Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1

2 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION People who work with drawings develop the ability to look at lines on paper or on a computer screen and "see" the shapes of the objects the lines represent. Visualization is an essential skill when working with technical information. Architects, engineers, machinists, carpenters, welders, installers -- many types of workers create or use drawings. Technical drawings and sketches provide a clear, concise, exact method of representing three-dimensional information. Starting at the Industrial Revolution the process and theory of technical drawing has evolved into a universal graphical language. objects represented? Part of the answer is that these people rapidly recognize and analyze basic types of surfaces. How do people who work with drawings think about the lines they see? What is the mental process that allows skilled workers to quickly interpret abstract lines, curves and shapes to form an exact mental image of the Once individual surfaces are recognized, then the interfaces -- common edges and intersections -- between the surfaces may be visualized. With practice this process becomes very rapid. In the next four chapters much emphasis will be placed on recognizing types of plane and curved surfaces in space. Only three types of plane (flat) surfaces exist. Many types of curved surfaces -- cylinders, cones, spheres, torus, etc. -- exist. By recognizing each type of surface, rules may be applied to the appearance of the surface on drawings. Visualizing objects is a process of assembling the individual surfaces into shapes then into objects. the same way a mathematical expression is solved. Portions may be solved by following rules before the actual answer is apparent. Objects may be solved in much Learning to visualize objects is an individual skill. Making clay models, computer models or LEGO (tm) models is an excellent step. Seeing the answer from someone else destroys all chance to learn. Problems at the end of each chapter are designed to develop visualization skills. Work on each problem for short time. If the answer is not apparent, come back to the problem later. D - 1

3 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Pictorial vs. Orthographic Views Pictorial drawings give quick three-dimensional views of objects. They are often used for advertising, repair manuals, and general information. Shapes are easier to visualize and intersections of surfaces can be seen. Pictorials distort the lengths of lines and angles at corners. These drawings cannot be used for production. This drawing is an isometric pictorial. Production (detail) drawings describe the shape of the object by looking directly at the faces of the object. In this way the true length lines and true angles at corners may be seen. Multiple views are needed. These views are two-dimensional. Views are obtained by looking in the direction of the arrows shown in the isometric above. Multiple views are needed. FRONT, TOP and RIGHT SIDE views are used here. Dimensions and notes give size and manufacturing instructions. Dimensions are placed where the shape shows best. Engineers, architects and designers "see" objects in pictorial mental images. They must convert pictorial ideas into orthographic form for production. Workers and others must convert the orthographic drawings back into pictorial images in order to analyze the shapes and use the information. The transition from pictorial - to orthographic - to pictorial is a constant process. By far, the most difficult step is converting orthographic drawings to pictorials. This process requires looking at two-dimensional images to get three-dimensional shapes. Computer modeling is simplifying this process. D - 2

4 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Multiple View Drawings Orthographic views may be obtained by placing an object inside a "glass box". Faces of the box are at right angles. Surfaces on the object are aligned parallel to the faces of the box when possible. Views are drawn by projecting lines and surfaces to each face of the box. Orthographic views are two-dimensional. In the front view there is no way to show the difference in level (depth) between the surfaces. Projection planes of the glass box are perpendicular to each other. Three regular planes are shown. Left side, bottom and back planes may also be used. These planes are also used by computer graphics systems. The line of sight for each view is perpendicular to each projection plane. Looking perpendicular to a plane gives the true size of the plane in a particular view -- the other projection planes appear in edge-view. Surface 1,2,3,4 is parallel to the front projection plane. It will appear as a surface (true size) in the front view. In the top view 1,2,3,4 appears as edge-of surface A-B. In the side view 1,2,3,4 appears as edge-of-surface C-D. "Reading" orthographic views involves integrating this type of information about every surface on the object to form a mental image. D - 3

5 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Six Regular Orthographic Views Six regular views of an object may be projected. Rule: Each feature of an object must be shown as visible lines in at least one view. Drafters must decide which views to draw. Sometimes additional (auxiliary) views are needed to clarify shapes and remove ambiguities. Dimensions, for example, must be placed on the "true shape" views. Partial views may be drawn. Notice the hinge locations when unfolding the plastic box. Observe the alignment of the views: front-top-bottom, and front-rightleft-back. Views must be placed on the page or computer screen in this form. This graphic shows the AMERICAN STANDARD ARRANGEMENT OF VIEWS. Third Angle Projection Views must be sketched or drawn ac- cording to this alignment. People who work with drawings expect to find the views of objects in this form. Front, top and bottom views must be aligned vertically. All corners and features must project vertically. Front, right side, left side and back views must be aligned horizontally. Features and corners must project horizontally. Metric Drawings - First Angle Projection Drawings made according to metric standards may place the views in a different form on the page. See page D- 20 for an explanation. D - 4

6 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Surfaces on an object are at different levels. A is more to the front, then B, then C D is more to the top, then E F is more to the right, G is more to the left. If a line separates two surfaces, there must be a difference in level between the surfaces. Orthographic Views are Two-Dimensional When surfaces A, B and C are projected to the front projection plane, they appear next to each other. Depth is lost. The person reading the drawing must look at an adjacent (top or side) view to see which surface is in front. When F and G are projected to the side view, they appear next to each other. Width is lost. The surfaces are at different levels. Look the front or top views to see which surface is more to the right or left. D and E appear next to each other in the top view. Height is lost. Look at the front or side views to see which surface is higher and which surface is set down lower. D - 5

7 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Common Dimensions Between Views Major dimensions for objects are commonly named only two of the three dimensions. HEIGHT, WIDTH AND DEPTH. Orthographic views are two-dimensional so each view can show In any two adjacent views, all three dimensions may be seen. WIDTH is the common dimension between the front, top (and bottom) views. Top view shows width and depth Front view shows width and height. Width is projected vertically between the views. HEIGHT is the common dimension between the front, right side, (left side and back) views. Front view shows height and width Side view shows height and depth. Height is projected horizontally between the views. DEPTH is the common dimension between the top and side views. While DEPTH is measured in a horizontal direction in space, it must be measured in a vertical direction in the top view. Side view shows depth and height Top view shows depth and width. Depth is measured horizontally in the side view and vertically in the top view. D - 6

8 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Several methods of transferring depth are shown. Dividers are the quickest and most accurate tool. Use the paper method for plain paper sketches. Transferring the DEPTH Dimension On grid papers, count the "units" to transfer depth. A miter line may be used to geometrically transfer depth from the side-to-top and the top-to-side views. This technique is used on drawings created with T- squares or drafting machines. This technique may be used to transfer depth measurements on computer drawings. The miter line technique may be used on two dimensional CAD drawings. D - 7

9 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Views are shown in standard arrangement. Notice the common dimensions between the views. Also, note the line of sight between the views. For example, the arrow shows the direction to look at the front view to get the side view. And, the direction to look at the side view to get the front view. Actually holding an object and turning it as shown will help verify the views and the projection theory on previous examples. Be sure you turn the object correctly to draw each view. At first people tend to draw some views backward! Clay Models Carving clay models of objects is the most effective way to experience the transition from real objects to paper drawings. Creating models from drawings will strongly reinforce the transition from abstract lines on paper to real objects. Styrofoam packing blocks also make good modeling material. D - 8

10 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Visualizing Objects Carving models (or just thinking through the steps) is an effec- material from the object to leave the profiles shown. tive way to visualize objects. Starting with a solid block, observe the outlines of the top, front and side views. Cut away No material is left in the open areas. This means that the object must be cut all the way across: top to bottom, front to back, right to left respectively. From the front view, cut away the block as shown. This cut creates surfaces A and B. line 9,10 is added to the side view. line 1,2 is added to the top view In the top view, remove the block shown. This creates surface C. Hidden line 1,2 is added to the front view. Lines 3,6 and 5,4 are added to the side view. A similar process is used in computer solids modeling. "Tools" are shaped then mathematically subtracted from an object. Surface D is created Cut the block from the top of the object. This completes the shape outlined in the first picture. line 1,2 is added to the front view line 3,4 and 5,6 are added to the top view. D - 9

11 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Building Objects by Joining Solids Objects may be visualized by imagining the basic shapes which were joined. Basic shapes include: cones rectangular solids cylinders pyramids torus spheres Pieces include cylinders and plates in this example. Objects are often combinations of added shapes minus subtracted shapes. These concepts are used in computer solids modeling. Libraries of shapes may be provided which generate geometric solids. The solids may then be added together (union) or subtracted away. Two rectangular solids are first joined together, then a cylinder is subtracted to create the final shape. D - 10

12 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Linetypes Used on Drawings A number of special linetypes are used on drawings. The most common line codes are shown: Object lines are solid lines which represent the visible edges of objects. Hidden lines represent features which cannot be seen. These lines must be shown to give complete information about the shape of the object. Hidden lines are short dashes- 1/8" or so. Center lines define the center geometry of holes or symmetry on an object. They are longshort dashed lines. 3/4" long and 1/8" short segments. Examples of preferred hidden and center line representations are shown. Center lines should intersect at the centers of circles. Preferred hidden line intersections are shown. CAD software does not always support these preferences. Visible edge lines are most important. They have precedence over other linetypes. Hidden lines are second in importance. Often there are hidden lines behind visible lines on a drawing. The hidden lines cannot be shown This makes reading a drawing a bit harder. because the visible lines are most important. Center lines have no visibility. They are least in importance. D - 11

13 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Creating Multi-view drawings from Pictorials A pictorial shows the shape of the object for easier visualization. Identify the surfaces by placing a letter in each bounded area. Sketch the top, front and side views by looking directly at each face. A,B and C are seen in the top view. They are at different levels to each other. (Top to bottom). J, K and L are seen in the front view. J and K are at different levels. L and K are at different levels. J and L are at the same level. (Front to back). R, S, T, and U are seen in the side view. They are all at different levels. (right to left). R extends down behind U creating the hidden line in the side view. Orthographic front and top views must align vertically. Front and side views must align horizontally. This object has normal, inclined, oblique and cylindrical surfaces. N2, I and O are seen in the side view. N1 and O are seen in the front. N, C (circular hole), I and O are seen in the top. Note the location of each surface in each view: FRONT: N, I and N2 appear as edge-of surface. N1 is a true view, O is foreshortened. TOP: N1, N2 and C (cylinder) appear as edge-of-surface. O and I are foreshortened. SIDE: N and N1 appear as an edge-of-surface O and I are foreshortened. "C" Cylindrical surface is a plotted curve. D - 12

14 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Creating Pictorial Views from Orthographic Views Front, top and side views of an object are given. These views are complete with no missing lines. Label surfaces by placing a letter (neatly!) in each surface. Labeling surfaces is important to assure that all surfaces are accounted for. Sketch a box to enclose the pictorial: 11 units width (upward to left) 8 units height (vertical) 8 units depth (upward to right). Sketch the surfaces on the outer faces of the isometric box first. Surface A is seen from the front view. Sketch surface A on the front face of the isometric box. Use the dimensions from the orthographic views. Surface B is seen in the right side view. Sketch surface B on the right side face of the box. Surface A and surface B share an edge. Sketching the surfaces on the faces of the isometric box helps locate corners which will be needed for other surfaces later... D - 13

15 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Surface C is seen from the top view. Sketch C on the top plane of the isometric box. Surface E and surface C share an edge. Sketching Isometric Pictorials Surface D shares a horizontal edge with surface A. D is parallel to C and two units below. Sketch D on the pictorial starting at the top edge of A and working back 5 units. Surface E is parallel to surface B and 6 units to the left of B. E shares a vertical edge with A. Sketch E on the pictorial, starting at A and extending upward to the right 5 units. D - 14

16 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Isometric Pictorial Surface F is seen from the top view. It is 3 units up from the bottom face. F shares an edge with A also. Starting from A sketch F upward to the right 5 units deep and 6 units wide. Surface G is seen from the front view. It shares edges with D, E, F, b and C. Sketch the closed shape of surface G on the pictorial. This completes the view. Hidden lines are usually not shown on pictorial views. Normal Surface Pictorial Label the surfaces on the object. Sketch (or draw) isometric box. Modify box per shape of top view. Locate surface A, B and C on the faces of the box. Sketch interior surfaces from common edges. D - 15

17 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Inclined Surfaces on Pictorials Inclined surfaces may be plotted by locating the endpoints on the inclined edges on the isometric axes. Sketch the angled lines by connecting the endpoints. Measurements on Isometrics can only be made along the isometric axes. upward to the left (width) upward to the right (depth) vertical (height). Angles must be converted to coordinate measurements. Calculate (or measure) distances X and Y from the 60 degree angles. Use the distances X and Y along the isometric axes to locate point O on the pictorial. Angular dimensions must be converted to coordinate distances. Measure isometric distances A and B from the orthographic view and transfer upward to the left (width) on the isometric view. Measure distances C and D from the orthographic view and transfer vertically (height) on the isometric view. D - 16

18 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Oblique edge 8-4 is the line of intersection between two inclined surfaces. Oblique Edges and Surfaces on Pictorials Sketch each inclined surface on the faces of the isometric box to locate the line of intersection. Locate edge 6-7 and sketch the entire surface using parallel edges. Locate edge 2-3 and sketch the entire surface using parallel edges. Intersection line 4, 8 can be located from the common point between the two construction surfaces. Locate oblique surfaces by fixing points on the edges of the isometric box. extend 1, 2 to locate A on the top-front edge plot 4 on the front-bottom edge plot point 5 on the side-bottom edge locate point 2 on the top-side-back edge. Sketch parallel lines to locate interior points. Locate 1 on A - 2 Locate 5 on A - 4 5, 6 is parallel to 3, 4 and 2, A 1, 6 is parallel to 4, A. These lines locate point 6. D - 17

19 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Circular Edges and Cylinders in Pictorial Views Circles show as ellipses in pictorial views. Three orientations are possible. circle in the top face - fig. 1 circle in the front face - fig. 3 circle in the side face - fig. 2 "Four center" ellipses may be used for correct appearance in isometric pictorials. Four construction lines, even on sketches, are needed to locate the centers for arcs which approximate true ellipses. Approximate ellipses are usually used on isometrics. 4 center ellipses Sketch rhombus 1,2,3,4 on the pictorial. (Use correct radius for each ellipse). Fig 1: Locate mid-point for each side A,B,C,D. Sketch line from obtuse angle to opposite midpoint. (2 lines). Fig 2: Sketch a small arc at corner 1 and 3 using intersection of 2-A : 4-B and 2-D : 4-C. Fig 3: Sketch long arcs using 4 and 2 as centers. Similar constructions for top or side ellipses are shown. Four center ellipses may be used for freehand sketches or for drawings using either a compass or a computer. Sketch an ellipse at each point along the cylinder where an intersection occurs. This will insure an accurate looking picture. Sketch a new rhombus and new ellipse for each diameter circle in the pictorial. D - 18

20 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Circles and Curves in Pictorials Correct directions for ellipses in each face are shown. Center lines follow the isometric axis direction for each face. Correct ellipse orientation and centerline direction is essential to produce accurate pictorial views. Other curves in pictorial views may require a number of points. Transfer X and Y distances from the orthographic view using construction lines 1 through 9 as shown. Use parallel line constructions to locate points. Sketch a smooth curve through the points. An irregular curve may be used on drawings to draw a smooth curve through the points. Some CAD software provides polyline constructions with curve-fitting to draw smooth curves. D - 19

21 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics Third Angle vs. First Angle projection Drawings in the United States and a few other countries use 3rd angle projection. An example is shown to the right. Angles between the Reference Planes 2nd Angle Third Angle First Angle 4th Angle Object placed in 3rd angle. Dimensions on objects may be in inches or millimeters. When the reference planes are opened the views are placed on the paper as shown. This is the American Standard arrangement of views. Metric drawings made according to ISO standards are created using the First Angle. When the views are opened and placed on a flat sheet, the same Front, Top, Side views are placed as shown. Note where the reference planes are "hinged" to see why the views are placed on the page this way. Metric ISO standard arrangement of views. Many drawings produced by other countries follow this view placement. D - 20

22 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION D - 21

23 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics D - 22

24 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION D - 23

25 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics D - 24

26 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION D - 25

27 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics D - 26

28 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION D - 27

29 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics D - 28

30 Engineering Graphics ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION D - 29

31 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Engineering Graphics D - 30

### UNIT 5a STANDARD ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW DRAWINGS

UNIT 5a STANDARD ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW DRAWINGS 5.1 Introduction Orthographic views are 2D images of a 3D object obtained by viewing it from different orthogonal directions. Six principal views are possible

### Multiview Drawing. Definition: Graphical representation of a 3- dimensional object on one plane (sheet of paper) using two or more views.

Multiview Drawing Definition: Graphical representation of a 3- dimensional object on one plane (sheet of paper) using two or more views. Multiview Drawing Another name for multiview drawing is orthographic

### ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION C H A P T E R S I X OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize and the symbol for third-angle projection. 2. List the six principal views of projection. 3. Understand which views show depth in a drawing

### Multiviews and Auxiliary Views

Multiviews and Auxiliary Views Multiviews and Auxiliary Views Objectives Explain orthographic and multiview projection. Identifying the six principal views. Apply standard line practices to multiviews

### Multi-View Drawing Review

Multi-View Drawing Review Sacramento City College EDT 300/ENGR 306 EDT 300 / ENGR 306 - Chapter 5 1 Objectives Identify and select the various views of an object. Determine the number of views needed to

### ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 1E9

Lecture 3 Monday, 15 December 2014 1 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 1E9 Lecture 3: Isometric Projections Lecture 3 Monday, 15 December 2014 2 What is ISOMETRIC? It is a method of producing pictorial view of an object

### 11/12/2015 CHAPTER 7. Axonometric Drawings (cont.) Axonometric Drawings (cont.) Isometric Projections (cont.) 1) Axonometric Drawings

CHAPTER 7 1) Axonometric Drawings 1) Introduction Isometric & Oblique Projection Axonometric projection is a parallel projection technique used to create a pictorial drawing of an object by rotating the

### Student Name: Teacher: Date: District: Rowan. Assessment: 9_12 T and I IC61 - Drafting I Test 1. Description: Unit C - Sketching - Test 2.

Student Name: Teacher: Date: District: Rowan Assessment: 9_12 T and I IC61 - Drafting I Test 1 Description: Unit C - Sketching - Test 2 Form: 501 1. The most often used combination of views includes the:

### Technological Design Mr. Wadowski. Orthographic & Isometric Drawing Lesson

Technological Design Mr. Wadowski Orthographic & Isometric Drawing Lesson TOPICS Working Drawings, Isometric Drawings & Orthographic Drawings Glass box concept Multiview projection Orthographic projection

### ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS. Ms. Sicola

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS Ms. Sicola Objectives List the six principal views of projection Sketch the top, front and right-side views of an object with normal, inclined, and oblique surfaces Objectives

### Orthographic Projection

Orthographic Projection Why Orthographic Projection is used in technical drawing Orthographic projection is a method of producing a number of separate two-dimensional inter-related views, which are mutually

### Chapter 5 Pictorial sketching

Chapter 5 Pictorial sketching Contents Freehand sketching techniques Pictorial projections - Axonometric - Oblique Isometric projection vs isometric sketch Isometric sketch from an orthographic views Isometric

### Beginning Engineering Graphics 3 rd Week Lecture Notes Instructor: Edward N. Locke Topic: The Coordinate System, Types of Drawings and Orthographic

Beginning Engineering Graphics 3 rd Week Lecture Notes Instructor: Edward N. Locke Topic: The Coordinate System, Types of Drawings and Orthographic 1 st Subject: The Cartesian Coordinate System The Cartesian

### Engineering Graphics Essentials with AutoCAD 2015 Instruction

Kirstie Plantenberg Engineering Graphics Essentials with AutoCAD 2015 Instruction Text and Video Instruction Multimedia Disc SDC P U B L I C AT I O N S Better Textbooks. Lower Prices. www.sdcpublications.com

### CLASS views from detail on a grid paper. (use appropriate line types to show features) - Optional views. Turn in for grading on class 6 (06/04)

CLASS 4 Review: - Projections - Orthographic projections Lab: - 3 views from detail on a grid paper. (use appropriate line types to show features) - Optional views. Turn in for grading on class 6 (06/04)

### ME 113 Computer Aided Engineering Drawing

ME 113 Computer Aided Engineering Drawing Orthographic Projection - Visualizing Solids and Multiview Drawings Asst.Prof.Dr.Turgut AKYÜREK Çankaya University, Ankara Visualizing Solids and Multiview Drawings

### ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS with AutoCAD 2012 Instruction Introduction to AutoCAD Engineering Graphics Principles Hand Sketching Text and Independent Learning CD Independent Learning CD: A Comprehensive

### Engineering Drawing Lecture 5 PROJECTION THEORY

University of Palestine College of Engineering & Urban Planning First Level Engineering Drawing Lecture 5 PROJECTION THEORY Lecturer: Eng. Eman Al.Swaity Eng.Heba hamad PART 1 PROJECTION METHOD TOPICS

### Chapter 1 Overview of an Engineering Drawing

Chapter 1 Overview of an Engineering Drawing TOPICS Graphics language Engineering drawing Projection methods Orthographic projection Drawing standards TOPICS Traditional Drawing Tools Lettering Freehand

### Engineering Graphics, Class 8 Orthographic Projection. Mohammad I. Kilani. Mechanical Engineering Department University of Jordan

Engineering Graphics, Class 8 Orthographic Projection Mohammad I. Kilani Mechanical Engineering Department University of Jordan Multi view drawings Multi view drawings provide accurate shape descriptions

### CHAPTER 01 PRESENTATION OF TECHNICAL DRAWING. Prepared by: Sio Sreymean

CHAPTER 01 PRESENTATION OF TECHNICAL DRAWING Prepared by: Sio Sreymean 2015-2016 Why do we need to study this subject? Effectiveness of Graphics Language 1. Try to write a description of this object. 2.

### Pictorial Drawings. DFTG-1305 Technical Drafting Prepared by Francis Ha, Instructor

DFTG-1305 Technical Drafting Prepared by Francis Ha, Instructor Pictorial Drawings Geisecke s textbook for reference: 14 th Ed. Ch. 15: p. 601 Ch. 16: p. 620 15 th Ed. Ch. 14: p. 518 Ch. 15: p. 552 Update:

### DWG 002. Blueprint Reading. Geometric Terminology Orthographic Projection. Instructor Guide

DWG 002 Blueprint Reading Geometric Terminology Orthographic Projection Instructor Guide Introduction Module Purpose The purpose of the Blueprint Reading modules is to introduce students to production

2004 Academic Challenge ENGINEERING GRAPHICS TEST - REGIONAL Engineering Graphics Test Production Team Ryan Brown, Illinois State University Author/Team Coordinator Kevin Devine, Illinois State University

### Multiview Projection

DFTG-1305 Technical Drafting Prof. Francis Ha Session 4 Multiview Projection (or Orthographic Projection) Reading: Geisecke s textbook: 14 th Ed. Chapter 5 p.162 15 th Ed. Chapter 6 p.232 Update: 17-0510

### technical drawing

technical drawing school of art, design and architecture nust spring 2011 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q6mk9hpxwvo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnu2gb7w4qs Objective abstraction - axonometric view

### ENGR 1182 Exam 1 First Mid Term Exam Study Guide and Practice Problems

Spring Semester 2016 ENGR 1182 Exam 1 First Mid Term Exam Study Guide and Practice Problems Disclaimer Problems in this study guide resemble problems relating mainly to the pertinent homework assignments.

### 1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION SECTION I: INTRODUCTION TO ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION SECTION I: INTRODUCTION TO ISOMETRIC PROJECTION Orthographic projection shows drawings of an object in a two-dimensional format, with views given in plan, elevation and end elevation

### Interpretation of Drawings. An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Creating Technical Drawings

Interpretation of Drawings An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Creating Technical Drawings Introduction In the design process drawings are the main way in which information about an object or product

### A Concise Introduction to Engineering Graphics

A Concise Introduction to Engineering Graphics Fourth Edition Including Worksheet Series A Timothy J. Sexton, Professor Department of Industrial Technology Ohio University BONUS Book on CD: TECHNICAL GRAPHICS

### ISOMETRIC PROJECTION. Contents. Isometric Scale. Construction of Isometric Scale. Methods to draw isometric projections/isometric views

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION Contents Introduction Principle of Isometric Projection Isometric Scale Construction of Isometric Scale Isometric View (Isometric Drawings) Methods to draw isometric projections/isometric

### CE 100 Civil Engineering Drawing Sessional (Lab Manual)

CE 100 Civil Engineering Drawing Sessional (Lab Manual) Department of Civil Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology November, 2017 1 Preface This course is designed to provide civil

### At the conclusion of this unit you should be able to accomplish the following with a 70% accuracy

7 Multiview Drawing OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this unit you should be able to accomplish the following with a 70% accuracy 1. explain the importance of mulitview drawing as a communication tool far

### Engineering Graphics UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS RIO GRANDE VALLEY JAZMIN LEY HISTORY OF ENGINEERING GRAPHICS GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION & SOLID MODELING

Engineering Graphics UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS RIO GRANDE VALLEY JAZMIN LEY HISTORY OF ENGINEERING GRAPHICS GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION & SOLID MODELING Overview History of Engineering Graphics: Sketching, Tools,

### Graphical Communication

Chapter 9 Graphical Communication mmm Becoming a fully competent engineer is a long yet rewarding process that requires the acquisition of many diverse skills and a wide body of knowledge. Learning most

### PROJECTIONS PARALLEL CONICAL PROJECTIONS PROJECTIONS OBLIQUE ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS PROJECTIONS

PROJECTIONS CONICAL PROJECTIONS PARALLEL PROJECTIONS OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS ISOMETRIC MULTI-VIEW an object; The Description of Forms Behind every drawing of an object is space relationship

### Auxiliary view KCEC1101

Auxiliary view KCEC1101 Introduction There are times when one of the six principal views will not completely describe an object. This is especially true when there are inclined or oblique planes or features

### ENGINEERING DRAWING. 1. Set squares are used to draw different angles. What is the angel a formed by the 45⁰ set square? Give a brief answer.

ENGINEERING DRAWING 1. Set squares are used to draw different angles. What is the angel a formed by the 45⁰ set square? Give a brief answer. 2. Which is the correct method of hatching a plane surface?

### Principles and Practice

Principles and Practice An Integrated Approach to Engineering Graphics and AutoCAD 2011 Randy H. Shih Oregon Institute of Technology SDC PUBLICATIONS www.sdcpublications.com Schroff Development Corporation

### APJ ABDUL KALAM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY SECOND SEMESTER B.TECH DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY PART A Answer ANY Two questions. 10 marks each.

B B2B111 Pages: 2 Reg. No. Name: SECOND SEMESTER B.TECH DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2017 Max.Marks:50 Course Code: BE110 Duration:3Hours Answer ANY Two questions. 10 marks each. 1. A line AB 100 mm long and

### Describing an Angle Bracket

Basics of Drafting Describing an Angle Bracket Orthographic Projection Orthographic drawings represent three dimensional objects in three separate views arranged in a standard manner. Orthographic Views

### ENGINEERING DRAWING SKKK 1021 ISOMETRIC DRAWING. Agus Arsad, Azizul Azri Bin Mustaffa 10/2/2012 1

ENGINEERING DRAWING SKKK 1021 ISOMETRIC DRAWING Agus Arsad, Azizul Azri Bin Mustaffa 10/2/2012 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES ISOMETRIC DRAWING It is expected that students will be able to: Understand the significance

### Principles and Practice

Principles and Practice An Integrated Approach to Engineering Graphics and AutoCAD 2017 Randy H. Shih SDC PUBLICATIONS Better Textbooks. Lower Prices. www.sdcpublications.com Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

### ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS. (A Text and Lecture Aid) Second Edition. Kirstie Plantenberg University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS (A Text and Lecture Aid) Second Edition Kirstie Plantenberg University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com www.schroff-europe.com

2009 Academic Challenge ENGINEERING GRAPHICS TEST SECTIONAL This Test Consists of 50 Questions Engineering Graphics Test Production Team Ryan Brown, Illinois State University Author/Team Leader Kevin Devine,

### Engineering Graphics, Class 13 Descriptive Geometry. Mohammad I. Kilani. Mechanical Engineering Department University of Jordan

Engineering Graphics, Class 13 Descriptive Geometry Mohammad I. Kilani Mechanical Engineering Department University of Jordan Projecting a line into other views Given the front and right side projections

### ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS Text and Digital Learning KIRSTIE PLANTENBERG FIFTH EDITION SDC P U B L I C AT I O N S Better Textbooks. Lower Prices. www.sdcpublications.com ACCESS CODE UNIQUE CODE INSIDE

### Chapter 5 SECTIONS OF SOLIDS 5.1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 5 SECTIONS OF SOLIDS 5.1 INTRODUCTION We have studied about the orthographic projections in which a 3 dimensional object is detailed in 2-dimension. These objects are simple. In engineering most

### Engineering Working Drawings Basics

Engineering Working Drawings Basics Engineering graphics is an effective way of communicating technical ideas and it is an essential tool in engineering design where most of the design process is graphically

Worldwide Youth in Science and Engineering 2003 Academic Challenge ENGINEERING GRAPHICS TEST - REGIONAL Engineering Graphics Test Production Team Ryan Brown, Illinois State University Author/Team Coordinator

### INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

Course Name Course Code Class Branch INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad - 500 043 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TUTORIAL QUESTION BANK : ENGINEERING DRAWING : A10301 : I - B. Tech : Common

### Study Unit. Auxiliary Views. This sneak preview of your study material has been prepared in advance of the book's actual online release.

Study Unit Auxiliary Views This sneak preview of your study material has been prepared in advance of the book's actual online release. iii Preview You re entering now into another subject area in your

### Module 2: Radial-Line Sheet-Metal 3D Modeling and 2D Pattern Development: Right Cone (Regular, Frustum, and Truncated)

Inventor (5) Module 2: 2-1 Module 2: Radial-Line Sheet-Metal 3D Modeling and 2D Pattern Development: Right Cone (Regular, Frustum, and Truncated) In this tutorial, we will learn how to build a 3D model

### DMT113 Engineering Drawing. Chapter 3 Stretch System

DMT113 Engineering Drawing Chapter 3 Stretch System Contents Theory & Multiview Planes 6 Principle Views Multiview Sketching Technique & Perspective First & Third Angle Multiview Representations Theory

### ME1105 Engineering Drawing & Design

City University London Term 1 Assessment 2008/2009 School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences ME1105 Engineering Drawing & Design Student Name:.., Group: Examination duration: Reading time: This paper

### Civil Engineering Drawing

Civil Engineering Drawing Third Angle Projection In third angle projection, front view is always drawn at the bottom, top view just above the front view, and end view, is drawn on that side of the front

### Isometric Drawings. Figure A 1

A Isometric Drawings ISOMETRIC BASICS Isometric drawings are a means of drawing an object in picture form for better clarifying the object s appearance. These types of drawings resemble a picture of an

### Activity 2.4 Multi-view Sketching

Activity 2.4 Multi-view Sketching Introduction It s a very common occurrence to see a product advertisement and think, I thought of an idea for something like that just a few months ago. People spend a

### ENGINEERING GRAPHICS UNIT V ISOMETRIC PROJECTION PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS UNIT V ISOMETRIC PROJECTION PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION 1.PICTORIAL PROJECTIONS To visualize the shape of the whole object in its 3- D form, all the two or three orthographic views of the

### Chapter 5 Pictorial Projection

Chapter 5 Pictorial Projection Objectives After completing this chapter, the students will be able to Create freehand sketches using the correct sketching techniques. Explainthe difference between axonometric

### (As per New Revised Syllabus of Anna University) Department of Mechanical Engineering. SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai

(1*,1((5,1* *5\$3+,&6 (As per New Revised Syllabus of Anna University) Dr. S.RAMACHANDRAN, M.E., Ph.D. Professor & Head K. PANDIAN, M.E., E.V.V.RAMANAMURTHY, M.Tech., R. DEVARAJ, M.E., Associate Professors

### Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2018

Technical Drawing 101 with AutoCAD 2018 A Multidisciplinary Guide to Drafting Theory and Practice with Video Instruction Douglas Smith Antonio Ramirez Ashleigh Fuller SDC PUBLICATIONS Better Textbooks.

### A Concise Introduction to Engineering Graphics

Concise Introduction to Engineering Graphics ourth Edition Including Worksheet Series imothy J. Sexton, Professor Department of Industrial echnology Ohio University ONUS ook on CD: ECHNICL GRPHICS Meyers,

### Surface Developments. Sacramento City College Engineering Design Technology. Surface Developments 1

Surface Developments Sacramento City College Engineering Design Technology Surface Developments 1 Surface Developments A surface development is a full-size layout of an object made on a single flat plane.

### DFTG-1305 Technical Drafting Prof. Francis Ha

DFTG-1305 Technical Drafting Prof. Francis Ha Session 4 Orthographic Projection (or Multiview Projection) Reading: Geisecke s textbook: 14 th Ed. Chapter 5 p.162 15 th Ed. Chapter 6 p.232 Update: 18-0205

### Lecture #4 MULTIVIEW PROJECTION RES 112E COMPUTER AIDED TECHNICAL DRAWING ITU

Lecture #4 MULTIVIEW PROJECTION This week You will learn multi-view projection. The steps to follow are: Projections (ISO-E & ISO-A) Multi-view drawings Views (Basic,Auxiliary, Detailed etc.) Sketching

### UNIT I PLANE CURVES AND FREE HAND SKETCHING CONIC SECTIONS

UNIT I PLANE CURVES AND FREE HAND SKETCHING CONIC SECTIONS Definition: The sections obtained by the intersection of a right circular cone by a cutting plane in different positions are called conic sections

### MODELING AND DESIGN C H A P T E R F O U R

MODELING AND DESIGN C H A P T E R F O U R OBJECTIVES 1. Identify and specify basic geometric elements and primitive shapes. 2. Select a 2D profile that best describes the shape of an object. 3. Identify

### Chapter 8. Technical Drawings

Chapter 8 Technical Drawing Technical Drawings Multiview drawings Also called three-view drawings Simple objects take three views Front, top, one side Title block Identifies who did the design Gives date,

### Isometric Drawing Chapter 26

Isometric Drawing Chapter 26 Sacramento City College EDT 310 EDT 310 - Chapter 26 - Isometric Drawing 1 Drawing Types Pictorial Drawing types: Perspective Orthographic Isometric Oblique Pictorial - like

### 1 st Subject: 2D Geometric Shape Construction and Division

Joint Beginning and Intermediate Engineering Graphics 2 nd Week 1st Meeting Lecture Notes Instructor: Edward N. Locke Topic: Geometric Construction 1 st Subject: 2D Geometric Shape Construction and Division

### Drawing sheet: - The various size of the drawing sheet used for engineering drawing as per IS Are listed in the table

Dronacharya Group of Institutions, Greater Noida Computer Aided Engineering Graphics (CAEG) (NCE 151/251) List of Drawing Sheets: 1. Letter writing & Dimensioning. 2. Projection of Points & Lines. 3. Projection

### 3. The dimensioning SYMBOLS for arcs and circles should be given:

Draft Student Name: Teacher: District: Date: Wake County Test: 9_12 T and I IC61 - Drafting I Test 2 Description: 4.08 Dimensioning Form: 501 1. The MINIMUM amount of space between two, ADJACENT DIMENSION

### Engineering Graphics with SOLIDWORKS 2016 and Video Instruction

Engineering Graphics with SOLIDWORKS 2016 and Video Instruction A Step-by-Step Project Based Approach David C. Planchard, CSWP, SOLIDWORKS Accredited Educator SDC PUBLICATIONS Better Textbooks. Lower Prices.

2010 Academic Challenge ENGINEERING GRAPHICS TEST STATE FINALS This Test Consists of 40 Questions Engineering Graphics Test Production Team Ryan K. Brown, Illinois State University Author/Team Leader Jacob

### Two-Dimensional Drawing

22 Chapter Cxxxx 40757 3/19/08 10:24 AM Page 1 7% 3% 3% 18% 20% 22 Chapter CXXXX 40757 Page 1 03/18/08 MD 22 Two-Dimensional Drawing objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to Identify

### Mechanical Drawing. Unit 2 Study Guide for Chapters 6-10

Mechanical Drawing Unit 2 Study Guide for Chapters 6-10 Chapter 6 Multiview Drawing Section 6.1 Understanding Orthographic Projection A. Technical Drawing: How can a technical drawing give more accurate

### Chapter 2: Dimensioning Basic Topics Advanced Topics Exercises

Chapter 2: Dimensioning Basic Topics Advanced Topics Exercises Dimensioning: Basic Topics Summary 2-1) Detailed Drawings 2-2) Learning to Dimension 2-3) Dimension Appearance and Techniques. 2-4) Dimensioning

### Philadelphia University Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department

Philadelphia University Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Basics of Engineering Drawing Manual Done by:- Eng. Laith R.I. Batarseh Eng. Hanan Khamis 2017 1 Table of contents SUBJECT

### ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS ESSENTIALS with AutoCAD 2012 Instruction Introduction to AutoCAD Engineering Graphics Principles Hand Sketching Text and Independent Learning CD Independent Learning CD: A Comprehensive

### Understanding Projection Systems

Understanding Projection Systems A Point: A point has no dimensions, a theoretical location that has neither length, width nor height. A point shows an exact location in space. It is important to understand

### Dimensioning. Dimensions: Are required on detail drawings. Provide the shape, size and location description: ASME Dimensioning Standards

Dimensioning Dimensions: Are required on detail drawings. Provide the shape, size and location description: - Size dimensions - Location dimensions - Notes Local notes (specific notes) General notes ASME

### AUXILIARY VIEWS C H A P T E R N I N E

AUXILIARY VIEWS C H A P T E R N I N E Giesecke, Hill, Spencer, Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart, Goodman 1 OBJECTIVES 1. Create an auxiliary view from orthographic views. 2. Draw folding lines or reference-plane

### ENGINEERING DRAWING I

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ENGINEERING DRAWING I [TUTORIAL SHEETS] 1 CONTENTS Sheet No. 1: Technical Lettering 3 Sheet No. 2: Plane Geometrical Construction 5 Sheet No.

### Engineering Graphics. Class 2 Drafting Instruments Mohammad Kilani

Engineering Graphics Class 2 Drafting Instruments Mohammad Kilani Drafting Instruments A Design is as good as its instruments A engineering drawing is a highly stylized graphic representation of an idea.

### Student Name: Teacher: Date: District: Rowan. Assessment: 9_12 T and I IC61 - Drafting I Test 2. Description: Drafting 1 - Test 6.

Student Name: Teacher: Date: District: Rowan Assessment: 9_12 T and I IC61 - Drafting I Test 2 Description: Drafting 1 - Test 6 Form: 501 1. 2X on a hole note means: A. Double the size of the hole. B.

### Orthographic Projection 1

Orthographic Projection 1 What Is Orthographic Projection? Basically it is a way a representing a 3D object on a piece of paper. This means we make the object becomes 2D. The difference between Orthographic

### 1. When sketching long, narrow objects in OBLIQUE, distortion can be lessened by placing the long dimension along:

Draft Student Name: Teacher: District: Date: Wake County Test: 9_12 T and I IC61 - Drafting I Test 2 Description: 3.03 Apply 3D sketching Form: 501 1. When sketching long, narrow objects in OBLIQUE, distortion

### Chapter 2. Isometric Projection and Multi View Drawings. Below are the desired outcomes and usage competencies based on the completion of Chapter 2.

Chapter 2 Below are the desired outcomes and usage competencies based on the completion of Chapter 2. Desired Outcomes: Understand Isometric Projection and 2D sketching. Knowledge of additional Projection

### Unit-5 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

Unit-5 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION Importance Points in Isometric: 1. For drawing the isometric, the object must be viewed such that either the front -right or the left edges becomes nearest. 2. All vertical

### Add labels to the sides...

Orthographic Drawings Orthographic Projection A projection on a plane, using lines perpendicular to the plane Graphic communications has many forms. Orthographics is one such form. It was developed as

### Bridge Course On Engineering Drawing for Mechanical Engineers

G. PULLAIAH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Accredited by NAAC with A Grade of UGC, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi Permanently Affiliated to JNTUA, Ananthapuramu (Recognized by UGC under 2(f) and 12(B)

### Sketching in SciTech. What you need to know for graphic communication

Sketching in SciTech What you need to know for graphic communication Sketching in your Logbook Use pencil Take up the WHOLE PAGE Label things 1. Proportion Each part of the sketch is the right size,

### Brief Introduction to Engineering Graphics The use of drawings to convey information. Sketching freehand straight edge

Brief Introduction to Engineering Graphics The use of drawings to convey information. Sketching freehand straight edge CAD drawings 2D drafting 3D model to 2D drawings 1 Different Graphical Representation

### ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION INTRODUCTION Any object has three dimensions, that is, length, width and thickness. A projection is defined as a representation of an object on a two dimensional plane. The projections

### Activity Multiview Sketches

Activity 1.2.4 Multiview Sketches Purpose It s a very common occurrence to see a product advertisement and think, I thought of an idea for something like that just a few months ago. People spend a lot

### Activity Multiview Sketches

Activity 1.2.4 Multiview Sketches Introduction It s a very common occurrence to see a product advertisement and think, I thought of an idea for something like that just a few months ago. People spend a