitted through the Video A and pixel values from the right half of the sensor are transmitted through the Video B. When the camera is set for 4 Tap, pixel values from the left bottom, right bottom, left top, and right top of the sensor are transmitted through the Video A, Video B, Video C, and Video D respectively. The advantage of the 4 Tap output is that it makes readout about four times faster than the 1 Tap output. Video C Top Horizontal Register Video D Dummy Pixels Dark Rows Dummy Pixels B G G R Buffer Rows B G G R B G G R B G G R Left Dark Columns Left Buffer Columns H x V Active Pixels Right Buffer Columns Right Dark Columns B G G R B G G R B G G R (1, 1) Buffer Rows B G G R Dummy Pixels Dark Rows Dummy Pixels Video A Horizontal Register Video B Figure 9.9 Four Taps Sensor Digitization Page 55 of 111

56 The camera processes and rearranges the image data in order to be compliant with the Camera Link standard. With 1 Tap setting, image data that is shifted from the Video A will be transmitted in a Camera Link A 1 Tap fashion. With 2 Tap setting, image data that is shifted from the Video A and B will be transmitted in a Camera Link A, B 2 Tap Interleaved fashion. With 4 Tap setting, image data that is shifted from the Video A, B, C, and D will be transmitted in a Camera Link 2 Tap Interleaved fashion (Figure 9.11). VX-29MC supports only 2 Tap Interleaved readout when using the 4 Tap output. CCD Sensor Video A Video B Video C Video D AFE A AFE B AFE C AFE D Processing & Reorder CameraLink Interface A B Figure 9.10 Image Data Flow Figure 9.11 Data Output Page 56 of 111

57 The LVSD image data converted in the ADC are 14 bits, however the camera outputs 12 bits image data. The noise performance will be improved on the output image by removing the two least significant bits. If the Knee feature is enabled, 14 bits of image data will be converted to 12 bits through LUT. MSB D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 LSB D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Figure bit Conversion Page 57 of 111

58 9.5 Pixel Format The internal processing of image data is performed in 12 bits. Then, the camera can output the data in 8, 10 or 12 bits. When the camera outputs the image data in 8 bits or 10 bits, the 4 or 2 least significant bits will be truncated accordingly. MSB LSB Original Data D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 12Bit Output D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 10Bit Output D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 8Bit Output D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Figure 9.13 Pixel Format The image data converted to 8, 10 or 12 bits support various pixel data format depending on the camera model. The pixel data will be reordered in FPGA according to the Data Bit setting value. Then, it will be stored in the frame buffer before output. 9.6 Pixel Clock The VX camera provides a unique way to control the camera speed and frame rate. You can select the pixel clock to operate the camera either in the Normal or High-speed (over-clocked) mode. With the Normal mode, the camera s frame rate is determined by the CCD sensor manufacturer. The VX camera internal design is optimized for the High-speed mode. With the High-speed mode, it is possible to over-clock the camera which will result in higher frame rate. However, the camera signal to noise ratio (SNR) may be reduced compared to the Normal mode. To change the pixel clock, select the Tool menu and then select or deselect the High Speed menu in Configurator. Page 58 of 111

59 9.7 Data ROI The Auto Exposure, Auto Focus and Auto White Balance features use the pixel data from a Data Region of Interest (defined in the ROI tab) to adjust the related parameters. Only the pixel data from the area of overlap between the data ROI defined by your settings and the Image ROI will be used by the related auto function. The effective ROI is determined as shown in the figure below. Figure 9.14 Effective Data ROI Page 59 of 111

60 9.8 Auto White Balance (Color Cameras) The Auto White Balance feature is implemented on color cameras. It will control the white balance of the image acquired from the color camera according to the GreyWorld algorithm. Before using the Auto White Balance feature, you need to set the Data ROI for Auto White Balance. If you do not set the related Data ROI, the pixel data from the Image ROI will be used to control the white balance. 9.9 Auto Focus The Auto Focus feature is only available when you equip a Canon-EF adapter with an EF lens. The VX camera uses Contrast Detection auto focus method which achieves focus data from the image. Auto focusing is a twostep process. First, focus data are extracted from the image in the Data Measure process. Then, the focus position will be located by using the focus data in the Peak Search process. It takes the maximum 20 seconds and requires the maximum 70 frames based on the maximum possible 29 megapixel image acquisition frame rate. When the Auto Focus feature is not completed successfully, the auto focus algorithm will be stopped after a period of time and then the Auto Focus mode will return to the Off state. If the exposure time is too short, the focus data may include noise data. To avoid incorrect operation caused by the noise, keep the proper exposure time. The Auto Focus parameter sets whether to use Auto Focus or Manual Focus. Center the data ROI as much as possible when you use the Auto Focus feature. If the data ROI is significantly displaced from the sensor s center, the Auto Focus feature may not work correctly because the position of an object in the ROI can be changed during focusing. If you use a lens equipped with a DC motor, the focusing position may be incorrect. Page 60 of 111

61 9.10 Gain and Offset You can set the analog (VGA) and digital gain factor to adjust the gain. The offset is adjusted by removing the optical black offset from the CCD so that the effect of dark current will be minimized Analog Domain The VX camera has one Analog Signal Processor (or Analog Front End (AFE)) for each channel. This AFE consists of Correlated Double Sampler (CDS), Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA), Level Clamp and 14-bit A/D converter. ANALOG CCD IN CDS GAIN VGA GAIN 14-BIT ADC 14-BIT LVDS 1~40 times LEVEL CLAMP Figure 9.15 AFE Block Diagram You can change the gain and offset value by inputting proper value into the registers for gain and offset adjustments inside the AFE. The CDS gain value is set in the factory during the manufacturing process, therefore you cannot change the value. The VGA gain is the same as the analog gain. You can set the analog gain for all analog taps or each tap. You can control the gain balance between each tap automatically by executing the Auto Gain Balance feature in the AUTO tab. To balance the offset between each tap, adjust the offset values in the Analog Offset category under the ANALOG tab Digital Domain Digital gain is adjustable from 1 to 64 with almost 1/1024 step. If the Auto Gain parameter is set to Once or Continuous, the digital gain value will be automatically adjusted according to the Auto Exposure Target parameter settings. Page 61 of 111

62 9.11 LUT The Lookup Table (LUT) feature converts original image values to certain level values. The VX camera provides two types of LUT: Luminance and Knee. Luminance Since it is mapped one to one for each level value, 12-bit output can be connected to 12-bit input. LUT is in the form of table that has 4096 entries between and the VX camera provides a non-volatile space for LUT data storage. You can determine whether to apply LUT and which LUT to use. For more information about how to download LUT to the camera, refer to Appendix B. 12-bit Data 4096 entry Lookup Table 12-bit Data Figure 9.16 LUT Block LUT Output Level Input Level Figure 9.17 LUT at Gamma 0.5 Page 62 of 111

63 Knee The VX camera provides the Knee feature which compresses the signals in the bright parts of the object to prevent over-exposure. The Knee feature adjusts the dynamic range to include all frame signals as much as possible so that the white-clipped parts are reduced. In general, the white clip point is 109% of frame output, and the knee point is % which is approximately the luminance of human skin. As shown in the figure below, using the general Gamma slope will increase the noise level from B to A. Assume that if you use a Knee LUT with two knee points, you can designate the first knee point reducing the noise floor and then designate the second point determining the signal level. You can assign up to four knee points. By default, two knee points (X, Y) are assigned to the first quarter (1/4) point of input signal and 85% point (4096, 3450) of output signal Two-Knee LUT Gamma 12-bit output Linear A Noise Level B Noise Floor 14-bit input Figure 9.18 Knee LUT 4096X4 Page 63 of 111

64 9.12 Defective Pixel Correction The CCD may have Defective Pixels which cannot properly react to the light. Correction is required since it may deteriorate the quality of the output image. Defect Pixel information of CCD used for each camera is entered into the camera during the manufacturing process in the factory. If you want to add Defect Pixel information, it is required to enter coordinate of new Defect Pixel into the camera. For more information, refer to Appendix A Correction Method Correction value for a defect pixel is calculated based on valid pixel value adjacent in the same line. L3 L2 L1 R1 R2 R3 <Current Pixel> Figure 9.19 Location of Defect Pixel to be Corrected If current pixel is a defect pixel as shown in the above figure, correction value for this pixel is obtained as shown in the following table depending on whether surrounding pixel is defect pixel or not. Adjacent Defect Pixel (s) Correction Value of Current Pixel None (L1 + R1) / 2 L1 R1 R1 L1 L1, R1 (L2 + R2 ) / 2 L1, R1, R2 L2 L2, L1, R1 R2 L2, L1, R1, R2 (L3 + R3) / 2 L2, L1, R1, R2, R3 L3 L3, L2, L1, R1, R2 R3 Table 9.3 Calculation of Defect Pixel Correction Value Page 64 of 111

65 Correction Method in Binning Mode When 2 2 or 4 4 binning is enabled, the Defective Pixel Correction feature is available. The correction value will be averaged based on four neighboring pixels during 2 2 binning and sixteen neighboring pixels during 4 4 binning. To apply the Defective Pixel Correction feature, you must download a Defective Pixel Map to the camera. For more information about how to download a Defective Pixel Map to the camera, refer to Appendix A. Page 65 of 111

66 9.13 Flat Field Correction The Flat Field Correction feature improves the image uniformity when you acquire a non-uniformity image due to external conditions. The Flat Field Correction feature can be summarized by the following equation: IC = {(IR IB) M} / (IF IB) IC: Level value of corrected image; IR: Level value of original image; IB: Black offset value; M: Average value of image after correction; IF: Level value of Flat Field data. In actual use conditions, generate a Flat Field data (IF) and perform the Flat Field Correction feature according to the following procedures. 1. Set the binning mode as desired. 2. Set the number of frames to be acquired for generating the Flat Field data in Number of acquisition frame under the FFC tab. 3. Click the Generate button. The series of frames will be averaged and scaled down to 1/16. Then, the camera will generate the Flat Field data. 4 Click the Save to Flash button to save the generated Flat Field data in the non-volatile memory. When the Flat Field data are applied for correction, the Flat Field data which were scaled down will be enlarged via Bilinear Interpolation as shown in the Figure Set the average value in the FFC Offset Level parameter and select the Flat Field Corr. checkbox in the VIEW tab. Then, the Flat Field data will be applied to the camera. Clicking the Generate button will ignore the current camera settings and will temporarily change the camera settings to operate the following default conditions. When the generation of the Flat Field data is completed, the original settings of the camera will be restored. If the Trigger Mode parameter is set to On and the Source parameter is set to CC1, you must provide the number of CC1 trigger signals equal to the current Number of acquisition frame setting. OffsetX, Y: 0 Width, Height: The maximum values Channel: The maximum allowed Tap setting Every time you change the binning mode, you must generate the Flat Field data again. Page 66 of 111

67 <Flat Field Calibration Block Diagram> Scale Down External SDRAM <Flat Fielding Block Diagram> External SDRAM Bilinear Interpolated Magnification <IF> <IR> IR*M/IF <IC> Figure 9.20 Generation and Application of Flat Field Data copy copy copy copy Magnified Image Boundary copy 16 Pixel 16 Pixel copy Scale-Down Data Magnified Image Boundary Figure 9.21 Bilinear Interpolated Magnification If the current setting values for the Binning Horizontal and Binning Vertical parameters are different from the setting values at the time when you generate the Flat Field data, the Flat Field Correction feature is not available even if you select the Flat Field Corr. checkbox in the VIEW tab. Page 67 of 111

68 9.14 Smear Correction When smear occurs, the charges can be flooded vertically to the dark area where the light is blocked due to the characteristics of CCD. The Smear Correction feature will subtract the average values of the dark area from the original image values. To enable the Smear Correction feature, select the Smear Corr. checkbox in the VIEW tab Temperature Monitor The camera has an embedded sensor chip to monitor the internal temperature. You can check the temperature of the camera by using the gct command Fan Control A fan is installed on the rear panel of the camera to radiate heat. You can set the fan to turn on or off. And also, you can set the fan to turn on when a specified internal temperature is reached. The Fan Operation Mode category under the OUTPUT tab provides the following settings to control the fan. Configurator Tab Category Value Description OUTPUT Fan Operation Mode Off Continuous Temperature Turn off the fan Turn on the fan Turn on the fan when the internal temperature exceeds the values set in the Operation Temperature parameter Table 9.4 Fan Control 9.17 Status LED A green LED is installed on the back panel of the camera to inform the operation status of the camera. LED status and corresponding camera status are as follow: Continuous ON: The camera operates in the Trigger Off mode. Repeat ON for 0.5 seconds, OFF for 0.5 seconds: The camera operates in the Trigger mode. Repeat ON for 1 second, OFF for 1 second: The camera outputs test images. Repeat ON for 0.25 second, OFF for 0.25 second: The camera operates in the Trigger mode and outputs test images. Page 68 of 111

69 9.18 Test Image To check whether the camera operates normally or not, it can be set to output test images generated in the camera instead of the image data from the imaging sensor. Three types of test images are available, image with different value in horizontal direction (Test #1), image with different value in diagonal direction (Test #2), and moving image with different value in diagonal direction (Test #3). Figure 9.22 Test #1 Page 69 of 111

70 Figure 9.23 Test #2 Figure 9.24 Test #3 The test image may look different because the region of the test image may vary depending on the camera s resolution. Page 70 of 111

71 9.19 Horizontal Flip The Horizontal Flip feature let you flip the image horizontally. This feature is available in all camera operation modes. Figure 9.25 Original Image Figure 9.26 Horizontally Flipped Image When you use the Horizontal Flip feature on color cameras, the alignment of the color filter will be changed. Page 71 of 111

72 9.20 Programmable Output Control The pin number 3 of the control receptacle is designated as programmable output and can be operated in various modes. The Digital IO Control category under the OUTPUT tab provides the following settings for Output Control. Configurator Tab Category Value Description OUTPUT Line Inverter On Off Invert the output signal of the line Do not invert the output signal of the line Off Disable the line output Exposure Output pulse signals indicating the current Active exposure time Frame Valid Output pulse signals indicating a frame readout time Strobe Out Output Exposure Active signals with a delay Digital IO Control Line Source Delay Pulse Delay Time: Set a delay in microseconds (0~65535) Output user defined pulse signals Generator Period: Set a pulse period in microseconds (1~60,000,000) Width: Set a pulse with in microseconds (0~60,000,000) User Output User Output signals set by User Output Output Value User Output On Set the bit state of the line to High Value Off Set the bit state of the line to Low Table 9.5 Digital IO Control Page 72 of 111

73 The camera can provide a Strobe Out signal. The signal goes high when the exposure time for each frame acquisition begins and goes low when the exposure time ends as shown in the figure below. This signal can be used as a flash trigger and is also useful when you are operating a system where either the camera or the object being imaged is movable. Typically, you do not want the camera to move during exposure. You can monitor the Strobe Out signal to know when exposure is taking place and thus know when to avoid moving the camera. Figure 9.27 Strobe Out Signal (not drawn to scale) 9.21 Field Upgrade The VX camera provides a feature to upgrade the firmware and FPGA through RS-644 of the Camera Link interface rather than disassemble the camera in the field. For more information about how to upgrade, refer to Appendix C. Page 73 of 111

74 10 Camera Configuration 10.1 Setup Command You can configure all required settings of the camera through RS-644 serial communication of the Camera Link interface. When you want to control the camera by using a terminal or access to the camera within your application, you need to set your network as follows. Baud Rate : bps Data Bit : 8 bit Parity Bit : No Parity Stop bit : 1 stop bit Flow control : None All types of the camera setting commands are delivered in ASCII command type except Firmware Download requiring massive data transmission. All camera setting commands start from user application and then the camera returns a response (, Error or information) for a command. The camera informs the completion of the command execution through a response for a write command while the camera returns an error response or information for a read command. Command format: <command> <parameter1> <parameter2> <cr> 0 2 parameters follow the command. Response: - If execution of write command is successfully completed <cr> <lf> ex) Write command In response to a set 100 command the camera will return (in hex value) Command : D set 100<cr> Response : D 0A 4F 4B 0D 0A 3E set 100<cr><lf> <cr><lf> > Echo result prompt Page 74 of 111

75 If execution of read command is successfully completed <parameter1> <cr> <lf> ex) Read command In response to a get command the camera will return (in hex value) Command : D get <cr> Response : D 0A D 0A 3E get<cr><lf> 100<cr><lf> > Echo response prompt If execution of command is not completed Error : <Error Code > <cr> <lf> Prompt: After sending response, camera sends prompt always. > is used as prompt. Types of Error Cods 0x : values of parameter not valid 0x : number of parameter is not matched 0x : command that does not exist 0x : no execution right Page 75 of 111

76 10.2 Actual Time Applied for Commands When you execute a command, the actual or real time applied for the command varies depending on the type of the command and operating status of the camera. All commands except Set Exposure Time ( set ) command are applied to change the settings as illustrated below, on the rising edge of a VCCD signal before starting readout process. When you execute a set command, the exposure time setting will be changed at the starting of the exposure. In the Trigger mode, you must execute commands before applying trigger signals in order to synchronize image outputs with the commands. In the Free-Run mode, even if you execute a command, you may acquire up to two images without applying the command. This is true because it is hard to verify the current operating status of the camera in the Free-Run mode. Figure 10.1 Actual Time Applied for Commands Page 76 of 111

77 10.3 Parameter Storage Space The camera has three non-volatile storage spaces used for parameter storage and one volatile work space that is applied to actual camera operation. Three storage spaces are divided into one Factory Space and two user spaces (User 1 Space and User 2 Space). The Factory Space contains parameter values generated during the camera's factory setup procedure. The camera can save the current parameter values to User 1 Space or User 2 Space in the non-volatile memory. You can read and write the parameter values stored in the user spaces, but you can only read the parameter values stored in the Factory Space. When the camera is powered on or reset, parameter values stored in one of the storage spaces will be loaded into the work space according to the Config Initialization setting and then these values will be used for the camera settings. Since values loaded into the work space are valid only while the camera is powered on, they should be copied to User 1 Space or User 2 Space by using the sct command. Volatile Memory (RAM) Non_volatile Memory (ROM) Factory Space Work Space User 1 Space User 2 Space Figure 10.2 Parameter Storage Space Page 77 of 111

78 10.4 Command List Command Syntax Value Returned Description Help h String Displays a list of all commands Set Image Width Get Image Width Set Image Height Get Image Height Set Offset X Get Offset X Set Offset Y Get Offset Y Set Binning Horizontal Factor Get Binning Horizontal Factor Set Binning Vertical Factor Get Binning Vertical Factor Set Pclk Select Get Pclk Select Set Test Image Get Test Image Set Data Bit Get Data Bit Set Channel Mode Get Channel Mode siw n giw sih n gih sox n gox soy n goy sbh gbh sbv gbv sps 0 1 gps sti gti sdb gdb scm gcm n n n n n: Image width n: Image height n: Offset X n: Offset Y 2: Horizontal binning by 2 3: Horizontal binning by 3 4: Horizontal binning by 4 8: Horizontal binning by 8 2: Vertical binning by 2 3: Vertical binning by 3 4: Vertical binning by 4 8: Vertical binning by 8 0: Pixel clock of 30 MHz (Normal mode) 1: Pixel clock of 40 MHz (High speed mode) 0: Off 1/2: Fixed pattern image 3: Moving pattern image 8: 8 bit output 10: 10 bit output 12: 12 bit output 1: 1 tap output 2: 2 tap output 3: 4 tap output Table 10.1 Command List #1 Page 78 of 111

79 Command Syntax Value Returned Description Set Knee lut Select sks 0 1 0: Knee LUT Off Get Knee lut Select gks 0 1 1: Knee LUT On Set Luminance lut Select sls 0 1 0: Luminance LUT Off Get Luminance lut Select gls 0 1 1: Luminance LUT On Set Frame Rate Get Frame Rate sfr n gfr n n: Frame rate Set Horizontal Flip shf 0 1 0: Horizontal flip Off Get Horizontal Flip ghf 0 1 1: Horizontal flip On Set Smear Correction smc 0 1 0: Smear correction Off Get Smear Correction gmc 0 1 1: Smear correction On Set Flat-Field Correction sfc 0 1 0: Flat field correction Off Get Flat-Field Correction gfc 0 1 1: Flat field correction On Set Defect Correction sdc 0 1 0: Defect correction Off Get Defect Correction gdc 0 1 1: Defect correction On Set Trigger Overlap sol 0 1 0: Trigger overlap Off Get Trigger Overlap gol 0 1 1: Trigger overlap On Set Double Exposure sde 0 1 0: Double exposure Off Get Double Exposure gde 0 1 1: Double exposure On Set Trigger Mode stm 0 1 0: Trigger mode Off Get Trigger Mode gtm 0 1 1: Trigger mode On Set Exposure Source ses 0 1 0: Program Exposure(by camera) Get Exposure Source ges 0 1 1: Trigger width (by external trigger signal) Set Trigger Source sts 1 2 1: CC1 (CL Connector- frame grabber) Get Trigger Source gts 1 2 2: External (Control receptacle pin #1) Set Trigger Polarity stp 0 1 0: Active low Get Trigger Polarity gtp 0 1 1: Active high Set Exposure Time set n n: Exposure time in μs Get Exposure Time get n (Setting range: 23 ~ 7,000,000 μs ) Set Strobe Polarity ssp 0 1 0: Active low Get Strobe Polarity gsp 0 1 1: Active high Table 10.2 Command List #2 Page 79 of 111

80 Command Set Analog Gain Get Analog Gain Set Gain Offset Get Gain Offset Set Digital Gain Get Digital Gain Set Analog Offset Get Analog Offset Set Offset Offset Get Offset Offset sag n gag Syntax sgo n ggo sdg n gdg sao n gao soo n goo Value Returned n n n N n n: Analog gain value (Setting range: 0 ~ 899) Description 2: AFE channel for the right top of image 3: AFE channel for the left bottom of image 4: AFE channel for the right bottom of image n: Analog gain offset value (Setting range: -30 ~ 100) n:digital gain value (Setting range: 1 ~ 64) n:analog offset value (Setting range: 0 ~ 255) 1: AFE channel for the left top of image 2: AFE channel for the right top of image 3: AFE channel for the left bottom of image 4: AFE channel for the right bottom of image n: Analog offset offset value(setting range: 0~12) Generate Flat Field Data gfd Operate flat field generator Save Flat Field Data Sfd Save flat field data Load Flat Field Data lfd Load flat field data Set Flat Field Iteration Get Flat Field Iteration Set Flat Field Offset Get Flat Field Offset sfi n gfi sfo n gfo n Load Config From lcf Save Config To sct 1 2 Set Config Initialization Get Config Initialization sci gci n n: (2^n) image acquisition (Setting range: 0 ~ 4) n: Flat field target level (Setting range: 0 ~ 4095) 0: Load from Factory Setting 1: Load from User 1 Setting 2: Load from User 2 Setting 0: Save to User 0 Setting (inactive) 1: Save to User 1 Setting 2: Save to User 2 Setting Table 10.3 Command List #3 0: Load from Factory Setting when initializing 1: Load from User 1 Setting when initializing 2: Load from User 2 Setting when initializing Page 80 of 111

81 Command Syntax Value Returned Get MCU Version gmv String Displays MCU version Description Get Model Number gmn String Displays model number Get FPGA Version gfv String Displays FPGA version Get Serial Number gsn piece String Displays serial number Get Current Temperature gct String Displays internal temperature in Celsius Set Exposure Auto Get Exposure Auto Set Exposure Auto Min. Get Exposure Auto Min. Set Exposure Auto Max. Get Exposure Auto Max. Set Exposure Target Level Get Exposure Target Level Set Auto Tolerance Get Auto Tolerance Set AE Data ROI Image Width Get AE Data ROI Image Width Set AE Data ROI Image Height Get AE Data ROI Image Height Set AE Data ROI Offset X Get AE Data ROI Offset X Set AE Data ROI Offset Y Get AE Data ROI Offset Y Set Gain Auto Get Gain Auto Set Gain Auto Min. Get Gain Auto Min. Set Gain Auto Max. Get Gain Auto Max. sea gea sel n gel seu n geu stl n gtl sat n gat sew n gew seh n geh sex n gex sey n gey sga gga sgl n ggl sgu n ggu n n n n n n n n N n 0: Auto Exposure Off 1: Operates the Auto Exposure once 2: Operates the Auto Exposure continuously n: Auto Exposure minimum level n: Auto Exposure maximum level n: Exposure target level n: Exposure target level tolerance n: Image width for AE Data ROI n: Image height for AE Data ROI n: Offset X for AE Data ROI n: Offset Y for AE Data ROI 0: Auto Gain Off Table 10.4 Command List #4 1: Operates the Auto Gain once 2: Operates the Auto Gain continuously n: Auto Gain minimum level n: Auto Gain maximum level Page 81 of 111

82 Command Syntax Value Returned Description Gain Auto Balance Gab Adjusts the gain balance between taps Auto White Balance awb Adjusts the white balance (color only) Set Focus Auto Get Focus Auto sfa 0 1 gfa 0 1 0: Auto Focus Off 1: Operates the Auto Focus once Get Focus Position gfp Displays focus position Set Focus Zero Position mfz Moves the focus position to its origin Set Focus Infinite Position mfl Moves the focus position for infinity Set Initial Focus Position mfa n n: Focus position Set Incremental Focus Position mfi n n: Incremental focus position Set AF Data ROI Image Width Get AF Data ROI Image Width Set AF Data ROI Image Height Get AF Data ROI Image Height Set AF Data ROI Offset X Get AF Data ROI Offset X Set AF Data ROI Offset Y Get AF Data ROI Offset Y Set Aperture Auto Get Aperture Auto Set Aperture Auto Min. Get Aperture Auto Min. Set Aperture Auto Max. Get Aperture Auto Max. sfw n gfw sfh n gfh sfx n gfx sfy n gfy spa 0 1 gpa sgl n ggl sgu n ggu n n n n 0 1 n n n: Image width for AF Data ROI n: Image height for AF Data ROI n: Offset X for AF Data ROI n: Offset Y for AF Data ROI 0: Auto Aperture Off 1: Operates the Auto Aperture once 2: Operates the Auto Aperture continuously n: Auto Aperture minimum level n: Auto Aperture maximum level Close Aperture mpc Sets aperture to its smallest opening Open Aperture mpo Sets aperture to its widest opening Get Aperture Position gpo n n: Aperture Position Set Initial Aperture Position mpa n n: Absolute position of aperture Set Incremental Aperture Position mpi n n: Incremental aperture position Table 10.5 Command List #5 Page 82 of 111

83 Command Syntax Set AWB Data ROI Image Width sww n Get AWB Data ROI Image Width gww Set AWB Data ROI Image Height swh n Get AWB Data ROI Image Height gwh Set AWB Data ROI Offset X swx n Get AWB Data ROI Offset X gwx Set AWB Data ROI Offset Y swy n Get AWB Data ROI Offset Y gwy Display AE/AF/AWB Data ROI srd Set Output Line Source sss Get Output Line Source gss Set User Output Value suo 0 1 Get User Output Value guo Set Output Pulse Period spp n Get Output Pulse Period gpp Set Output Pulse Width spw n Get Output Pulse Width gpw Set Strobe Out Delay sso n Get Strobe Out Delay gso Set Line Inverter sii 0 1 Get Line Inverter gii Value Returned n n n n n n n 0 1 Description n: Image width for AWB Data ROI n: Image height for AWB Data ROI n: Offset X for AWB Data ROI n: Offset Y for AWB Data ROI 0: Data ROI display Off 1: Displays AE data ROI on the image 2: Displays AF data ROI on the image 3: Displays AWB data ROI on the image 0: Off 1: Exposure Active 2: Frame Valid 3: Strobe Output Delay 4: Pulse Generator 5: User Output 0: Active Low 1: Active High n: Pulse generator period (Setting range: 1 ~ 60,000,000 μs ) n: Pulse width (Setting range: 0 ~ 60,000,000 μs ) n: Strobe Out delay time (Setting range: 0 ~ 65,535 μs ) 0: Line Inverter Off 1: Line Inverter On Table 10.6 Command List #6 Page 83 of 111

84 Command Set Fan Operation Mode Get Fan Operation Mode Set Fan Operation Temperature Get Fan Operation Temperature Syntax sfm gfm stt n gtt Value Returned n Table 10.7 Command List #7 0: Turn off the fan 1: Turn on the fan Description 2: Turn on the fan when the internal temperature exceeds the value set in Operation Temperature n: Operation Temperature (Setting range: -10 C ~ 80 C) Page 84 of 111

85 11 Configurator GUI Configurator, a sample application, is provided to control the VX-29MC camera. Configurator provides easy-touse Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the user while using the commands mentioned in the previous chapters Camera Scan When you execute the program while the camera is turned on, the Camera Scan window appears as shown in the figure below. At this time, the program checks serial port of your computer and DLL provided by the Camera Link to scan whether the camera is connected. If there is a camera connected, it displays model name on the screen. If the camera is not properly displayed on the screen, check the connection of cables and power of the camera, and click the refresh button. When you double-click a model name displayed on the screen, Configurator is executed and displays current setting values of the camera connected. Figure 11.1 Configurator Loading Window Page 85 of 111

86 11.2 Menu File Figure 11.2 File Menu Load Setting: Loads the camera setting values from the camera memory (Factory, User1 or User2) or user computer (From File). Save Setting: Saves the camera setting values to the camera memory (User1 or User2) or user memory (To File). Defect Pixel: Downloads defect information to the camera (Download to Camera) or uploads defect information saved in the camera to user computer (Upload to PC). System Upgrade: Upgrades MCU or FPGA logic. Exit: Exits Configurator. Page 86 of 111

87 Start-Up You can select the camera setting values to load when the camera is powered on. Figure 11.3 Start-Up Menu Factory Setting: Loads the camera setting values from Factory Space when the camera is powered on. User 1 Setting: Loads the camera setting values from User 1 Space when the camera is powered on. User 2 Setting: Loads the camera setting values from User 2 Space when the camera is powered on. Page 87 of 111

88 Tool Figure 11.4 Tool Menu Refresh: Loads and displays the current camera setting values on Configurator. Terminal: Allows you to input commands or displays GUI commands in the Terminal window. To hide the Terminal window, deselect Terminal by clicking again. Color calibration: Displays a window to calibrate Bayer sensor s color temperature. Factory Setting: Not supported in user side. High Speed: Select the High Speed to set the pixel clock to 40 MHz. To set the pixel clock to 30 MHz, deselect the High Speed. Page 88 of 111

89 About Figure 11.5 About Menu Camera Info: Displays camera information (model name, serial number, version, etc). Page 89 of 111

90 11.3 Tab VIEW Tab The VIEW tab allows you to set the camera s region of interest (ROI), binning mode, test image mode, data bit, channel, LUT, image processing, etc. Figure 11.6 VIEW Tab Binning: Selects a binning factor ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 8) for vertical and horizontal binning. Test Image: Enable/Disables the test image mode and selects the type of test images. Data Bit: Selects a data bit depth. Channel: Selects a Camera Link output mode. LUT: Enable/Disables the LUT and selects the type of LUT. Imaging Processing: Sets Flat Field Correction, Defect Correction, Smear Correction, and Horizontal Flip features On or Off. Page 90 of 111

91 MODE/EXP Tab The MODE/EXP tab allows you to select trigger mode, exposure time, and strobe. All scroll bars are controllable with the mouse wheel scroll. Figure 11.7 MODE/EXP Tab Trigger Mode: Selects a trigger mode. Once a mode has been selected, related selections will be activated. Exposure: Selects an exposure mode. Source: Selects a trigger source. Activation: Selects a polarity of trigger input. Exposure Time: Sets exposure time to be applied when Exposure is set to Timed or Trigger Mode is set to Off. Page 91 of 111

92 ANALOG Tab The ANALOG tab allows you to set the gain and offset settings of the image. All scroll bars are controllable with the mouse wheel scroll. Figure 11.8 ANALOG Tab Analog Gain: Sets gain value of each channel. The Auto Adjustment button will be activated after checking the Fine Adjustment checkbox. Click the button to compensate Tap differences automatically. After clicking the Auto Adjustment button, at least one or more images must be acquired by the camera. Analog Offset: Sets offset value of each channel. Page 92 of 111

93 LUT Tab The LUT tab allows you to download LUT data. For more information about LUT download, refer to Appendix B. Figure 11.9 LUT Tab Graph: Loads LUT data from your computer or sets Gamma value to be applied when you use Gamma curve. Camera LUT Download / Upload: Downloads LUT data stored in your computer to the camera (Download) or uploads LUT data stored in the camera to your computer (Upload to PC). Page 93 of 111

94 FFC Tab The FFC tab allows you to set the Flat Field Correction settings. All scroll bars are controllable with the mouse wheel scroll. Figure FFC Tab FFC Data: Generates the FF data to be used for correction and sets how many images will be used for the generation. Flash Memory: Saves the generated FF data to Flash (Save to Flash) in order to reuse in the future or loads the saved FFC data (Load from Flash). FFC Data Download / Upload: Downloads FFC data from the user computer (Download to camera) or uploads FFC data to the user computer (Upload to PC). FFC Offset Level: Sets the offset value of the image after Flat Field Correction is applied. Page 94 of 111

95 ROI Tab The ROI tab allows you to set Data region of interest (ROI) to be used with the Auto Exposure, Auto Focus, and Auto White Balance features. Figure ROI Tab ROI Selection: Sets Data ROI and selects an automatic feature to be used with Data ROI. You need to set the Width and Height settings followed by the Offset X and Offset Y settings. Page 95 of 111

96 AUTO Tab The AUTO tab allows you to set the Auto Exposure, Auto Gain, Auto Focus, Auto Aperture, Auto Gain Balance, and Auto White Balance features. Figure AUTO Tab Auto Exposure: Sets a target average grey value, tolerance of the target average grey value, and lower/upper limits of exposure duration for the Auto Exposure feature. You can also set the Auto Exposure feature to Once or Continuous operation mode. Auto Gain: Sets lower/upper limits of Gain to be used with the Auto Gain feature. You can also set the Auto Gain feature to Once or Continuous operation mode. Auto Gain Balance: Executes the Auto Gain Balance feature. Auto White Balance: Executes the Auto White Balance feature on the color camera. Auto Focus: Moves the focus position to its origin, infinity, or the absolute position and sets increments of Focus, You can also set the Auto Focus feature to Once or Continuous operation mode. Auto Aperture: Sets Aperture to its smallest opening, its widest opening, or the absolute position and sets lower/upper limits and increments of Aperture. You can also set the Auto Aperture to Once or Continuous operation mode. Page 96 of 111

97 OUTPUT Tab The OUTPUT tab allows you to set signals output from the control receptacle pin 3 and fan controls. Figure OUTPUT Tab Digital IO Control Line Inverter: Sets whether to invert the output signal of the line. Line Source: Selects the type of the output signals. Fan Operation Mode: Sets the fan to turn On or Off. You can also set the fan to turn on when a specified internal temperature is reached. Page 97 of 111

98 Appendix A Defective Pixel Map Download 1. Create the Defective Pixel Map data in Microsoft Excel format as shown in the left picture below and save as a CSV file (*.csv). The picture in the right shows the created Excel file opened in Notepad. The following rules need to be applied when creating the file. Lines beginning with : or are treated as notes. Each row is produced in the order of the horizontal and vertical coordinate values. The input sequence of pixel is irrelevant. 2. Select File > Defect Pixel > Download to Camera on Configurator. Page 98 of 111

99 3. Search and select the created file and click Open. 4. Configurator starts downloading defective pixel map data to the camera and downloading status is displayed at the bottom of the window. Page 99 of 111

100 5. Once the download has been completed, the saving process will begin. During the saving process, make sure not to disconnect the power cord. 6. Once all the processes have been completed, Download completed message will appear at the bottom of the window. Page 100 of 111

101 Appendix B LUT Download You can create LUT data in two different ways; by adjusting the gamma value on the gamma graph or the knee points on the knee graph provided in Configurator, or by loading a CSV file (*.csv) created with Excel and then downloading the data. B.1 Luminance LUT B.1.1 Gamma Graph Download 1. Run Configurator, select the LUT tab, and then select Luminance from the Type dropdown list. 2. Set a desired value in the Gamma input field and click the Apply button. Page 101 of 111

102 3. Click the Download button to download the gamma setting values to the camera. 4. After completing the download, click the button to close the confirmation. Page 102 of 111

103 B.1.2 CSV File Download 1. Create a LUT table in Microsoft Excel as shown in the left figure below and save as a CSV file (*.csv). The figure in the right shows the created file that is opened with Notepad. Once you have created the file completely, you must change the.csv file extension to.lut. The following rules need to be applied when creating the file. Lines beginning with : or are treated as notes. Make sure to enter input values from 0 to Run Configurator, select the LUT tab, select Luminance from the Type dropdown list, and then click the Load File button. Page 103 of 111

104 3. Search and select the created LUT file and click the Open button. 4. Click the Download button. After completing the download, click the button to close the confirmation. Page 104 of 111

105 B.2 Knee Graph Download 1. Run Configuragtor, select the LUT tab, and then select Knee from the Type dropdown list. 2. Click the Point button under the Draw category and specify knee points on the graph. 3. Click the Config button under the Draw category and input knee points if needed. You can add up to eight knee points. Page 105 of 111

106 4. Click the Apply button to apply the knee points. 5. Click the Download button to download the Knee LUT setting values to the camera. 6. After completing the download, click the button to close the confirmation. Page 106 of 111

107 Appendix C Field Upgrade C.1 MCU 1. Select File > System Upgrade -> MCU Upgrade on Configurator. 2. Locate the MCU upgrade file (*.srec) and click the Open button. Page 107 of 111

108 3. Configurator starts downloading the MCU upgrade file to the camera and the download status is displayed at the bottom of the window. If you want to cancel the upgrade process, click the Cancel button. This process requires several minutes to complete. 4. Once the download has been completed, the saving process will begin. During the saving process, the camera cannot be restored if a power failure occurs. Make sure that the power connection is secured. Page 108 of 111

109 5. Once all processes have been completed, turn the power off and turn it back on again. Select Tool > Terminal and enter the gmv' command to confirm the version. You can also confirm the MCU version by selecting About > Camera Info. Page 109 of 111

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