High-Power LDA Beam Transformation using Diffractive Grating Array

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1 High-Power LDA Beam ransformation using Diffractive Grating Arra Chongi Zhou, Chunan Zheng, Guoing Zheng, Chunlei Du (State Ke Lab of Optical echnologies for Microfabrication, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academ of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 6009) ABSRAC Coupling high-power laser diode arra (LDA) beams into a multi-mode fiber is an important wa to epand the LDA applications. ransforming LDA beam is an essential step for fiber-coupled LDA. Diffractive grating arras are used to transform a bar LDA beam with the output power of 40 watts to realize the smmetr of BPPs in fast and slow ais directions in the paper. First, the specifications of the diffractive grating are calculated according to focusing and coupling bar LDA. Second, the 8-level binar diffractive gratings are fabricated based on the binar optical elements processing platform in our lab. hird, the eperiment was carried out and results are gotten. he results show that the focusing spot size is about 00um in diameter and the numerical aperture NA is 0., which agree with the calculated and simulated. Kewords: laser diode arra, diffractive grating arra, beam transformation, fiber coupling.inroducion High-power Laser diode arra (LDA) becomes more and more important with the fast development of the diode Laser Pumped Solid-State Laser (DPSSL), Fiber Laser (FL) and material processing, such as welding, soldering and marking metals for its unique characteristics of high electro-optical efficienc, small tpe of construction and maintenance free operation. However, LDA beams have the disadvantages of large divergence angle and astigmatic characteristics (36~40 degrees FWHM in fast ais and 8~0 degrees FWHM in slow ais direction, that becomes a bottleneck to more applications. Ecept for a few applications such as side pumping of DPSSL, the collimated beam or focused beam and fiber-coupled LDA are required for most of applications,, in which fiber-coupled LDA is the most important need for its convenient use. So shaping the LDA beam is becoming an important factor. here are mainl two methods to couple LDA beams into a multi-mode fiber at present. One is fiber bundle coupling, each single fiber end couples each emitter of the LDA and bundle them together into a bundle. he method could not improve the brightness of the beam. Usuall we require the higher brightness of the beam, so the kind of method has less been used now. he other prospective method is to shape LDA beams using micro-optical elements, as showed in figure. First Micro-lenses arra is used to collimate the LDA beam. Second, the shaping optics is used to shape the collimating beams. hird, the focus lens is used to focus the shaping beam into multi-mode fiber. he method has the following advantages: one is that it could come into being some additional sstem, such as collimating and focusing beam. he other is that LDA ma be taken the place easil while it broken and other parts could be used again. Collimating and transforming LDA beams are two essential steps for collimating, focusing and fiber-coupled LDA Holograph, Diffractive Optics, and Applications II, edited b Yunlong Sheng, Dahsiung Hsu, Chongiu Yu, Boungho Lee, Proceedings of SPIE Vol (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 005) X/05/$5 doi: 0.7/

2 beams. Collimating LDA beam is a ver important step, it affect the divergence directl,3. In order to couple the bar LDA beams into a much smaller multi-mode fiber, it is necessar to transform the LDA beams. hree transforming approaches are adopted at present: reflective, refractive and diffractive methods 4,5,6,7. Reflective and refractive methods are complicated due to the use of man mirrors and prisms. Further more, the small-size (0.5~.0mm) mirrors and prisms are not eas to fabricate and equip. For the factors above, it is difficult to realize balanced BPPs (Beam Parameter Product) of the LDA beam between the fast and slow ais directions. In this paper, a kind of diffractive grating arras are used to transform a bar LDA beam with the output power of 40 watts to realize the smmetrical BPPs in fast and slow ais directions easil and convenientl. Figure. Schematic diagram of the fiber-coupled LDA.DESIGN OF HE DIFFRACIVE GRAING ARRAY As we know, the BPPs are 0.7mm*mrad and 99mm*mrad in fast and slow ais directions for a 40W bar LDA with an aspect ratio of 50/500. In order to make the focusing spot a circle, it is necessar to increase the BPP to N times before in fast ais and decrease the BPP to / N times of the former in slow ais. So as to realize the BPP balance in fast and slow ais directions, this process is called as beams transforming or shaping. After beam transforming, the two BPPs are smmetrical, the cutting parts number N could be obtained b the following equation () 8, N int( BPP slow / BPP ) () Where BPP and BPP are the BPPs of the beams in fast and slow ais directions respectivel. fast slow Assuming the space between the two diffractive grating arras is ais is d, and the respective deflective angles fast l, the center position of the some part far from optical, are epressed as the equation (), d tan, ( ) () l he pitches of the diffractive grating in horizontal (slow aial) and vertical (fast aial) directions and the snthetic pitch are the following according to the grating equation (3),, sin sin, (3) 74 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 5636

3 Where, are the deflective angles in slow and fast ais directions,, are the pitches of the respective grating, is the snthetic pitch. From equation (), the splitting number N is 9. In order to cut the collimating beam into 9 parts, a grating arra consisting of 9 different gratings is designed. When the collimated beams incidence the first grating arra, the are cut into 9 parts, each parts propagate in different directions, the beams on the left side are deflected up and right, and the beams on the right are defect down and left When the reach the second grating arra, all deflected beams are arranged into a stacked line arra, but each propagation directions are not same et, the so the second grating arra have to be added to re-deflect these beams so as to make these beams propagate in optical ais direction. After the above diffractive grating arra, the spot become into 6.3mm.4mm,.8mrad 0. 9mrad divergence angles. A re-collimating clindrical lens with height of 30mm and the focusing length of 50mm is used to collimate slow direction beams. At last a focusing doublet with aperture of 30mm and the focal length of 80mm is used to focus spot, the spot conversional path is shown in figure., Figure. Spot transformations in different positions Using Zema optical design software, we calculated and simulated the focused spot, and the maimum spot is about 60um in diameter, the spot diagram is showed in figure 3. Figure 3. Simulated spot distribution on the focused plane Proc. of SPIE Vol

4 3.EXPERIMENS In section we discussed the shaping beams method and the design of the diffractive grating arra. Using binar optical elements (BOE) fabricating processing, we fabricated the diffractive grating arras using lithograph and reactive ion etched (RIE) technologies. he grating arra and its profile are shown in figure 4. (A) and (C) are the first diffractive grating, (B) and (D) are the re-defection diffractive grating. A bar LDA with the power of 40W CW 980nm wavelength is used in the eperiment. he spot transformation are in figure 5, (A) is the spot after the first deflective grating, (B) is the spot after second re-deflective grating arra and (C) is the focusing spot with the diameter of about 00um. (A) (B) (C) (D) Figure 4. Binar diffractive grating arras (parts of the grating arras) (A) (B) (C) Figure 5. Eperimental transform spots on the different positions 4.SUMMARY 76 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 5636

5 From the above results, the entire fiber-coupled LDA laout ma realize less 00um diameter spot, the eperimental results agree with the simulated condition. o acquiring higher transform efficienc, the following steps are required: one is to improve the accurac of the grating depth, the other is to shorten the CD (Critic Dimension) of the gratings so as to shorten the distance between the two diffractive grating deflector; the last is to add anti-reflective films on the diffractive grating surfaces, because the whole reflective loss of four surface is up to 3%. ACKNOWLEDGEMEN he authors would like to thank our colleagues Pan Li, Wang Yongru, Li Fei and Liu Qiang for fabricating diffractive grating arra at State Ke Lab of Optical echnologies for Micro-fabrication. REFERENCES. Friedhelm Dorsch, Veit Blumel, Matthias Schroder, Dirk Lorenzen, Peter Henning, Detlev Wolff, Fiber coupled diode laser sstem up to Kw output power, Proceedings of SPIE Vol 3945(000) 4~49. Liu Yinhui, Zhou Chongi, Du Chunlei, Xie Weimin, Deng Qiling, Stud on high-efficienc and high brightness laser output with LDA optical fiber coupling, Opto-Electronic Engineering, Vol.3, No.4, (004) 7~9, 3. 3.Zhou Chongi, Liu Yinhui, Xie Weimin, Du Chunlei, Fiber-coupled high-power LDA, Chinese Journal of Laser, Vol. 3, No. 004 (in print) 4. Chongi Zhou, Yinhui Liu, Weimin Xie, Chunlei Du, Analsis and Design of Fiber coupled High-Power Laser Diode Arra, Proceedings of SPIE Vol.577 (003) 40~45 5. C.W.russell, V.King, L.R.Condiff, High brightness laser diode arras, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 397 (994) 44~48 6. Stefan Heinemann, Lars Leininger, Friedhelm Dorsch, Fiber coupled diode laser and beam-shaped high-power stacks, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 367(998) 4~49 7. Friedhelm Dorsch, Franz X.Dainminger, performance and lifetime of high-power diode lasers and diode laser sstems, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 368(999) 56~63 8. Zhou Chongi, Du Chunlei, Micro-optical elements and the fiber coupled Laser Diodes Arra, Papers of COIF (China Optoelectronic Industr Forum) 004, pp4~45, Sept. 06~09 004, China Shenzhen High-ech rade Fair Ehibition Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Proc. of SPIE Vol

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