From Munsell Color System To A New Color Psychology System

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1 Munsell Centennial Symposium 2018 From Munsell Color System To A New Color Psychology System Setsuko Horiguchi, Katsura Iwamatsu Nippon Color & Design Research Institute Inc. June 14, 2018 株式会社日本カラーデザイン研究所

2 Contents of this presentation Young Researcher s Aim Munsell Color System 1. Hue & Tone System 2. Color Image Scale 2/40

3 Young Researcher s Aim Shigenobu KOBAYASHI ( ) - Researcher of Color Image - Psycho -logist Electrical engineer Artist Unique! years old Photo by Nobuko Kiuchi 3/40

4 In his youth: passion for art courtesy of Shigeharu Kobayashi 4/40

5 In his youth: interest in color psychology 1954 Master s thesis Color discrimination Waseda University,dpt. of psychology 1964 A Guide to improve your sense of beauty -wide application in daily life-, Kodansha courtesy of Shigeharu Kobayashi 5/40

6 Social Background of Japan in the 1960 s and 70 s org/colorcolumn/f ormat-copy.html ( units of 1000 ) GDP in Japan from after the war /40

7 Reception of Munsell System in Japan 1948 Color Science Association ( predecessor of Color Science Association of Japan 1970 ) 1927 Sanzo Wada founded Japan Standard Color Association 1951 Standard of Colors( 1062 colors by Japan Color Research Inst. ) 1959 The Book of Color Standards( JIS Z 8721) 1963 Munsell Renotation Color Book ( Japan Color Research Inst) courtesy of JCRI 1966 Basic Color Chart colors of 40 hues conforming to JIS- (NCD) 7/40

8 Aim of Kobayashi1 Color is an excellent salesman! CASE / SYSTEM / PATTERN At AIC 1981 Berlin At AIC 1985 Monaco photo by S.Kobayashi photo by K.Iwamatsu 8/40

9 Production of 5000 color chips and Analysis of color names Segment of Hue 5R Distribution of color names in 5R Classification of 12 Tones Ref: The ISCC-NBS Method of Designating Color and Dictionary of Color Names V/C V/C Ref.The Standard Color Card of America. 9th ed. Textile Color Card Association of the United States, Inc.; 1960/Dictionary of Colour Standards. The British Colour ouncil; 1934/ Dictionary of Colour Standards dyed woollen samples., The British Colour Council; 1951/Sanzo Wada. Encyclopedia of color names (Shikimei Soukan)., Tokyo: Shunjusha Publishing Company; 1931/Sanzo Wada, Japan Color Research Institute. Guide to Colour Standard (Iro no Hyoujun). Tokyo: Nihon Shikisai Sha; 1954/Colour Booklet. Tokyo: Nihon Shikisai Sha; 1961/Rokuro Uemura, Katsuhiro Yamazaki. Encyclopedia of Japanese Colour Names (Nihon Shikimei Taikan). Tokyo: Koubun-sha; 1943/The Color Harmony Manual. 4th ed. Chicago: Container Corporation of America; 1958/Kenneth L. Kelly and Deane B. Judd. /National Bureau of Standards Circular; 1965/Color Code for Market Survey. Tokyo: Japan Color Research Institute; /40

10 Value High From Munsell System to Hue & Tone System Tone chart of Hue YR:12 Tones White Very Pale Pale Bright Light Gray Light Grayish Light Vivid Low Value Medium Gray Dark Gray Black Grayish Dark Grayish Dull Dark Strong Deep Low Chroma High 10/40

11 Hue & Tone System: 130 colors A pragmatic color order system with the least number of colors Design Tone 130 photo by A.Sugiyama 11/40

12 Hue & Tone System: 1093 colors For marketing and product planning 43 hues, 25 tones, 1093colors 6R, 1Y, 6PB 12/40

13 Hue & Tone System: Two-dimensional analysis Pattern recognition Woman s tops (1999) Statistical processing Release from numerical notation (H V/C) Interior (2000) 13/40

14 Opposite hues Similar hues Same hue Similar hues Aim of Kobayashi2 toward the psychological research Market research: Hue analysis of knit fashion colors in 1971 (comparison of Tokyo and Osaka) Red Orange Yellow Eastern Japan (Tokyo) Western Japan (Osaka) Kanto region (Tokyo) Kansai region (Osaka Reddish colors more popular in Kansai region, yellowish colors more popular in Kanto region Yellow- Green Green *Green popular in Kansai region Blue- Green Blue Bluepurple *Bluish colors somewhat popular in Kansai region, purplish colors somewhat popular in Kanto region Purple *Purple and redpurple more popular in Kansai Redpurple 14/40

15 Reliable Aim of Kobayashi2 toward the psychological research R/V (red) image Color Color Name Name Male/Female Age combination Age Evaluation factor analysis Table 14: Association chart of images associated with good Powerful Big Fast Strong Dark Safe Soft Easy to remember Weak Cold Refined Modern Expensive-looking Lonely Friendly Elegant Unstable Feminine Unfamiliar Dynamic Big Hated Trustworthy Wild Slow Young Good Bright Dangerous Hard Difficult to remember Strong Warm Unrefined Conservative Cheap-looking Enjoyable Unfriendly Uncouth Stable Masculine Familiar Static Small Liked Untrustworthy Sophisticated Fast Old Bad Style Dynamic Liked Refined Modern Young Sophisti cated Feminine Image of the 4 factors that determine color combinations Enjoyable Warm Bright Good Expensive Elegant Trustworthy Steady Safe Soft Friendly Easy to Familiar remember Sense of contact 15/40

16 From Hue & Tone System to Image Scale 1961 Psychological researches Starting to Develop Single color image measurement Extraction of main image(factor Analysis) Completion of basic Image Scales Single colors Patent approval In Japan Hue & Tone System Association between colors and words Color combinations image measurement Color projection method Words Color combinations 16/40

17 Color Image Scale: Single Color Space Axis 1: Warm-Cool Determines hue Axis 2: Soft-Hard Determines value Axis 3: Clear-Grayish Determines chroma 17/40

18 Color Image Scale: Psychological Method Single colors Words (adjectives) Tri-color combinations compatibility 18/40

19 Color Image Scale: Tri- Color Image Scale The 1st scale in 1974 Familiarity Modern sense Dynamism Credibility 19/40

20 Color Image Scale: Tri- Color Image Scale present 1995-present With only 80 colors With 130 colors Freely & Flexibly With 130colors Digital 20/40

21 Word Image Scale Japanese English Chinese Korean French German 21/40

22 Color Image Scale: Clear/Grayish Axis Single colors, Two-colors, Three-colors and Five-colors Combinations SOFT CLEAR GRAYSH HARD 22/40

23 PC Analysis by Color Image Scale Database Image Research Image Scale analysis Basic image analysis (using analysis aids ) 23/40

24 Color Image Scale: Basic Idea Colors Words People/items/ environments SOFT SOFT SOFT COOL COOL COOL WARM WARM WARM HARD HARD HARD 24/40

25 Warm Warm Image of Basic Design Elements Colors Patterns Soft Soft Light Sparse Warm Medium Cool Cool Complex Organic/ Represetative Repetition Simple/ Inorganic/ geometric Cool Dark Dense Hard Hard 25/40

26 Warm Warm Image of Basic Design Elements Materials Shapes Soft Soft Light/Soft Delicate Natural/ rough Medium Artificial/ smooth/ lustrous Cool Complex/ Curved lines Medium Simple/ Straight lines Cool Hard/ heavy Sturdy Hard Hard 26/40

27 Application of Color Image Scale Patterns Ref.Season Image Color SOFT WARM COOL HARD 27/40

28 Application of Color Image Scale Chairs Ref.Season Image Color 28/40

29 Application of Color Image Scale Home appliances 2011 Home appliances 2018 Ref.Season Image Color 29/40

30 Application of Color Image Scale Scent Ref.Season Image Color Pretty peach (pretty) Soft Casual orange (perky) Casual Ethnic Ethnic vanilla (sweet) Strawberry (charming) coconut(carefree) caramel (mild) Natural honey (mild & quiet) Hard Natural Romantic Pretty soy sauce (mature) brown source (complicated) sesame oil (elaborate) curry (ethnic) Warm Elegant lily (supple) daphne (womanly) cheese (natural) dried bonito (simple & appealing) rose (lovely) Gorgeous Classic Dandy Elegant Classic Cool Romantic Casual Cool Elegant Cool Natural Casual cocoa incense (quiet green tea (comfortable miso (rich) tea (calm) & tranquil) (artistic & tasteful) & laid-back) red wine (diligent) ylang-ylang(gorgeous) Gorgeous Classic musk (mellow) cloves (fashionable) whiskey (adult) leather (genuine) coffee (bitter) lavender (refined) brandy (tasteful) white wine (delicate) Chic melon (dreamy) hinoki/japan ese cypress (agreeable) Cool Natural pepper (masculine) Modern Dandy Dandy soil (strong & stout) iodine (mysterious) isotonic drink (clean) Clear lemon (fresh & young) vinegar (sour) yuzu/citrus junos (healthy) celery (youthful) Cool Casual green pepper (clean-cut) gasoline (mechanical) mint (exhilarating) cresol (sharp) Modern 30/40

31 Concept Study: Wafu( Japanese Style ) (1) Natural (2) Delicate (3) Mellow (4) Sober (5) Traditional Gentle Friendly Serene Unembellished Simple Calm Natural Elegant Rich Fine Peaceful Soft and elegant Emotional Smooth Graceful Mellow Modest Sober Plain Dry Elaborate Refined Traditional Dignified Conservative Classic Elegant Chic, suave Classic 31/40

32 Concept Study: Wafu( Japanese Style ) Wafu Ref.Season Image Color (1) Natural (2) Delicate (3) Mellow (4) Sober (5) Traditional 32/40

33 Application of Color Image Scale Secular change of Era trend analysis August 2016 January 2017 August 2017 January Focus on 6. Focus on relaxation and funelegance and softness 3.Focus on health and environment 2.Focus on cuteness and enjoyment 3. Focus on health and environment 4. Focus on relaxation and connection 5.Focus on tradition and authenticity 5. Focus on tradition and the classic 2.Focus on physical sensation and activity Social, economic and political relevance 1. Focus on use of advanced technology 6. Focus on individuality and power Social, economic and political relevance 1. Focus on spread of advanced technology Ref.Season Image Color 72 Ref.Season Image Color 74 33/40

34 Study of Taste and Lifestyle in Feminine, natural style: 25.5% (112 /440) 1 Laid-back, simple style: 29.8% (131/440) 2 5 Individualist, casual style Feminine, natural style 4 Dressy, elegant style 3 Elegant, orthodox style 1 Laid-back, simple style 5 Individualist, casual style: 9.5% (42 /440) 4 Dressy, elegant style: 15.7% (69/440) 3 Elegant, orthodox style: 19.5% (86 /440) Ref.Season Image Color 74 34/40

35 Online Content Marketing Analysis Hue & Tone analysis Data creation Data of colors used Preference data Database creation Marketing data Sales Regions Designed work Image Scale analysis Image words Color combination data Into preference information database Target Preferred colors Materials Sizes Lifestyle Designs 35/40

36 Aim of Kobayashi3 Keywords of Founder Ecological Psychological Historical Economical at Tokyo University s Botanical Garden 1996 photo by K.Iwamatsu 36/40

37 What we introduced today Young Researcher s Aim Munsell Color System Munsell Color System 1. Hue & Tone System 2. Color Image Scale 37/40

38 References S. Kobayashi, The aim and Method of the Color Image Scale, COLOR research and application, Volume 6, Number 2, Summer, John Wiley & Sons Inc.,1981 S. Kobayashi, NCD, Color System, Kodansha, 1999 Musell Renotation Color Book, Japan Color Research Institute, 1963 S. Kobayashi, Yoshiyori Michie, Ouyou shikisai shinri (Applied color psychology), Seishin shobo, 1975 The Standard Color Card of America. 9th ed. Textile Color Card Association of the United States, Inc.; 1960 Dictionary of Colour Standards. The British Colour Council; Dictionary of Colour Standards dyed woollen samples., The British Colour Council; Sanzo Wada. Encyclopedia of color names (Shikimei Soukan)., Tokyo: Shunjusha Publishing Company; Sanzo Wada, Japan Color Research Institute. Guide to Colour Standard (Iro no Hyoujun). Tokyo: Nihon Shikisai Sha; Colour Booklet. Tokyo: Nihon Shikisai Sha; Rokuro Uemura, Katsuhiro Yamazaki. Encyclopedia of Japanese Colour Names (Nihon Shikimei Taikan). Tokyo: Koubun-sha; 1943 The Color Harmony Manual. 4th ed. Chicago: Container Corporation of America; 1958Kenneth L. Kelly and Deane B. Judd. ISCC-NBS Method of Designating Colors and a Dictionary of Color Names. National Bureau of Standards Circular; 1965 Color Code for Market Survey. Tokyo: Japan Color Research Institute; /40

39 Note Every figure with no citation is either self-made or free. 39/40

40 Thank you.

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