rapid casting development with simulation and QMC

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1 1 Rapid casting development by means of Qualified Master Casting (QMC) and numerical simulation modeling Dr. Joachim Gundlach Grunewald 2008

2 2 1. Grunewald 2. Rapid Prototyping techniques 3. casting development and Qualified Master Casting QMC 4. small series production 5. castings

3 3 CAD CAM CAE Data management 3D-Design FEM-Simulation Cutting path programming 2D-Design (drawings) Pattern shop Foundry CNC-Machining Tool making Foundry patterns Cast prototypes CNC-Machining Soft Interior Laserprototyping Small series casting Large parts machining Gauges and fixtures Plastic prototyping Series sand casting Jigs and fixtures Die casting Tool components Mechanical controls Injection moulding Welded structures Aerospace

4 4 1. Grunewald 2. Rapid Prototyping techniques 3. casting development and Qualified Master Casting QMC 4. small series production 5. castings

5 5 Selective Laser Sintering Polystyrol -casting models for functional prototypes Selective Laser Sintering Polyamid - direct functional prototypes - master patterns for small series casting production Stereolithography - master patterns for small series casting production plastic component production -vacuum castings

6 6 1. Grunewald 2. Rapid Prototyping techniques 3. casting development and Qualified Master Casting QMC 4. small series production 5. castings

7 7 aluminum RR350, VW023, 226, a356, a357, 239, 233, 231 and special alloys, incl. T5, T6, T7 heat treatment and various surface treatments iron GJS , GJS , GJS , GJS , GJS , GJS , GJS , GJS , GJL , GJL , GJL , GJL , GJL , GJL und special alloys, incl. heat treatment

8 8 Qualified Master Casting (QMC) basic features are: 1. laser sintered polystyrene models 2. plaster investment moulds 3. low pressure or gravity casting 4. specialised NC-machining 5. required quality inspections and documentation

9 9 mechanical properties process parameter thermal properties

10 10 product + process specifications thermal resistance surface condition + accuracy geometrical exactness (tolerances) formability thermal expansion vacuum tightness ergonomics special production features material specifications casting alloy mold- + core materials coatings coolings isolation Design + Production Process quality measures material specifications metrology surface check vacuum check leak test thermal check X-ray or CT 16

11 11 temperature fields C

12 12 residual stresses, shrinkage + distortion

13 13 areas / t sec. areas of isolated rest fluid, porosities

14 14 localisation of hot spots + areas of isolated rest fluid temperature fields C areas of isolated rest fluid, porosities

15 15 shrinkage + distortion values in x-,y- and z-direction section B-B choice of points shrinkage + distortion X Y Z # 1 B-B # 2 # 3 # 4

16 16 definition of the casting system 6 casting system chill: chills: 1, 2 chills: 3, 4, 5 3

17 17 analysis of feeding pathes various simulation calculations chills in LP development processdecision chills in LP + UP 16

18 18 rounded and not rounded angles positive: rounded angles negative: heating up of not rounded angles

19 19 rib design / mass concentration negative: crosswise ribs positive: displaced ribs

20 20 mass concentration negative: no clearance positive: clearance

21 21 wall geometry and button negative: small window, angular button positive: bigger window, equal wall thickness, rounded button

22 22 wall geometry negative: straight wall positive: geometry change, rounded

23 23 wall geometry negative: straight wall positive: geometry change, change of compression stress to tensile stress

24 24 different rib geometries negative: diagonal wise positive: circular

25 25 compression and tensile stresses distortion

26 26 The casting system, including gating, feeding and cooling will be fitted to the master model. Special cooling techniques cause defined mechanical properties in the castings.

27 27 moulding process Polystyrene modell with low pressure gating system mould filled with mould material mould after oven process ready for casting, modell and gating has been burned out

28 28 low pressure casting machine - year of construction: contents of crucible 300 kg Al, (exchangable crucible) - dynamic pressure control - small series production

29 29 Grunewald mech. Eigenschaften Wert Rp 0,2 [MPa] Rm [MPa] Ao [%] HB 50 0 SG QMC QMC SG QMC QMC QMC A357 wa A357 wa A357 wa 226 T6 RR350 T5 RR350 T7 RR350 T7 Verfahren / Werkstoff /wa mechanical properties

30 30 NC-processing

31 31 1. Grunewald 2. Rapid Prototyping techniques 3. casting development and Qualified Master Casting QMC 4. small series production 5. castings

32 32 Rapid Tooling + sand- and die casting CAD design of the tool or laser sintered masters on basis of 3D-product data machined tools (HSC) modular tool architecture shaping of undercuts with single inserts sand moulds or permanent moulds (iron or steel) low pressure casting technique process adapted NC-machining process matched quality measures and documentation

33 33 CAD-Design of a Sand Casting Pattern in CATIA V5

34 34 high performance frame a356

35 35 sand castings

36 36 1. Grunewald 2. Rapid Prototyping techniques 3. casting development and Qualified Master Casting QMC 4. small series production 5. castings

37 37 exhaust manifold - Ni-resist

38 38 aluminum components for the 18-cylinder engine (VW/Bugatti)

39 39 suction pipe Qualified Netshape Casting QNS

40 40 V8-RH/LH cylinder heads (Jaguar) - a357

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