# Classical Viewing. Ed Angel Professor of Computer Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Media Arts University of New Mexico

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1 Classical Viewing Ed Angel Professor of Computer Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Media Arts University of New Mexico 1

2 Objectives Introduce the classical views Compare and contrast image formation by computer with how images have been formed by architects, artists, and engineers Learn the benefits and drawbacks of each type of view 2

3 Classical Viewing Viewing requires three basic elements - One or more objects - A viewer with a projection surface - Projectors that go from the object(s) to the projection surface Classical views are based on the relationship among these elements - The viewer picks up the object and orients it how she would like to see it Each object is assumed to constructed from flat principal faces - Buildings, polyhedra, manufactured objects 3

4 Planar Geometric Projections Standard projections project onto a plane Projectors are lines that either - converge at a center of projection - are parallel Such projections preserve lines - but not necessarily angles Nonplanar projections are needed for applications such as map construction 4

5 Classical Projections 5

6 Perspective vs Parallel Computer graphics treats all projections the same and implements them with a single pipeline Classical viewing developed different techniques for drawing each type of projection Fundamental distinction is between parallel and perspective viewing even though mathematically parallel viewing is the limit of perspective viewing 6

7 Taxonomy of Planar Geometric Projections planar geometric projections parallel perspective multiview axonometric orthographic 1 point 2 point 3 point oblique isometric dimetric trimetric 7

8 Perspective Projection 8

9 Parallel Projection 9

10 Orthographic Projection Projectors are orthogonal to projection surface 10

11 Multiview Orthographic Projection Projection plane parallel to principal face Usually form front, top, side views isometric (not multiview orthographic view) front in CAD and architecture, we often display three multiviews plus isometric top side 11

12 Advantages and Disadvantages Preserves both distances and angles - Shapes preserved - Can be used for measurements Building plans Manuals Cannot see what object really looks like because many surfaces hidden from view - Often we add the isometric 12

13 Axonometric Projections Allow projection plane to move relative to object classify by how many angles of a corner of a projected cube are the same none: trimetric two: dimetric three: isometric θ 2 θ 1 θ 3 13

14 Types of Axonometric Projections 14

15 Advantages and Disadvantages Lines are scaled (foreshortened) but can find scaling factors Lines preserved but angles are not - Projection of a circle in a plane not parallel to the projection plane is an ellipse Can see three principal faces of a box-like object Some optical illusions possible - Parallel lines appear to diverge Does not look real because far objects are scaled the same as near objects Used in CAD applications 15

16 Oblique Projection Arbitrary relationship between projectors and projection plane 16

17 Advantages and Disadvantages Can pick the angles to emphasize a particular face - Architecture: plan oblique, elevation oblique Angles in faces parallel to projection plane are preserved while we can still see around side In physical world, cannot create with simple camera; possible with bellows camera or special lens (architectural) 17

18 Perspective Projection Projectors coverge at center of projection 18

19 Vanishing Points Parallel lines (not parallel to the projection plan) on the object converge at a single point in the projection (the vanishing point) Drawing simple perspectives by hand uses these vanishing point(s) vanishing point 19

20 Three-Point Perspective No principal face parallel to projection plane Three vanishing points for cube 20

21 Two-Point Perspective On principal direction parallel to projection plane Two vanishing points for cube 21

22 One-Point Perspective One principal face parallel to projection plane One vanishing point for cube 22

23 Advantages and Disadvantages Objects further from viewer are projected smaller than the same sized objects closer to the viewer (diminution) - Looks realistic Equal distances along a line are not projected into equal distances (nonuniform foreshortening) Angles preserved only in planes parallel to the projection plane More difficult to construct by hand than parallel projections (but not more difficult by computer) 23

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