# LC OL Probability. ARNMaths.weebly.com. As part of Leaving Certificate Ordinary Level Math you should be able to complete the following.

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1 A Ryan LC OL Probability ARNMaths.weebly.com Learning Outcomes As part of Leaving Certificate Ordinary Level Math you should be able to complete the following. Counting List outcomes of an experiment Apply the fundamental principle of counting Count the arrangements of n distinct objects (n!) Count the number of ways of arranging r objects from n distinct objects Concepts of probability Decide whether an everyday event is likely or unlikely to occur Recognise that probability is a measure on a scale of 0-1 of how likely an event is to occur Use set theory to discuss experiments, outcomes, sample spaces Use the language of probability to discuss events, including those with equally likely outcomes Estimate probabilities from experimental data Recognise that, if an experiment is repeated, there will be different outcomes and that increasing the number of times an experiment is repeated generally leads to better estimates of probability Associate the probability of an event with its long run relative frequency Discuss basic rules of probability (AND/OR, mutually exclusive) through the use of Venn diagrams Calculate expected value and understand that this does not need to be one of the outcomes Recognise the role of expected value in decision making and explore the issue of fair games Outcomes of Random Processes Construct sample spaces for two independent events Apply the principle that in the case of equally likely outcomes the probability is given by the number of outcomes of interest divided by the total number of outcomes (examples using coins, dice, spinners, urns with coloured objects, playing cards, etc.) Find the probability that two independent events both occur Apply an understanding of Bernoulli trials (A Bernoulli trial is an experiment whose outcome is random and can be either of two possibilities: success or failure ) Solve problems involving up to 3 Bernoulli trials Calculate the probability that the 1st success occurs on the nth Bernoulli trial where n is specified

2 Listing Outcomes A coin is tossed, what are the possible outcomes? A member of one direction is chosen at random, what are the possible outcomes? A coin is flipped two times. How many outcomes are possible? Francis flips a coin and rolls a die. List all the possible outcomes. How many outcomes are possible? Maggie is trying on a dress in River Island, which comes in five different sizes and seven different colours. How many different dresses can Maggie try on?

3 Rating Probabilities Assign one of the following possibilities to the statements below. Impossible. Unlikely. Even chance (fifty-fifty). Likely. Certain. 1. It will get dark tonight 2. If I roll a dice, I will get an odd number. 3. It will rain tomorrow. 4. The sun will rise next week. 5. I will win the lottery. 6. I will get a head when I toss a coin. 7. A baby being born and being a boy. 8. Offaly winning the next all Ireland football title. 9. Manchester United winning the premier league. 10. You will watch television tonight. 11. You will eat some food today. 12. If I roll a dice I will get an even number. 13. Ireland will win the next soccer world cup. 14. Tomorrow will be 40 degrees. 15. Kildare will win an All-Ireland Hurling title in the next 4 years 16. Finding a triangle with 4 sides. 17. Tomorrow a baby will be born in Ireland. 18. The next winner of the Lotto will be a woman. 19. You score 8 when you roll an ordinary dice. 20. It will rain in Galway sometime in the next week. 21. Someone in your class will be absent one day next week. 22. The next baby born will be a boy. 23. Ireland will win the next soccer World Cup.

4 Practical Activity 1 Probability Roll a dice Total number of possible outcomes = Predicted results desired probability outcomes expected in 30 rolls aactual results aobtained in rolls a30 P(1) P(less than 3) P(2 or 5) P(even) P(not 4) P(between 1 and 6) P(5) P(not 6) P(8) Comment on how actual results compare with predicted results.

5 Practical Activity 2 Working in groups of two and sharing the work carry out the following tasks and keep the appropriate records in each case. 1. Toss a coin 12 times and put the results in the frequency table. Toss No Result How many Heads out of 12? How many Tails out of 12 If you tossed 200 times how many heads would you expect? 2. Throw a 1 to 6 (6 sided) dice 15 times and record the result in the frequency table. Throw No Result How many times did each no show? If you threw the dice 300 times how often would the number 3 show? 3. Select the following cards from a pack. 5 of spades (5S), 10 of spades (10S), 6 of Diamonds (6D), Queen of Clubs (QC) and King of Clubs (KC) Shuffle the cards and face them down on the desk - pick one and record the result. Repeat the procedure 20 times and complete the frequency chart by putting an x in the appropriate space. Try No of spades 6 diamond 10 spades Q Club K Clubs How many times did each card show? 5S 6D 10S QC KC How many times did a spade show? How many times did a picture card show? How many times did a diamond show?

6 Worksheet 1 Elaine has decided that she will buy a top and a pair of trousers. She has a choice of a pick, yellow or green top and grey or blue trousers. List all the possible colours of clothes that she could wear. The list of all possible outcomes would be: List all the possible colours of clothes that she could wear using a two-way table. A decorator can choose to paint the door of a room in two colours, the walls in five colours and the ceiling in three colours. How many possible ways can she can paint the room?

7 Worksheet 2

8

9 Worksheet 3 1. This table show the entries of some distance running events. Complete the table. 100m 5000m Marathon Total Male 12 Female 12 6 Total An athlete is chosen at random. What is the probability that the athlete chosen is i) Female? ii) Male marathon runner? iii) 5000m runner? 2. The probability scale shows the probabilities of the events A, B, C, D, and E. A B C D E Which of the five events: i) Has an even chance of happening? ii) Is impossible? iii) Is certain to happen? iv) Is unlikely to happen? v) Is very likely to happen?

10 3. There are four red and two yellow marbles in a bag. One marble is selected at random from the bag. What is the probability the marble selected is: i) Yellow? ii) Red? iii) Green? 4. The probability of a train being late is 15. What is the probability that it will not be late? Mary brought a packet of flavoured sweets. There were 24 sweets in the packet: eight apple, five cherry, five orange and the remainder were raspberry. i) How many raspberry sweets were in the packet? 6. Mary takes one sweet at random from the packet. What is the probability that the sweet is: ii) Apple flavoured? iii) Orange or raspberry flavoured? iv) Not cherry flavoured? v) What two flavours have the same probability of being selected?

11 7. For each of the following events, say whether it is impossible, very unlikely, unlikely, evens, likely, very likely or certain. i) If you buy a lotto ticket you will win the lotto jackpot. ii) You will get tails when you toss a coin? iii) You will pick a vowel at random from the letters of the word MOUSE iv) When a fair die is thrown it will land on a number less than The results from 40 spins of a spinner were recorded as follows i) Complete the following table. Number Frequency ii) Use the results to estimate the probability of getting a 3 with the next spin. iii) Is the spinner biased? Give a reason for your answer.

12 9. A traffic survey was carried out at a busy intersection for one hour. The results are recorded in the following table. Direction Turn Right Turn Left Straight Ahead Number of vehicles a) How many vehicles were recorded in the survey? b) If 5,400 used the intersection during the day, estimate the number of vehicles that turned left. c) Give one reasons why these figures may not be accurate. 10. In a game, two dice are rolled in turn by the players. The table below represents all 36 outcomes. The total on the two dice is recorded. a) Complete the following table, filling in the totals in each case. First dice Second dice b) State if the following statements are true or false: Statement True False All totals are equally likely A total of 7 is the most likely A total of 5 is as likely as a total of 9 You are not very likely to get a total of 12 The probability of getting a total of 6 or more is about 50% A total of 13 is impossible You are more likely to get a total under 7 than over 7 You get a total of 2 about 3% of the time

13 11. A fair coin is flipped twice. i) Draw a tree diagram to the show all the possible outcomes. Determine the probability of getting: ii) Two tails iii) A tail and a head. iv) A tail followed by a head

14 Worksheet 4 1. A biased die is used in a game. The probabilities of getting the six different numbers on the die are shown in the table below. Number Probability value of the random variable X, where X is the number thrown. Find the expected 2. The table below gives motor insurance information for fully licensed, 17 to 20 year old drivers in Ireland in All drivers who had their own insurance policy are included. Number of drivers Number of claims Average cost per claim Male Female a) What is the probability that a randomly selected male driver made a claim during the year? Give your answer correct to three decimal places. b) What is the probability that a randomly selected female driver made a claim during the year? Give your answer correct to three decimal places.

15 3. The 2006 census shows that the number of females living in Ireland is about the same as the number of males. a) If a person is selected at random, write down the probability that the person is male. Answer b) Four people are chosen at random. We are interested in whether they are male or female. i) Complete the sample space below showing the sixteen equally likely outcomes. MMMM MMMF ii) Hence, or otherwise, complete the table of probabilities below. Four males Three males; One female Two males; Two females 1 16 One male; Three females Four females c) A person states the following: if you pick four people at random, it s more likely than not that you ll get two males and two females. Is this statement correct? Justify your answer using the answer(s) to part (b) Answer Justification:

16 4. On his journey to school Joe s school bus must pass through two sets of traffic lights which are equally likely to be red or green. a) Use a two way table or a tree diagram to show all the possible light combinations for the two sets of lights. b) What is the probability that the two lights will be green? c) When Joe gets to school he likes to spend some time practising free shots in basketball with his friends before class. The probability that he makes a basket is 0.7. What is the probability that in 5 shots he scores his first basket on the fifth shot? Assume all shots are independent events.

17 5. A card is selected from an ordinary pack of playing cards. What are the probabilities of it being: i) A black Ace ii) A two or a three iii) Either an Ace or a King There are 13 Clubs in a pack of cards and 4 sevens. iv) If we call the set of Clubs C and the set of sevens S, complete the Venn diagram below to show the number of elements in each set. U C S [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] v) If I select a card from an ordinary pack of playing cards, what is the probability that I select: i) A club or a seven? ii) A club and a seven? iii) A card which is neither a Club nor a seven?

18 Advanced Probability Notes Combinatorics and Probability Recall Combinatorics are the Fundamenatal Counting Principle (FCP), permutations and combinations. FCP: Multiply each category of choices by the number of choices. Permutations: Selecting more than one item without replacement where order is important. Combinations: Selecting more than one item without replacement where order is not important. Example 1: (i) A lottery has 42 numbers from which six are selected. What is the probability of picking all six numbers? Find n(s). Counting is tedious and impractical, use combinatorics. Selecting more than one item from a group without replacement and order does not matter. n 42 r 6 42! 42 6!6! = = = n(s) (number of selections) n(picking 6 out of 6) = 1 P(picking 6 out of 6) = 1/ (ii) A lottery has 42 numbers from which six are selected. What is the probability of picking five of the six numbers? Find n(s).. n 42 r 6 42! 42 6!6! = = = n(s) n(picking 5 out of 6) =

19 Prob: P(picking 5 out of 6) = 6 36 / A lottery has 49 numbers from which six are selected. What is the probability of picking four of the six numbers? Prob: A lottery has 42 numbers from which six are selected. What is the probability that two consecutive numbers will be picked. P ( consecutive numbers) = 1 P( not consecutive) If none of the six numbers picked are consecutive then the 36 remaining numbers provide 37 slots into which the numbers must slot singly.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! = numbers not picked = possible slots for picked numbers Thus the problem becomes one of selecting 6 slots from a possible 37 The number of ways of doing this is P (no consecutive numbers) = P (consecutive numbers )= = Example 2: Find the probability of being dealt three kings in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No jokers) Sample space: how many 5-card hands are there? Find

20 n(s) 52 = 5 Find n(3 kings): = 2,598, = 4 x 1128 = there are two categories, kings and non-kings. Notice the sum of the numbers in front of C totals 52 and the number after totals 5. This is one form of bookkeeping and checking your work. n = 52, r = P(3 Kings) = ,598,960 Example3: Find the probability of dealing any 3 of a kind. Since the possibility of 3 kings is , then extend that to any 3 of a kind by multiplying by the number of different possibilities: x 13 2,598,960 = Prob: 1. Find the probability of being dealt three kings and two aces in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No jokers) n(3kings and 2 aces) Find the probability of being dealt a full house in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No jokers) n( full house) Find the probability of being dealt two kings and two aces in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No jokers) n(2kings and 2 aces ) Find the probability of being dealt any two pair in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No jokers) n( two pair) Find the probability of being dealt five hearts in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No 13 5 jokers) Find the probability of being dealt five cards of the same suit in a five-card hand in a 52-card standard deck. (No jokers)

21 LC OL - Exam Questions

22 Old Course OL Exam Questions Question 1

23 Question 2

24 Question 3

25 Question 4

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31 Question 9

32 Question 10 Question 11

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34 Question 13 Question 14

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37 Question 18 Question 19

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40 Question 22

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