# MATH STUDENT BOOK. 6th Grade Unit 7

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1 MATH STUDENT BOOK 6th Grade Unit 7

2 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry MATH 607 Probability and Geometry. PROBABILITY 5 INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY 6 COMPLEMENTARY EVENTS SAMPLE SPACE 7 PROJECT: THEORETICAL VS EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY 3 SELF TEST : PROBABILITY 6. GEOMETRY: ANGLES 8 MEASURING AND CLASSIFYING ANGLES 35 ANGLE RELATIONSHIPS 39 SELF TEST : GEOMETRY: ANGLES 7 3. GEOMETRY: POLYGONS 9 TRIANGLES 9 QUADRILATERALS 56 POLYGONS 59 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR FIGURES 66 SELF TEST 3: GEOMETRY: POLYGONS 73. REVIEW 75 GLOSSARY 83 LIFEPAC Test is located in the center of the booklet. Please remove before starting the unit. Section

3 Probability and Geometry Unit 7 Author: Glynlyon Staff Editor: Alan Christopherson, M.S. MEDIA CREDITS: Pages 7: Gromit70, istock, Thinkstock; 8: Pieter Bollen, Hemera, Thinkstock; 6: eabff, DigitalVision, Thinkstock, Maryellen Zwingle, istock, Thinkstock, Digital Vision, Thinkstock. 80 N. nd Ave. E. Rock Rapids, IA MMXV by Alpha Omega Publications a division of Glynlyon, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFEPAC is a registered trademark of Alpha Omega Publications, Inc. All trademarks and/or service marks referenced in this material are the property of their respective owners. Alpha Omega Publications, Inc. makes no claim of ownership to any trademarks and/ or service marks other than their own and their affiliates, and makes no claim of affiliation to any companies whose trademarks may be listed in this material, other than their own. Section

4 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry Probability & Geometry Introduction In this unit, you will be introduced to the topic of probability. You will learn how to find the probability of simple events, and their complements. You will also find the probability of independent events using lists, tables, and tree diagrams to show the sample space. All of this will be a solid foundation for exploring more complex events in probability. You will also be introduced to geometry, its terminology, and some basic shapes. You will learn to classify polygons based on their attributes. You will specifically look at triangles and quadrilaterals and find several types of each. You will also compare polygons and find out about similar and congruent figures. These basic tools will be useful in your future explorations in geometry. Objectives Read these objectives. The objectives tell you what you should be able to do when you have successfully completed this LIFEPAC. Each section will list according to the numbers below what objectives will be met in that section. When you have finished the following LIFEPAC, you should be able to: Find the theoretical probability of a simple event and its complement. Display the sample space of an event on a tree diagram, list, or table and find the probability of independent events. Use correct geometric terminology and notation. Classify acute, obtuse, right, and straight angles. Use angle relationships (vertical, complementary, and supplementary) to solve problems. Classify triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons based on their attributes. Find a missing angle measure of a triangle or a quadrilateral. Determine if two figures are congruent, similar, or neither. Section 3

5 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry. PROBABILITY If you reached into this bag of marbles (without looking), what are the chances you would draw a blue marble? How likely would it be to draw a green marble? It's easy to see which color marble would have a better chance of being drawn, but can we measure the chance of something happening? Yes we can, and this area of mathematics is called probability. In this lesson, you will learn how to find the probability, or likelihood, of different events. Objectives Review these objectives. When you have completed this section, you should be able to: Find the theoretical probability of a simple event and its complement. Display the sample space of an event on a tree diagram, list, or table. Find the probability of independent events. Find the experiment probability of an event. Materials pencil paper calculator Vocabulary complementary event. two events with no outcomes in common, where one or the other must occur. compound event. An event where two or more events happen one after the other, or at the same time. digit. One of the numerals from 0 to 9. estimate. An approximate value close to the actual value. experimental probability. Probability based on results of trials. independent events. A compound event where the likelihood of one event does not affect the other(s). place value. The position of a digit in a number, which determines its value. sample space. An organized listing of all possible outcomes for an experiment. tree diagram. An organizing tool used to find the sample space for compound events. Note: All vocabulary words in this LIFEPAC appear in boldface print the first time they are used. If you are not sure of the meaning when you are reading, study the definitions given. Section 5

6 Probability and Geometry Unit 7 INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY In mathematics, a situation where we want to find the probability, like drawing a certain color marble from a bag, is called an experiment. Each result of the experiment is called an outcome. For this bag of marbles, there are 0 possible outcomes, because there are 0 different marbles that can be drawn. When we do an experiment, we are looking for a specific outcome, called an event. For the bag of marbles, one event might be drawing a green marble out of the bag. Each result where the event occurs is called a favorable outcome. For the bag of marbles below, there are 7 favorable outcomes for the event of drawing a green marble because there are 7 green marbles in the bag. Probability is a measure of how likely an event is to occur, when all outcomes are equally likely. For instance, each marble in the bag is an outcome and is equally likely to be drawn as any other marble. When all outcomes are equally likely, the probability (P) of the event is expressed as a ratio: P(event) = number of favorable outcomes total number of outcomes This is more properly called the theoretical probability because it is a measure of what we think will happen, but not necessarily what will happen in the experiment. This might help! "P" stands for probability, and whatever is in parentheses is the event that we want to find the probability of. If we were discussing the probability of drawing a red marble, we would call it P(red). 6 Section

7 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry Example: What is the probability of drawing a green marble from the bag? Solution: We will find the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes for the event. Favorable outcomes 7 Counting the green marbles, we can see that there are 7 in the bag. Total outcomes 0 Counting all of the marbles, we can see that there are 0 marbles in the bag. P(event) = number of favorable outcomes 7 = total number of outcomes 0 Because probability is expressed as a ratio, we can also write it as a percent. Remember, to change a fraction to a percent, rewrite the fraction with a denominator of 00 since percent is a ratio out of 00. To get a denominator of 00, multiply both the numerator and denominator by 0. 7 x 0 0 x 0 = _ = 70% Therefore, there is a 7, or 70% chance of drawing a green marble from the bag. 0 Probability will always be a number from 0 to, or a percent from 0 to 00. The closer the probability is to, the more likely the event will occur. We can show this relationship on a number line: 0 3 P = 0% Impossible P = 5% Unlikely P = 50% Equally likely/unlikely P = 75% Likely P = 00% Certain Events that have less than a 50% probability are less likely to occur. Events that have more than a 50% probability are more likely to occur. Because we have a 70% chance of drawing a green marble from the bag, we could say that it is likely that we would draw a green marble from the bag. How likely is it that we would draw a blue marble? S-T-R-E-T-C-H Can you think of an event where the likelihood would be certain? Can you think of an event where the likelihood would be impossible? If a bag held only red marbles, you would be certain to draw a red marble. It would be impossible to draw a green marble. Section 7

8 Probability and Geometry Unit 7 Example: What is the probability of drawing a blue marble from the bag? Solution: We will find the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes for the event. Favorable outcomes We can see that there is blue marble in the bag. Total outcomes 0 There are 0 marbles in the bag, as there were before. P(event) number of favorable outcomes = = total number of outcomes 0 We can write the ratio as a percent. Multiply by 0 to get a denominator of = _ 0 00 = 0% Therefore, there is a, or 0% chance of drawing a blue marble from the bag. So, we 0 would say that is very unlikely that a blue marble would be drawn from the bag. Let s take a look at a spinner, it has 5 equal sections. What is the probability of the spinner landing on blue? Red? Green? We will find the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes for each event. We know that there are 5 sections in the spinner, so there will be 5 total outcomes for each event. Blue Favorable outcomes 0 Counting the blue sections, we can see that there are 0. number of favorable outcomes P(event) = = 0 total number of outcomes 5 We can write the ratio as a percent. 8 Section

9 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry Multiply by to get a denominator of = _ 0 00 = 0% There is a 0% chance of the spinner landing on blue. So, we would say that is unlikely that the spinner will land on blue. Red Favorable outcomes Counting the red sections, we can see that there are. P(event) number of favorable outcomes = = total number of outcomes 5 We can write the ratio as a percent. Multiply by to get a denominator of = _ 8 00 = 8% There is a 8% chance of the spinner landing on red, almost 50%. So, we could say that is almost equally likely as unlikely that the spinner will land on red. Green Favorable outcomes 3 Counting the green sections, we can see that there are 3. P(event) number of favorable outcomes 3 = = total number of outcomes 5 We can write the ratio as a percent. Multiply by to get a denominator of = _ 00 = % There is a % chance of the spinner landing on green. So, we could say that is very unlikely that the spinner will land on green. Let s Review! Before going on to the practice problems, make sure you understand the main points of this lesson. 9Theoretical 9 probability is a ratio of the favorable outcomes of an event to the total number of outcomes. 9Probability 9 will always be between 0 and, or 0% and 00 %. 9The 9 closer the probability is to, or 00%, the more likely the event is to occur. Section 9

10 Probability and Geometry Unit 7 Match the following items.. one of the numerals from 0 to 9 an approximate value close to the actual value the position of a digit in a number, which determines its value a. digit b. estimate c. place value Circle each correct answer. Use this bag of marbles for questions _.3_._.5_ What is the probability of drawing a red marble? 5 a. b c. 50% d. 30% What is the probability of drawing a blue marble? a. b. 0% c. d. 30% 5 What is the probability of drawing a green marble? a. 0% b. 3 c. 38% d What is the likelihood of drawing a green marble? a. likely b. equally likely as unlikely c. unlikely d. very unlikely.6_ A classroom teacher randomly draws the name of a student. If the teacher has between 0 and 30 students in her class, what is a good estimate of the probability of a specific student's name being drawn? a. 50% b. 5% c. 75% d. 0%.7_ There are 0 outcomes for an event. If it is very likely the event will occur, how many favorable outcomes would there be? a. 37 b. 5 c. 0 d. Check each correct answer (you may select more than one answer)..8_.9_ If this spinner is spun, what is the probability the spinner will land on yellow? 5% 0% 5 Which color has a 0% probability of being spun? purple yellow blue none of the colors 0 Section

11 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry COMPLEMENTARY EVENTS Here is a bag of marbles that contains red marbles and blue marbles. If you know that the probability of drawing a blue marble is 5, can you find the probability of drawing a red marble? In this lesson, you will see how the events of drawing a red marble and drawing a blue marble are related. You'll also learn how to find the probability of events when one or the other event must occur. Let's take a look inside the bag of marbles and see if we can find the probability of drawing a red marble. Remember, to find the probability of an event, we need to find the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes. P(event) = Favorable outcomes Total outcomes Counting the marbles in the bag, there are. So, there will be total outcomes. Now, we can find the probability of each event. Blue There are 0 blue marbles in the bag, so there are 0 favorable outcomes. Divide by to simplify the ratio. 0 = 5 Red There are red marbles in the bag, so there are favorable outcomes. Divide by to simplify the ratio. = 7? So, the probability of drawing a blue marble is 5 and the probability of drawing a red marble is 7 How does knowing the probability for drawing a blue marble help us find the probability for drawing a red marble? Notice that if we add the two probabilities, they add to : = = Section

12 Probability and Geometry Unit 7 Key point! When it was stated that the probability of drawing a blue marble was 5, this does not necessarily mean that there are marbles in the bag and that 5 are blue. It means that the ratio of blue marbles to all marbles is 5. For every marbles, 5 are blue. When we have two events, where one or the other must occur (we can only draw blue or red), and they have no outcomes in common (none of the blue marbles are also red, and vice versa), their probabilities will always add to, or 00%. These are called complementary events. The events are complements of each other. So, if we know two events are complementary, and we know the probability of one event, we can find the probability of its complement. Since we know what the probability of drawing a blue marble is, we can use this information to find the probability of drawing a red marble. P(blue) + P(red) = To find the probability of P(red), subtract P(blue) from both sides of the equation. P(red) - P(blue) = - P(blue) Substitute 5 for the probability of drawing a blue marble. P(red) = - 5 P(red) = 7 The probability of drawing a red marble is 7. We could say that the probability of drawing a red marble is the same as the probability of not drawing a blue marble, since we can only draw blue or red. P(blue) + P(not blue) = In general, we write the sum of complementary events as: P(event) + P(not event) = The probabilities add to because they account for all of the possible outcomes. Every outcome is either the event, or not the event. Let's look at a few examples. Vocabulary "Complimentary" is when someone says something kind. Outside of math, "complementary" means that two things go together. Our probability definition is similar, but the events go together to form one whole. Connections Think of a Venn diagram to picture complementary events: The marbles in the circle are blue. The marbles outside of the circle are not blue. Section

13 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry Example: Which of the following events are complementary?. Rolling a or rolling a 5 on a 6-sided number cube.. Rolling an odd number or rolling an even number on a 6-sided number cube. 3. Randomly choosing a vowel from the alphabet, or randomly choosing a consonant from the alphabet.. Choosing heads for a coin flip, or choosing tails for a coin flip. Solution: For each pair of events, we will check to see if all outcomes are either the first event or the second event (not the first event).. The outcomes for rolling a 6-sided number cube are,, 3,, 5, or 6. Rolling a or a 5 does not account for all of the outcomes. Rolling a, or not rolling a, would be complementary.. The outcomes for rolling a 6-sided number cube are,, 3,, 5, or 6. All of these outcomes are odd or even (not odd), so the events are complementary. 3. The outcomes are the letters of the alphabet. All letters are either vowels or consonants (not vowels), so the events are complementary.. A coin can be heads or tails only, so the events are complementary. Example: In a school, % of the students are first graders. What is the probability that a randomly chosen student will not be a first grader? Solution: The students are either first graders or not first graders, so the events are complementary. We know that the two probabilities add to, or 00%. P(event) + P(not event) = 00% P(st) + P(not st) = 00% P(not st) = 00% - P(st) P(not st) = 00% - % P(not st) = 88% To find the probability of P(red), subtract P(blue) from both sides of the equation. Subtract P(st) from each side of the equation. Subtract. So, the there is an 88% probability that a randomly chosen student will not be a first grader. Section 3

14 Probability and Geometry Unit 7 SELF TEST : PROBABILITY Circle the letter for each correct answer (each answer, 7 points)..0_ What is the probability of drawing a green marble from the bag #? a. b. c. d _ What is the probability of not drawing a blue marble from bag #? a. b. 3 c. 3 d. 3 # #.03_ What is the sum of the probability of drawing a green marble and the probability of not drawing a green marble in bag #? a. 00% b. 50% c. 5% d. 0%.0_ If a six-sided number cube is rolled, what is the probability that a three will be rolled? a. b. c. d _ If the probability of an event is, and there are 8 total outcomes, how many favorable outcomes are there? a. b. c. 7 d. 8.06_.07_.08_.09_ If the probability of an event is 6%, what is the probability of its complement occurring? a. 00% b. 7% c. 6% d. % Which percent would represent an event that is very unlikely? a. 5% b. 8% c. % d. % If the green spinner is spun and then the blue spinner is spun, creating a two-digit number, what is the probability that the resulting number will be or less? a. b. 6 c. 3 d. If two 6-sided number cubes are rolled, what is the probability that a is rolled on the first cube and a 5 is rolled on the second cube? a. b. c. d Section

15 Unit 7 Probability and Geometry.00_ If two coins are flipped, what is the probability that both coins will not land on heads? a. 0% b. 5% c. 50% d. 75%.0_ What is the sample space for the event of flipping a coin and then spinning a four-part spinner, numbered,, 3,? a. H- H- H-3 H- b. H- H- H-3 H- c. H- T- H-3 T- d. -H -H 3-H T- T- T-3 T- -T -T 3-T.0_ How many different ways are there to arrange the letters A, B, A, and B? a. b. 6 c. 8 d. 6.03_ If this spinner is spun, what is the probability that the spinner will land on a multiple of? a. 0% b. c. 0% d Place a check mark next to each correct answer (you may select more than one answer, this question 7 points)..0_ Which of the following events is impossible with the above spinner? Spinning an odd number. Spinning a number that is neither odd nor even. Spinning a number greater than. Spinning a number less than. Answer true or false (this question, points)..05 _ The probability of an event must be expressed as a percent SCORE TEACHER initials date Section 7

16 MAT0607 Apr 5 Printing 80 N. nd Ave. E. Rock Rapids, IA ISBN

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