# Understanding Projection Systems

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1 Understanding Projection Systems A Point: A point has no dimensions, a theoretical location that has neither length, width nor height. A point shows an exact location in space. It is important to understand that a point is not an object, but a position. We represent a point by placing a dot with a pencil. A Line: A line is a geometric object that has length and direction but no thickness. A line may be straight or curved. A line may be infinitely long. If a line has a definite length it is called a line segment or curve segment. A straight line is the shortest distance between two points which is known as the true length of the line. A line is named using letters to indicate its endpoints. B B A A AB - Straight Line Segment AB Curved Line Segment A line may be seen as the locus of a point as it travels between two points. A B A line can graphically represent the intersection of two surfaces, the edge view of a surface, or the limiting element of a surface. B A Plane: A plane is a flat surface which is infinitely large with zero thickness. Just as a point generates a line, a line can generate a plane. A A portion of a plane is referred to as a lamina. A Plane may be defined in a number of different ways

2 A plane may be defined by; (i) 3 non-linear points (ii) A line and a point (iii) Two intersecting lines (iv) Two Parallel Lines (The point can not lie on the line) Descriptive Geometry: refers to the representation of 3D objects in a 2D format using points, lines and planes. This format yields accurate information regarding lengths of lines and positions of objects relative to an origin. A view is created by projecting an object onto a plane. The position of the plane and the viewing direction relative to the object will determine the resulting view. Projector Plane In this case, the television is viewed from the front. The plane is placed behind the television perpendicular to the line of vision. The view is projected onto the plane at 90º. The resulting view is contained on the plane. This type of projection is known as Orthographic Projection or Orthogonal Projection. Does one view give us the complete picture? Pictured below are two bundles of 20 Notes, one contains significantly more than the other. Which would you choose? (a) or (b)? (a) (b) - 2 -

3 The views shown do not give enough information to enable us to make a decision as to which contains the most money. What view would you require to make a confident choice? The views below show the heights of both bundles. Bundle (b) clearly contains more than bundle (a). (a) (b) This view indicates a greater quantity of notes but leaves us undecided as to what the notes are. The top views indicate that both bundles are made up of 20 notes. The front view indicates the amount of notes in each. To confidently make a decision as to which contains the most money both views are required. Creating the views: As discussed earlier, in order to create a particular view of an object a plane must be placed in a position onto which the view will be projected. The views required in this case are a front view and top view. A plane is required behind the object onto which the front view will be projected. Because the line of vision is horizontal, and the plane is positioned perpendicular to the line of vision, this plane will be vertical. Similarly for the Top View, a plane will be placed underneath the object. As the line of vision is vertical the plane perpendicular to the line of vision will be horizontal. The line where the Vertical and Horizontal Planes meet is the line of intersection and is referred to as the xy line, the Horizontal Plane being the X plane and the Vertical Plane the Y Plane. Horizontal Projection Line Vertical Plane Vertical Projection Line Front View xy line - 3 -

4 Top View In Orthographic Projection, Horizontal these two Plane principal planes are used and are referred to as the Planes of Reference. The view shown below displays the model when viewed from the front. It is important to note that, when viewing the model from the front, the horizontal plane does not disappear but is seen as an edge. This edge view coincides with the line of intersection between the two planes xy line. The concept of a plane appearing as an edge will be explored further later. Vertical Plane Vertical Projection Lines to the Horizontal Plane Horizontal Plane XY Line The distance of an object above the horizontal plane is equal to the distance of the front view above the xy line When viewed from the top the model appears as shown below. As with the horizontal plane in the front view, the vertical plane is seen as an edge, coinciding with the xy line. Vertical Plane xy line Horizontal Projection Lines to Vertical Plane Horizontal Plane - 4 -

5 . The distance of an object in front of the vertical plane is equal The two views may be presented simultaneously and appear as to shown the distance below. of the top view in front of the xy line Vertical Plane Front View Projection Lines Horizontal Plane in front view. xy line Vertical Plane in top view. Top View Horizontal Plane The xy line is common to both views. The front view is presented overhead the top view. The projection lines join the front and top views and are perpendicular to the xy line. As discussed previously, the xy line represents the edge view of the vertical plane in plan view and the edge view of the horizontal plane in the front view. In order to investigate the planes of reference further we will model a representation of them in SolidWorks. The next steps will take us through how to create the model

6 Getting started Choosing a Plane Create a sketch. The principal planes of reference are displayed, along with the Right Plane. The Origin may be seen as the point common to all three planes. At this stage we will model only the Front and Top Plane. Creating the sketch Create a rectangular sketch on the Top Plane. The Origin is coincident with the midpoint of the line on the left hand side. Select Smart Dimension from the sketch toolbar and dimension the sketch as shown. Creating the Planar To create a plane to represent the Surface Horizontal Plane choose Insert, Surface, Planar from the drop down menu. The bounding rectangle will be chosen automatically. If not, choose one of the extremities of the sketch

7 Edit Appearance Rename Feature A grey colour is applied to the planar surface by default. Edit the appearance to reflect a more appropriate colour. Rename the feature Horizontal Plane in the Feature Manager. Creating the Vertical Plane Create the sketch shown on the front plane, using only the dimension shown. The midpoint of the left hand side is coincident with the origin. The sketch is fully defined by adding a coincident relation between the right hand side and the horizontal plane, as shown Planar Surface Edit Feature Create a Planar Surface using this sketch to represent the Vertical Plane. Rename the feature Vertical Plane. Edit the colour to reflect that of the Horizontal Plane. Representing the xy line Once modeled, you will notice that the xy line is not clearly defined. It is possible to see the line of intersection between the two planes but it is not possible to pick it. Intersection Curve In order to determine the line of intersection Intersection Curve will be used

8 line at the intersection of the two planar surfaces Intersection Curve will open a sketch and create a sketch Creating the sketch Choose Tools, Sketch Tools, Intersection Curve from the drop down menu. A new 3D Sketch will appear in the Feature Manager Design Tree. Highlight the two planar surfaces. The 3D Sketch (xy line) will be created representing the line of intersection between the Vertical and Horizontal Planes. Rename the feature xy line Edit the appearance, color to black Adding Annotation Add the Notes shown to represent the various features. Save the model as Orthographic Projection. Basic Principles These two principal planes are used in orthographic projection, one horizontal and one vertical. The two planes divide space into 4 quadrants. Choose Left View, the xy line appears as a point and the planes appear as edges. The angle between the planes, 90º, is shown in this view also. This is referred to as the Dihedral Angle The quadrants are numbered as shown. 2 nd Quadrant 1 st Quadrant 3 rd Quadrant 4 th Quadrant Left View - 8 -

9 In descriptive geometry the object is positioned in one of these quadrants. It is represented by its projections onto the vertical and horizontal planes, yielding the front and top views respectively. The front view is called the elevation, the top view is called the plan When the object is placed in the 1 st quadrant the resulting projection is known as First Angle Projection. When placed in the 3 rd quadrant the projection is referred to as Third Angle Projection To show these views on a single plane the horizontal and vertical planes are opened out to coincide with one another. It is convention that the 1 st quadrant is always opened out The 2 nd and 4 th Angle Projections are not commonly used as the rabatment would result in superimposed views. We will now investigate the different outcomes when an object is positioned in either the 1 st or 3 rd quadrant ie First and Third Angle Projection For the purpose of this exercise we will use a cylinder. Creating the cylinder in the 1 st quadrant Sketch details Creating the Feature Appearance View Rotation Create the sketch shown on the Horizontal Plane in the 1 st Quadrant. (A sketch may be created on a planar surface) Extrude the sketch to a depth of 60mm to create the cylinder. Edit the face appearance colors of the cylinder to reflect those shown below. Rename the feature Cylinder View Rotation allows the speed of transition from one view to another to be changed. For the purpose of demonstration it is best to slow down the speed of rotation. To edit the View Rotation setting choose: Tools/Options - 9 -

10 Select the View Rotation tab on the LHS Drag the view animation speed to the position shown. Choose OK Orthographic Views Investigate the various orthographic views of the object using Top, Front, Right, Left and Isometric Views. The slower transition speed allows us to clearly see the creation of each view. Projecting onto the In order to create the orthographic projection onto the planes of reference we will use a Planes command called Convert Entities Convert Entities: One or more curves may be created in a sketch by projecting the geometry of a solid onto a sketch plane Projecting the Front View. Choose Front View. Create a sketch on the Vertical Plane Pre-select the edges shown Hold down the shift key whilst picking to make multiple selections. It may be necessary to move to an isometric view in order to choose the base. Choose Isometric View From the Sketch toolbar choose Convert Entities The extremities of the cylinder, front view, are projected onto the front plane, resulting in a rectangular shaped projection. Exit the sketch. Extruded Boss/Base Appearance Extrude the sketch outwards to a depth of.01mm Edit the Face Appearance Color to reflect that of the surface of the cylinder

11 Rename the feature as Elevation. Projecting the Top View. Choose Top View. Create a sketch on the Horizontal Plane. Pre-select the circular extremity of the cylinder. From the Sketch toolbar choose Convert Entities Choose Isometric View Because the cylinder is sitting on the horizontal plane the projected view will coincide with its base. To see the projected view we will hide the model. Hide the cylinder To hide the cylinder right click on Cylinder in the feature manager design tree and select Hide. The cylinder has been hidden but it is not deleted The circular projection of the cylinder is now exposed on the Horizontal Plane Extruded Boss/Base Appearance Extrude the sketch to a depth of.01mm De-select Merge Result Edit the Face Appearance Color to reflect that of the top of the cylinder. Rename the feature as Plan Rabatment To represent this projection on a planar surface we must visualise the rabatment of the planes. Convention tells us that the 1 st quadrant is always opened out, thereby rotating the horizontal plane to a vertical position, positioning the top view underneath the front view, on a single plane. The orthographic projection of the cylinder in First Angle Projection is shown opposite

12 Representing the cylinder in Third Angle Projection To represent the cylinder in third angle projection we must first place the cylinder in the 3 rd quadrant. We will do this by editing both the feature Cylinder and the sketch used to create it. Editing the sketch Choose Top View. Right Click on Cylinder and select Edit Sketch. Delete the dimension 35mm from the Vertical Plane Select the circle centre and drag it behind the vertical plane. Dimension it 35mm behind the plane as shown. Exit the sketch. Right Click on Cylinder and select Show. The cylinder is now positioned in the 2 nd Quadrant. Editing the Feature To place the cylinder in the 3 rd quadrant we will edit the direction of extrusion of the feature. Right Click on Cylinder and select Edit Feature Reverse the direction by selecting Select OK Transparency Reduce the transparency of both planes to 0.6 Transparency settings are found under; Face Appearance, Color.., Optical Properties Third Angle Projection

13 In Third Angle Projection the planes are positioned in front and overhead the object respectively. For that reason it is assumed that the planes are transparent. Hide the cylinder Hide the cylinder as before. The projections of the cylinder remain on the planes. Rabatment Following convention the planes rabat in such a way that the first quadrant is opened out. This results in the top view rotating to a position above the front view, contained on a single plane. The orthographic projection of the cylinder in Third Angle Projection is shown opposite For the remainder of this document we will pursue the fundamental concepts of projection systems using First Angle Projection. Using a similar method to that used in the creation of the planes of reference model, we will create a new model based on the first quadrant only. Note: The origin will be located as shown. The planar surfaces will measure 100mm X 150mm The xy line is generated using Intersection Curve. Origin Add extruded text to both the vertical and horizontal planes to identify them. For clarity the appearance colour of both planes is chosen differently

14 The xy line xy line as a true length As discussed previously, the xy line is the line of intersection between the vertical plane and the horizontal plane. The line is therefore contained on both planes. A definition of a straight line states that it is the shortest distance between two points which is known as the true length of the line. A line will be seen as a true length when it is parallel to the projection plane it is projected on to. Choose Front View. When we look at the elevation of the planes of reference we are looking perpendicular to the front plane. Because the xy line is contained on the plane it will appear as a true length in elevation. Note: The horizontal plane appears as an edge coinciding with the xy line Choose Top View. Similarly in plan, because we are looking at 90º to the horizontal plane, and the xy line is contained on the horizontal plane, the resulting view of the xy line will be a true length. Note: The vertical plane appears as an edge coinciding with the xy line

15 Activity using the reduced view animation speed flick between the front, top and isometric views and note the concepts discussed above. xy line as a point. Choose Left View. In choosing left view we are looking parallel to the vertical and horizontal planes, along the true length of the xy line and we see it as a point. Edge view of the Vertical Plane Edge view of the Horizontal Plane Point View of the xy line A line will be seen as a point when a view is taken along its true length. When a point view of the xy line is taken you will notice that the vertical and horizontal planes appear as edges. A plane will appear as an edge when a line contained on it projects as a point The xy line projects as a point when we look along its true length. The xy line is contained on both the vertical and horizontal planes. Therefore the vertical and horizontal planes will appear as edge views when we view the xy line as a point. We will now use the first angle projection planes model to investigate the projections of points and lines

16 Co-ordinates of a Point Choose 3D Sketch. Select Point. Position the point as shown opposite. If the point is positioned with the front or top plane in the background it will automatically be created coincident with that plane Deselect point to end the command. Rename the feature Point Highlight the point. The XYZ co-ordinates of the point appear in the Point Property Manager. These co-ordinates refer to the position of the point relative to the origin. The origin refers to the intersection of the front, top and right planes. X Co-ordinate Choose front view. You will notice that the point is positioned to the left of the origin, hence the X co-ordinate is minus. Change this value to 60. The point moves to the right. Smart dimension from the origin to the point. You will notice that this value is 60, therefore the X co-ordinate refers to the distance left or right of the origin, or right plane. Y Co-ordinate Highlight the point. Change the Y co-ordinate to 50. The point moves upwards. Smart dimension from the xy line to the point. You will notice that this value is 50, therefore the Y co-ordinate

17 refers to the distance above or below the origin, or the top plane. Delete these dimensions Z Co-ordinate Highlight the point. Choose Top View. The co-ordinate value for Z is 0 and as we can see it is coincident with the vertical plane. Change the Z co-ordinate to 40. The point will move to a position 40mm in front of the vertical plane and the origin. Delete the 40mm dimension. It is important to be clear that a point shows an exact location in space. It is important to understand that a point is not an object, but a position, with XYZ co-ordinates relative to a fixed point, known as the origin. Activity Experiment with the front and top views, along with various co-ordinate values, to gain an appreciation for the significance of XYZ values and the points location relative to the origin and the chosen views. Delete the feature Point from the Feature Manager Design Tree. Projections of a line Choose 3D Sketch. Select Line. Create a 3D Sketch line as shown opposite. A straight line is the shortest distance between two points Just as with a point, to edit the line, select the endpoints individually and edit the co-ordinates of the point which appear in the Point Property Manager

18 Activity input various XYZ values for both endpoints and note the positioning of the line relative to the origin. Experiment with positive and negative values. Traces of a line These are the points where the line, extended if necessary, intersects the vertical and horizontal planes. When a line intersects a plane the trace produced is a point. The trace on the horizontal plane is called the horizontal trace (HT) and the trace on the vertical plane the vertical trace (VT) What co-ordinates would ensure that the lines intersect both the vertical and horizontal planes???? From our experience of the co-ordinates, the Y co-ordinate refers to the distance above/below the horizontal plane, and Z co-ordinate the distance in front of or behind the vertical plane. If either of these values are set to 0 then the point will sit on that plane. Edit the endpoints individually to reflect the co-ordinates shown below. Choose Right View We can see that the line intersects both the vertical and horizontal planes. Edge view of the Vertical Plane Line Vertical Trace (VT) Edge view of the Horizontal Plane Horizontal Trace (HT)

19 Projections of a line Edit the co-ordinate endpoints to reflect those outlined below. Endpoint 1. Endpoint 2 The Y and Z Co-ordinate values are the same. The Y value refers to the distance above the horizontal plane. The Z value refers to the distance in front of the vertical plane. Therefore the line will be parallel to both the vertical and horizontal planes, as shown opposite. What views could be used to further confirm this? We will now use Convert Entities to create the lines projections onto both the vertical and horizontal planes. Projecting the Elevation Choose front view. Create a sketch using the Vertical Plane Select the line and choose Convert Entities. The line has been projected on to the vertical plane behind it. Move to an Isometric View, the projection will be displayed as shown The distance of the object above the horizontal plane is equal to the distance of the front view above the xy line

20 Projecting the Plan Choose top view. Create a sketch using the Horizontal Plane Select the line and choose Convert Entities. The line has been projected on to the horizontal plane underneath it. Move to an Isometric View, the projections will be displayed as shown The distance of the object in front of the vertical plane is equal to the distance of the top view in front of the xy line True length of the line The line was initially created 60mm long using the co-ordinates. This is the true length of the line. If we smart dimension the projected lines created in both the elevation and plan view sketches we will find that they too are 60mm long. Therefore the elevation and plan show the line as a true length. Why? Because the line is parallel to both the front and top plane the line is seen as a true length in both the elevation and plan. A line will be seen as a true length when it is parallel to the projection plane it is projected on to. Point view of the line In order to get a point view of the line we will first create a plane on which to project onto. The plane is positioned perpendicular to the line. As discussed previously, a plane may be defined in 4 ways;

21 (i) 3 non-linear points (ii) A line and a point (iii) Two intersecting lines (iv) Two Parallel Lines (The point can not lie on the line) In this case we are going to define the plane using 3 points Choose Insert, Reference Geometry, Plane Point 3 Choose the 3 points shown opposite to define the plane. Create the rectangular sketch shown, adding a coincident relation between the 3 defining points and the corners of the rectangle. Point 2 Point 1 Create a Planar Surface using this sketch to represent the Auxiliary Vertical Plane. Edit the Appearance, Color to a suitable colour. Rename the feature Auxiliary Vertical Plane Add extruded text to identify the Auxiliary Vertical Plane (AVP). Traces of the plane Two planes intersect on a line. VT and HT intersect on the xy line V Vertical Trace Just as the vertical and horizontal planes intersect on the xy line, the traces created when the AVP intersects both the vertical and horizontal planes are lines. Horizontal trace (HT) of a plane is the line of intersection of that plane and the horizontal plane. T H Vertical trace (VT) of a plane is the line of intersection of that plane and the vertical plane

22 Unless the traces of a plane are parallel to the xy they will, Choose Right extended View is necessary, intersect on the xy This right view yields a point view of the line, a point view of the xy line and an edge view of both the horizontal and vertical planes. The xy line appears as a point because it is parallel to the line. This view is created by looking along the true length of the line or parallel to a plane which projects the line as a true length. As we have discovered already, this line, along with the xy line, is projected as a true length in both elevation and plan. Horizontal Trace Point view of the line A line will be seen as a point when a view is taken along its true length or parallel to a plane which projects it as a true length. Point view of the xy line Projecting the point onto the AVP Create a sketch on the AVP Planar surface. Choose Point and position a point coincident with the point view of the line. Rename the sketch end view. Convert Entities will not project a point view of a line onto a sketch plane. Rabating the planes The planes rabat as shown, to display the views on one single plane. Note The view displaying the line as a point is viewed from the right, but when rabated, appears on the left

23 Line co-incident with the vertical plane We wish to edit the co-ordinates of the line so that it sits on the vertical plane but remains the same height above the ground. Endpoint 1 Endpoint 2 Which of the co-ordinates do we change? The Z co-ordinate refers to the distance away from the vertical plane. Changing these values to zero will position the line on the vertical plane. Hide the Auxiliary Vertical Plane and text by right clicking on the feature and selecting Hide. The line is now positioned on the vertical plane. Choose Front view. Because the lines distance above the ground has not changed the elevation appears unchanged. The distance of the object above the horizontal plane is equal to the distance of the front view above the xy line The line is contained on the vertical plane, perpendicular to the line of vision and therefore appears as a true length On initial examination it looks as though the projection of the line onto the horizontal plane has disappeared. However on closer inspection we can see that it is coincident with the XY line. Choose Top View. In plan the line will coincide with the XY line or the edge view of vertical plane. Because the line is contained on the vertical plane then it will coincide with the edge view of that plane in plan. Because the object is zero distance in front of the vertical plane,

24 i.e. contained on the plane, then it will be zero distance below the XY line. End View of the line The distance of the object in front of the vertical plane is equal to the distance of the top view in front of the XY line Show the AVP and the AVP text by right clicking the feature and selecting Show. Projection of the line on the AVP, contained on the vertical trace The projection of the line onto the AVP appears as a point, on the vertical trace. End View of the line Choose Right View In choosing the right view we are looking along the true length of the line. Therefore the line appears as a point. The vertical line containing the point not only represents the edge view of the vertical plane but also the end view of the vertical trace of the AVP. Edge view of the Vertical Plane and end view of the vertical trace Edge view of the Horizontal Plane Activity Edit the coordinates of the line to position the line on the horizontal plane parallel to the vertical plane. Investigate the projections of this line in elevation, plan and end view, the line as a true length and point view. Hide the AVP and AVP text. Delete the sketch End View

25 Line parallel to the horizontal plane inclined to the vertical plane. Edit the coordinates of the line to reflect those below. Endpoint 1 Endpoint 2 The Y co-ordinate values are equal therefore the line will be parallel to the horizontal plane. The Z co-ordinate values differ therefore the line will not be parallel but inclined to the vertical plane. True length of the line. If we examine the projected sketches in elevation we discover that they project as two different lengths; 60mm in elevation and in plan. Why? A line will be seen as a true length when it is parallel to the projection plane it is projected on to. Projections of line in elevation. The line is parallel to the horizontal plane and projects in plan as a true length. However, the line is inclined to the vertical plane and when projected will not appear as a true length but smaller. This reduction in size in elevation is known as foreshortening. If the true length is set against the foreshortened distance, the distance that one point is in front of the other may be established. Projections of line in plan. One endpoint of the line is this distance further away from the vertical plane than the other

26 Point view of the line Select Right View. The line no longer appears as a point in the end view because we are no longer projecting along the true length of the line. Is the line a true length in the end view. No, the line is not parallel to the AVP and will therefore not project as a true length. It will appear foreshortened. In order to get a point view of the line we must setup a view which is looking along the true length of the line. To achieve this we must setup a plane which is perpendicular to this line of vision i.e. perpendicular to the line. Creating the plane perpendicular to the line Choose Insert, Reference Geometry, Plane Select the line and the endpoint shown as Reference Entities. (The endpoint positions the plane) The plane is previewed as shown. Choose OK If the plane is not displayed choose View, Planes. Extend the plane beyond the vertical and horizontal planes by dragging on the grips Establishing the traces of the plane. V The traces will be found using intersection curve. Choose Tools, Sketch Tools, Intersection Curve. A new 3D sketch is created. T Select the plane, the vertical plane and the horizontal plane. The traces of the plane, VT and HT, are produced as shown. The horizontal trace is also referred to as the x 1 y 1 line or the ground line. H Creating a laminar surface to represent the plane. Create a rectangular sketch on the plane with the corner coincident with the intersection of the traces on the XY line

27 Add a coincident relation between the corners of the rectangle and the endpoints of the traces as shown. Create a Planar Surface using this sketch to represent the Auxiliary Vertical Plane. Edit the Appearance, Color to a suitable colour Reduce the transparency to 0.5. Rename the feature Auxiliary Vertical Plane 2 Add extruded text to identify Auxiliary Vertical Plane 2. Hide the plane The plane generated is a vertical plane and is referred to as an Auxiliary Vertical Plane. It is at right angles to the horizontal plane but inclined to the vertical plane. The vertical trace is vertical because the line of intersection between two vertical planes is a vertical line. Choose Top View AVP as an edge and plan view of the HT and the x 1 y 1 The AVP appears as an edge. Why? Because the VT is vertical, it appears as a true length in elevation. When we choose a plan view we are looking along the true length of the VT and see it as a point. Because the VT is contained on the AVP it appears as an edge A plane will appear as an edge when a line contained on it projects as a point Point view of the VT True inclination of the AVP with the VP AVP as an edge and plan view of the HT In the top view the vertical plane and the auxiliary vertical plane are presented as edge views therefore, the true angle between them is displayed. The edge view of the plane also represents the plan view of the horizontal trace. When the VT is perpendicular to the xy, the inclination of the plane to the vertical plane is given by the angle between the horizontal trace and the xy

28 Select the Auxiliary Vertical Plane Choose Normal To. This will give a normal to view from behind the plane. Choose Normal To again to view from the opposite side. The line is viewed as a point because we are looking along the true length of the line projecting onto a plane at right angles to it. Create a sketch using Auxiliary Vertical Plane 2. Position a point co-incident with the point view of the line. Rename the sketch Auxiliary Elevation An auxiliary elevation is a projection on any auxiliary vertical plane not parallel to the vertical plane. Note the distance of the line above the xy in both the elevation and auxiliary elevation are equal. The distances of all elevations of the same point from the corresponding ground lines are equal. The auxiliary projection is shown orthographically by rabating the auxiliary vertical plane about t he x 1 y 1 xy line (Ground line) Point view of the line True length of the line x 1 y 1 line (Ground line)

29 Save the file as Auxiliary Elevation Delete the following features and save the file as Auxiliary Plan Line parallel to the vertical plane inclined to the horizontal plane. Edit the coordinates of the line to reflect those below. The Z co-ordinate values are equal therefore the line will be parallel to the vertical plane. The Y co-ordinate values differ therefore the line will not be parallel, but inclined, to the horizontal plane. Which view will project the line as a true length? A line will be seen as a true length when it is parallel to the projection plane it is projected on to. The line is parallel to the vertical plane and therefore will appear as a true length in elevation. The line is inclined to the horizonatal plane and when Projected will appear foreshortened in the plan view. The apparent length of a foreshortened line is referred to as the plan distance If the true length is set against the plan distance, the height of one endpoint relative to the other is given. Height of one point relative to the other

30 Point view of the line In order to get a point view of the line we must setup a view which is looking along the true length of the line. To achieve this we must setup a plane which is perpendicular to this line of vision i.e. perpendicular to the line. To create a plane perpendicular to the line we must first edit the 3D Sketch and position a point collinear with the line. The new plane will pass through this point and will be perpendicular to the line. Right click on the 3D sketch and select Edit Position a point as shown. Selct the point and input the following coordinates Because the z-value is the same as the endpoints of the line, the line and the point will be collinear Exit the sketch Choose Insert, Reference Geometry, Plane A plane is generated passing through point p and perpendicular to the line. Extend the plane beyond the vertical and horizontal planes by dragging on the grips If we edit the 3D sketch and reposition the point the planes position will update accordingly. Adding the VT and HT. Choose Tools, Sketch Tools, Intersection Curve. A new 3D sketch is created. Select the plane, the vertical plane and the horizontal plane

31 The vertical trace is also referred to as the x 1 y 1 line The traces of the plane, VT and HT, are produced as shown. Creating a laminar surface to represent the plane. Create a rectangular sketch on the plane with the corner coincident with the intersection of the traces on the XY line. Add horizontal and vertical relations between the corners of the rectangle and the endpoints of the traces as shown. Create a Planar Surface using this sketch to represent the Inclined Plane. Edit the Appearance, Color to a suitable colour Reduce the transparency to 0.5. Rename the feature Inclined Plane Hide the plane The plane generated is an inclined plane. VT or x 1 y 1 V An inclined plane is perpendicular to the vertical plane and inclined to the horizontal plane. T The horizontal trace is contained on the horizontal plane and therefore appears as a true length. The horizontal trace is perpendicular to the xy line. In the front view the HT appears as a point, as we are looking along its true length. The horizontal trace is contained on the inclined plane and the plane therefore appears as an edge. A plane will appear as an edge when a line contained on it projects as a point HT H Point view of the line In the front view the horizontal plane and the inclined plane are presented as edge views therefore, the true angle between them is displayed. The edge view of the plane also represents the front view of the vertical trace. Point view of the HT When the HT is perpendicular to the xy, the inclination of the plane to the horizontal plane is given by the angle between the vertical trace and the xy True Inclination of the Inclined Plane

32 The pictorial view below shows the line with its three projections. The rabatment of the planes results in the views shown on the right. The point view is rabated about the x 1 y 1. This view is called the Auxiliary Plan True length of the line x 1 y 1 V y 1 xy line (Ground line) x 1 y 1 line (Ground line) T x 1 H Point view of the line The distances of all plans of the same point from the corresponding ground lines are equal

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