# Discrete Random Variables Day 1

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1 Discrete Random Variables Day 1

2 What is a Random Variable? Every probability problem is equivalent to drawing something from a bag (perhaps more than once) Like Flipping a coin 3 times is equivalent to Drawing a ball 3 times from the bag below (with replacement) is equivalent to Drawing 1 ball from the bag below

3 What is a Random Variable? We want every probability problem to be equivalent to drawing a NUMBER from a bag (and only once). Definition: A random variable is a way of relabeling all of the outcomes of an experiment with NUMBERS.

4 What is a Random Variable? Every probability problem is equivalent to drawing something from a bag (perhaps more than once) Like Flipping a coin 3 times is equivalent to Drawing a ball 3 times from the bag below (with replacement) is equivalent to Drawing 1 ball from the bag below

5 What is a Random Variable? Every probability problem is equivalent to drawing something from a bag (perhaps more than once) Like Flipping a coin 3 times is equivalent to Drawing a ball 3 times from the bag below (with replacement) is equivalent to Drawing 1 ball from the bag below

6 Defining Random Variables Ex 1: Define some random variables on the following experiments: a) Experiment = Flip a single coin 4 times b) Experiment = Draw a single card from a standard poker deck c) Experiment = Draw 2 cards from a standard poker deck one by one with replacement d) Experiment = Draw 2 cards from a standard poker deck one by one without replacement

7 Probability Distributions of Random Variables Every random variable has a probability distribution The probability distribution tells you the probability for each value of the random variable For a discrete random variable, the probability distribution is a table (or a histogram) To calculate a probability distribution for a random variable, GO BACK TO THE SAMPLE SPACE

8 2 Requirements for a Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable 1) For every value x of the random variable X, 0 P(X = x) 1 2) P(X = x) = 1

9 Ex 2: Experiment = Roll a pair of dice Random Variable X = Total of the numbers on the dice a) Find the probability distribution of X (as a table and as a histogram) b) Verify that your answer to part (a) satisfies the 2 requirements of a probability distribution

10 Ex 3: Experiment = Draw a single card from a standard poker deck Suppose you make a bet with your friend where you Win \$10 if you draw the ace of spades Win \$5 if you draw any other ace Win \$2 of you draw any other spade Lose \$1 of you draw anything else Random Variable X = Amount of money you win when playing this game once a) Find the probability distribution of X (as a table and as a histogram) b) Verify that your answer to part (a) satisfies the 2 requirements of a probability distribution

11 Expected Value, Standard Deviation, and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable x P(X = x)

12 Expected Value, Standard Deviation, and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable Expected Value μ = E X = EV X = xp(x = x) Standard Deviation σ = SD X = x 2 P(X = x) μ 2 Variance σ 2 = VAR X = x 2 P(X = x) μ 2

13 Expected Value, Standard Deviation, and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable Note: 1) The reason why we are using the symbols μ, σ, σ 2 Is because we are pretending that the bag of numbers is POPULATION data, not sample data. 2) The formula σ = SD X = x 2 P(X = x) μ 2 comes from our old formula for standard deviation of the POPULATION σ= x μ 2 N not s = x x 2 n 1 = n x2 x 2 n(n 1) SD of population data SD of sample data

14 Ex 4: You and a friend are betting on the roll of a die. Specifically you will lose \$1 if you roll a 1, 2, or 3, you will lose \$2 if you roll a 4 or 5, and you will win \$8 if you roll a 6. Let the random variable X denote the amount of money you win when playing this game once. a) Find the probability distribution of X b) Find the expected value, standard deviation and variance of X c) Explain the meaning of the expected value you obtained in part (b) d) Is this a good bet for you? Or for your friend?

15 Ex 5: You are going to draw a single ball from the bag below once. Let X denote the number on the ball that you drew. a) Find the probability distribution of X b) Find the expected value, standard deviation and variance of X c) Explain the meaning of the expected value you obtained in part (b) Hint: Some of this calculation was already done earlier today

16 Ex 6: In this example we are going to analyze 2 different bets in roulette. Bet 1: You bet \$100 on red. Let X denote the amount of money you win when you make this bet once. Bet 2: You bet \$100 on the number 28. Let Y denote the amount of money you win when you make this bet once. a) Find the probability distributions of X and Y b) Find the expected values, standard deviations and variances of X and Y c) Explain the meaning of the expected values you obtained in part (b) d) Discuss which is a better bet.

17 Ex 6 (picture):

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