Pictorial Drawing Overview )

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1 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to do thefollowing: Describe the nature of isometric and oblique views. Set up an isometric grid. Construct isometric objects. Create isometric text styles. Demonstrate isometric and oblique dimensioning techniques. Being able to visualize and draw three-dimensional shapes is a skill that every drafter, designer, and engineer should possess. This is especially important in 3D modeling. However, there is a distinct difference between drawing a view that looks three-dimensional and creating a true 3D model. A 3D model can be rotated on the display screen and viewed from any angle. The computer calculates the points, lines, and surfaces of the objects in space. For information on 3D modeling, see AutoCAD and Its Applications Advanced. The focus of this chapter is creating views that look three-dimensional using some special AutoCAD functions and two-dimensional coordinates and objects. c Pictorial Drawing Overview ) The word pictorial means "like a picture." It refers to any form of 2D drawing that illustrates height, width, and depth. Several forms of pictorial drawings are used in industry today. The least realistic is oblique. However, this is the simplest type. The most realistic, but also the most complex, is perspective. Isometric drawing falls midway between the two as far as realism and complexity are concerned. Oblique Drawings An oblique drawing shows objects with one or more parallel faces having true shape and size. A scale is selected for the orthographic, or front, faces. Then an angle for the depth (receding axis) is chosen. The three types of oblique drawings are cava lier, cabinet, and general. See Figure These vary in the scale of the receding axis. The recedingaxis is drawnat full scale for a cavalier view and at halfscale for a cabinet view. The general oblique is normally drawn with a 3/4 sane for the receding axis. pictorial: A drawing that is similar to a picture. oblique drawing: A drawing that shows objects with one or more parallel faces having true shape and size. 723

2 Figure The scale of the receding axis differs in the three types of oblique drawings. Cavalier c J/ Cabinet d^ General axonometric drawings: Drawings in which a 3D object is rotated for display on a 2D drawing sheet so that all three dimensions can be seen. isometric drawings: Drawings in which the three axes are equally spaced at 120. dimetric: An axonometric drawing in which two different scales are used to measure the three axes. trimetric: An axonometric drawing in which three different scales are used to measure the three axes. foreshortening: Property of a drawing in which objects appear to recede in the distance. perspective drawing: The most realistic form of pictorial drawing, in which receding objects meet at one or more vanishing points on the horizon. vanishing point: The point at which objects seem to converge in the distance at an imaginary point. Axonometric Drawings The general term for drawings that display three dimensions on a two-dimen sional surface such as a drawing sheet is axonometric draivings. The three types of axonometric drawings are isometric, dimetric, and trimetric. Isometric draivings are more realistic than oblique drawings. The entire object appears as if it is tilted toward the viewer. The word isometric means "equal measure." This equal measure refers to the angle between the three axes (120 ) after the object has been tilted. The tilt angle is 35 16'. This is shown in Figure The 120 angle corresponds to an angle of 30 from horizontal. In the construction of isometric draw ings, lines that are parallel in the orthogonal views must be parallel in the isometric view. The most appealing aspect of isometric drawing is that all three axis lines can be measured using the same scale. This saves time, while still producing a pleasing pictorial of the object. Dimetric and trimetric drawings are closely related to isometric drawing. These forms of pictorial drawing differ from isometric in the scales used to measure the threeaxes. Dimetric drawinguses two differentscales andtrimetric uses threescales. Using different scales is an attempt to create foreshortening. This means the lengths of the sides appear to recede. The relationship between isometric, dimetric, and trimetric drawings is illustrated in Figure Perspective Drawing The most realistic form of pictorial drawing is a perspective drawing. The eye naturally sees objects in perspective. Look down a long hall and notice that the wall and floor lines seem to converge in the distance at an imaginary point. That point is called the vanishing point. The most common types of perspective drawing are onepoint and two-point perspectives. These forms of pictorial drawing are often used in architecture. They are also used in the automotive and aircraft industries. Examples of one-point and two-point perspectives are shown in Figure A perspective of a true 3D model can be produced in AutoCAD using the 3DORBIT command. See AutoCAD and Its Applications Advanced for complete coverage of 3DORB1T. Figure An object is tilted 35 16' to achieve an isometric view having 120 between the three axes. Notice the highlighted face in each view. Front Right 724 AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

3 Figure Isometric, dimetric, and trimetric drawings differ in the scales used to draw the three axes. In the isometric shown here, all three sides are drawn at full scale, or 1. You can see how Isometric Dimetric Trimetric the dimetric and trimetric scales vary. Figure An example of onepoint perspective and two-point perspective. Vanishin.point One-Point Perspective Two-Point Perspective Isometric Drawing ) The most common method of pictorial drawing used in industry is isometric. Isometric drawings provide a single view showing three sides that can be measured using the same scale. An isometric view has no perspective and may appear somewhat distorted. Two of the isometric axes are drawn at 30 to horizontal, while the third is drawn at 90. See Figure The three axes shown in Figure 22-5 represent the width, height, and depth of the object. Lines that appear horizontal in an orthographic view are placed at a 30 angle. Lines that are vertical in an orthographic view are placed vertically. These lines are parallel to the axes. Any line parallel to an axis can be measured and is called an isometric line. Lines that are not parallel to the axes are called nonisometric lines and cannot be measured. Note the two nonisometric lines in Figure Circles appear as ellipses in an isometric drawing. Circular features shown on isometric objects must be oriented properly or they appear distorted. The correct orientation of isometric circles on the three principal planes is shown in Figure The small diameter (minor axis) of the ellipse must always align on the axis of the circular feature. Notice that the centerline axes of the holes in Figure 22-6 are parallel to one of the isometric planes. A basic rule to remember about isometric drawing is that lines that are parallel in an orthogonal view must be parallel in the isometric view. AutoCAD's ISOPLANE feature makes that task, and the positioning of ellipses, easy. isometric line: Any line that is parallel to an axis in an isometric drawing. nonisometric lines: Lines that are not parallel to the axes in an isometric drawing. Chapter 22 Basic Pictorial Drawings 725

4 Figure Layout of the isometric axes. Nonisometric lines Figure Proper isometric circle (ellipse) orientation on isometric planes. The minor axis always aligns with the axis centerline. Major Axis Minor Axis Axis centerline D If you are ever in doubt about the proper orientation of an ellipse in an isometric drawing, remember that the minor axis of the ellipse must always be aligned on the centerline axis of the circular feature. This is shown clearly in Figure Settings for Isometric Drawing You can quickly set your isometric variables in the Snap and Grid tab of the Drafting Settings dialog box. See Figure To access this dialog box, enter DS, SE, or DSETTINGS, or select Tools > Drafting Settings... from the pull-down menu. This dialog box can also be accessed by right-clicking the SNAP or GRID status bar button and then selecting Settings... from the shortcut menu. To activate the isometric snap grid, pick the Isometric snap radio button in the Snap type area. Notice that the Snap X spacing and Grid X spacing text boxes are now grayed out. Since X spacing relates to horizontal measurements, it is not used in the isometric mode. You can only set the Y spacing for grid and snap in isometric. Be sure to check the Snap On (F9) and Grid On (F7) check boxes if you want Snap and Grid modes to be activated. Pick the OK button to display the grid dots on the screen in an isometric orientation, as shown in Figure If the grid dots are not visible, turn the grid on. You may also need to zoom in or out to display the grid. 726 AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

5 Figure The Drafting Settings dialog box allows you to make settings needed for isometric drawing. 1Drafting Settings Snap and Grid Pda, Tracking; Object Snap j Dynamic Input] SnapOn(F9) Grid On(F7) Snap spacing Gridspacing SnagX spacing: GridX spacing: SnapYspacjng: GridY spacing Equal i = -V spac ng Major lineeveiy: 5 Pick to activate isometric snap grid Polar spacing Polar distance Snap type Giid snap O Rectangular snap ijisprneiiic snap O PolaiSnap Grid behavior 0 Adaptive grid I Allow subdivision belowgrid spacing Display grid beyond Limits Follow Dynamic UCS Options- Cancel Help Figure An example of an isometric grid setup in AutoCAD. UJAuloCJU) «)0«NO!rORKISALt 0l«.ln«l.* l Jl Ik tdt»> lrn«l Finn To* Oa> [mwi Hxkr Ma n+, t*.n. SDiMrglAxKUUn r J» Q (.< Q &. & S & C ' 49il a p-*;* - *. o n\/fii. A AI *» Suntad.v'«/ Grid dots align to isometric orientation Pift&IB:0? Suntoril w ^ [Stinted V vj Koatiwndl <Gr Cn <inrt 'V,r :;, ill; ; ''.. ; :\S QT-i Iri ; ;., ^'-" ^'* " n * d' Notice that the crosshairs appear angled. This aids you in drawing lines at the proper isometric angles. Try drawing a four-sided surface using the LINE command. Draw the surface so it appears to be the left side of a box in an isometric layout. See Figure To draw nonparallel surfaces, you can change the angle of the crosshairs to make your task easier, as discussed in the next section. To turn off the Isometric Snap mode, pick the Rectangular snap radio button in the Snap type area. The Isometric Snap mode is turned off and you are returned to the drawing area when you pick the OKbutton. C You can also set the Isometric Snap mode by typing SNAP or SN, selecting the Style option, and then typing I to select Isometric. Chapter 22 Basic Pictorial Drawings 727

6 - Figure A four-sided object drawn with the LINE command can be til AutoCAD 2U08 HOF FORRISAU Ul«rinr,1.<l* : J(H«I* Vr~ Inert Font* To* t>0- hwram Ho*y Wnte. M* bfnm :-;!;:J!:-\ - ^. H ^ p I «-» used as the left side of an isometric box. t. 0. * A?4 A? AAi *y Draw the left side of an isometric box P\P. R\&? Stinted - gl aiyj.: -; a *. FotAifosiUploTBACi lours Idi'I iwr AjrrOoiScJ. 11- ft V d*. isoplanes: The three isometric positions or planes. Changing the Isometric Crosshairs Orientation Drawing an isometric shape is possible without ever changing the angle of the crosshairs. However, the drawing process is easier and quicker if the angle of the crosshairs aligns with the isometric axes. Whenever the isometric snap style is enabled, simply press the [F5] key or the [Ctrl]+[E] key combination to change the crosshairs immediately to the next isometric plane. AutoCAD refers to the isometric positions or planes as isoplanes. As you change among isoplanes, the current isoplane is displayed on the prompt line as a reference. The three crosshairs orientations and their angular values are shown in Figure Another method to toggle the crosshairs position is to use the ISOPLANE command. Enter ISOPLANE as follows. Command: ISOPLANEJ Current isoplane: current Enter isometric plane setting [Left/Top/Right] <current>: J Press [Enter] to toggle the crosshairs to the next position. The command line displays the new isoplane setting. You can toggle immediately to the next position by pressing [Enter] to repeat the ISOPLANE command and pressing [Enter] again. To specify the plane of orientation, type the first letter of that position. The ISOPLANE command can also be used transparently. The crosshairs are always in one of the isoplane positions when Isometric Snap mode is in effect. An exception occurs during a display or editing command when a multiple selection set method, such as a window, is used. In these cases, the crosshairs Figure You can toggle among the three isometric crosshairs positions using the [F5] function key, the [Ctrl]+[E] key combination, or the ISOPLANE command. Left 90 and 150c Top 30 and 150c Right 90 and 30c 728 AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

7 change tothenormal vertical and horizontal positions. Atthe completion ofthe display or editing command, the crosshairs revert to their former isoplane orientation. C The quickest way to change the isoplane is to press the [F5] function key or press the [Ctrl]+[E] key combination. Exercise 22-1 Complete the exercise on the Student CD. Isometric Ellipses Placing an isometric ellipse on an object is easy with AutoCAD because of the Isocircle option of the ELLIPSE command. An ellipse is positioned automatically on the current isoplane. To use the ELLIPSE command, first make sure you are in Isometric Snap mode. Then, pick the Ellipse button from the 2D Draw control panel of the Dashboard or from the Draw toolbar, select Draw > Ellipse > Axis, End, or type EL or ELLIPSE. Once the ELLIPSE command is initiated, type I for the Isocircle option. Once you select the Isocircle option, pick the center point and then set the radius or diameter. Note that the Isocircle option only appears when you are in Isometric Snap mode. Always check the isoplane position before placing an ellipse (isocircle) on your drawing. You can dynamically view the three positions that an ellipse can take. Initiate the ELLIPSE command, enter the Isocircleoption, pick a center point, and press [F5] to toggle the crosshairs orientation. See Figure The ellipse rotates each time you toggle the crosshairs. The isometric ellipse (isocircle) is a true ellipse. If selected, grips are displayed at the center and four quadrant points. See Figure However, do not use grips to resize or otherwise adjust an isometric ellipse. As soon as you resize an isometric ellipse in this manner, its angular value is changed and it is no longer isometric. You can use the center grip to move the ellipse. Also, if you rotate an isometric ellipse while Ortho mode is on, it will not appear in a proper isometric plane. You can rotate an isometric ellipse from one isometric plane to another, but you must enter a value of 120. ELLIPSE 2D Draw > Ellipse Ellipse Draw > Ellipse > Axis, End LU (/) CL LU Figure The orientation of an isometric ellipse is determined by the current isometric plane. Screen crosshairs Chapter 22 BasicPictorial Drawings 729

8 Figure An isometric ellipse has grips at its four quadrant points and center..a n --.-a' Prior to drawingisometric ellipses, it is good practice to place a marker at the ellipse center point. A good technique is to draw a point at the center using an easily visible point style. This is especially useful if the ellipse does not fall on grid or snap points. J Exercise 22-2 Complete the exercise on the Student CD. </) I ELLIPSE 0-1 EL* 1 i E535fflB LU 2D Draw > Ellipse Arc o Ellipse Arc E Draw > Ellipse 730 > Arc Constructing Isometric Arcs The ELLIPSE command can also be used to draw an isometric arc of any included angle. To construct an isometric arc, use the Arc option of the ELLIPSE command while in isometric mode. Toaccess the Arc option, pick the Ellipse Arc button from the 2D Draw control panel of the Dashboard or from the Draw toolbar, type EL or ELLIPSE followed by Afor the Arc option, or select Draw > Ellipse > Arc. Once the Arc option is initiated, the following prompts appear: Specify axis endpoint of elliptical arc or [Center/lsocircle]: U Specifycenter of isocircle: (pick the center of the arc) Specify radius of isocircle or [Diameter]: (pick the radius ortype a value and press [Enter]) Specify start angle or [Parameter]: (pick a start angle or type a value andpress [Enter]) Specify end angle or [Parameter/Included angle]: (pick an end angle or typean included angle value and press [Enter]) Command: A common application of isometric arcs is drawing fillets and rounds. Once a round is created in isometric, the edge (corner) of the object sits back from its original, unfilleted position.see Figure 22-13A. You can draw the completeobject first and then trim away the excess after locating the fillets. Youcan also draw the isometric arcs and then the connecting lines. Either way, the center point of the ellipse is a critical feature and should be located first. The left-hand arc in Figure 22-13A was drawn first and copied to the back position. Use Ortho mode to help quickly draw 90 arcs. The next step is to move the original edge to its new position, which is tangent to the isometric arcs. You can do this by snapping the endpoint of the line to the quad rant point of the arc. See Figure 22-13B. Notice the grips on the line and on the arc. The endpoint of the line is snapped to the quadrant grip on the arc. The final step is to trim away the excess lines and arc segment. The completed feature is shown in Figure 22-13C. AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

9 Figure Fillets and rounds can be drawn with the Arc option of the ELLIPSE command. A broken line is used to represent an edge that is viewed straight on. Rounded edges, when viewed straight on, cannot be shown as complete-edge lines that extend to the ends of the object. Instead,a good technique to use is a broken line in the original location of the edge. This is clearly shown on the right-hand edge in Figure 22-13C. Exercise 22-5 Complete the exercise on the Student CD. Creating Isometric Text Styles Text placed in an isometric drawing should appear to be parallel to one of the isometric planes. Text should align with the plane to which it applies. Text may be located on the object or positioned away from it as a note. Drafters and artists occa sionally neglect this aspect of pictorial drawing and it shows on the final product. Properly placing text on an isometric drawing involves creating new text styles. Figure illustrates possible orientations of text on an isometric drawing. These examples were created using only two text styles. The text styles have an obliquing angle of either 30 or -30. The labels in Figure refer to the chart below. The angle in the figure indicates the rotation angle entered when using one of the text commands. For example, ISO-2 90 means that the ISO-2 style was used and the text was rotated 90. This technique can be applied to any font. Name Font Obliquing Angle ISO-1 vlso-2 Romans Romans 30-30c Exercise 22-4 Complete the exercise on the Student CD. Chapter 22 Basic Pictorial Drawings 731

10 Figure Isometric text applications. The text shown here indicates which style and angle were used. c Isometric Dimensioning ) An important aspect of dimensioning in isometric is to place dimension lines, text, and arrowheads on the proper plane. Remember these guidelines: / Extension lines should always extend in the plane being dimensioned. / The heel of the arrowhead should always be parallel to the extension line. / Strokes of the text that would normally be vertical should always be parallel with the extension lines or dimension lines. These techniques are shown on the dimensioned isometric part in Figure AutoCAD does not automatically dimension isometric objects. You must first create isometric arrowheads and text styles. Then, manually draw the dimension lines and text as they should appear in each of the three isometric planes. This is time-consuming when compared to dimensioning normal 2D drawings. You have already learned how to create isometric text styles. These can be set up in an isometric template drawing if you draw isometrics often. Examples of arrows for the three isometric planes are shown in Figure Figure A dimensioned isometric part. Note the text and arrowhead orientation in relation to the extension lines. 732 AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

11 Figure Examples of arrowheads in each of the three isometric planes. S id? Isometric Arrowheads You can draw isometric arrowheads and fill them in with a solid hatch pattern, or you can use the SOLID command to create a filled arrowhead. A variable-width polyline cannot be used because the heel of the arrowhead will not be parallel to the extension lines. Every arrowhead does not need to be drawn individually. First, draw two isometric axes, as shown in Figure 22-17A. Then, draw one arrowhead like the one shown in Figure 22-17B. Use the MIRROR command to create additional arrows. As you create new arrows, move them to their proper plane. You can save each arrowhead as a block in your isometric template or prototype. Use block names that are easy to remember. Blocks are discussed in Chapter 23. Oblique Dimensioning AutoCAD has a way to dimension isometric and oblique lines semiautomatically. First, draw the dimensions using any of the linear dimensioning commands. The object in Figure 22-18A was dimensioned using the DIMALIGNED and DIMLINEAR commands. Then, use the Oblique option of the DIMEDIT command to rotate the extension lines. See Figure 22-18B. To access the Oblique option, type DED or DIMEDIT and then type O for Oblique. You can also select Dimension > Oblique. When prompted, select the dimension and enter the obliquing angle. This technique creates suitable dimensions for an isometric drawing and is quicker than the method previously discussed. However, this method does not rotate the arrows to align the arrowhead heels with the extension lines. It also does not draw the dimension text aligned in the plane of the dimension. Therefore, this method does not produce technically correct dimensions. DIMEDIT DED wrarn Dimension > Oblique H Q LU Figure Creating isometric arrowheads. A Draw the two isometric axes for arrowhead placement. B Draw the first arrowhead on one of the axis lines. Then mirror the arrowhead to create the others. Chapter 22 Basic Pictorial Drawings 733

12 Figure Using the Oblique option of the DIMEDIT command, you can create semiautomatic isometric dimensions by editing existing dimensions. [ Dimension Obliquing Angle C" 5 30 j Chapter Test Answer thefollowing questions. Write your answers on a separate sheet ofpaper or complete the electronic chapter test on the Student CD. 1. The simplest form of pictorial drawing is. 2. How does isometric drawing differ from oblique drawing? 3. How do dimetric and trimetric drawings differ from isometric drawings? 4. The most realistic form of pictorial drawing is. 5. Which command allows you to access the Drafting Settings dialog box? 6. What must be set in the Drafting Settings dialog box to turn on Isometric Snap mode and set a snap spacing of.2? 7. What function does the ISOPLANE command perform? 8. Name the command and option used to draw an isometric circle. 9. What factor determines the orientation of an isometric ellipse? 10. Where are grips located on a circle drawn in isometric? 11. Can grips be used to resize an isometric circle correctly? Explain your answer. 12. How are isometric arcs drawn? 13. Which text style setting allows you to create text that can be used on an isometric drawing? 14. What technique does AutoCAD provide for dimensioning isometric objects? 734 AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

13 Drawing Problems Create an isometric template drawing. Items that shoidd be set in the template include grid spacing, snap spacing, ortho setting, and text size. Save the template as isoproto.dwt. Use the template to construct the isometric drawings in Problems Save the drawing problems as P22-(problem number). m i o. Chapter 22 BasicPictorial Drawings 735

14 For Problems 11-14, create isometric drawings using the views shown. Measure the drawings to obtain the dimensions AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

15 14. % > tfss VI 1 II II II II 15. Construct a set of isometric arrowheads to use when dimensioning isometric drawings. Load your isometric template drawing. Create arrowheads for each of the three isometric planes. Name them with the first letter indicating the plane: T for top, L for left, and R for right. Also, number them clockwise from the top. See the example below for the right isometric plane. Do not include the labels in your drawing. Save the template again when finished. 16. Create a set of isometric text styles like those shown in Figure Load your template drawing and make a complete set in one font. Make additional sets in other fonts if you wish. Enter a text height of 0 so that you can specify the height when placing the text. Save the template when finished. 17. Begin a new drawing using your isometric template. Select one of the following problems from this chapter and dimension it: Problem 5, 7, 8, or 9. When adding dimensions, be sure to use the proper arrowhead and text style for the plane on which you are working. Save the drawing as P Cliapter 22 Basic Pictorial Drawings 737

16 18. Create an isometric drawing of the switch plate shown below. Select a view that best displays the features of the object. Do not include dimensions. Save the drawing as P GA. (.120) STOCK \.060 X 45' 2X (8.312 V X 82' 19. Create an isometric drawing of the retainer shown below. Select a view that best displays the features of the object. Do not include dimensions. Save the drawing as P X THRU 20 X 45* R.4755± X.34 X 45' SECTION A-A 3X R AutoCAD and Its Applications Basics

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