# 1. a. Miki tosses a coin 50 times, and the coin shows heads 28 times. What fraction of the 50 tosses is heads? What percent is this?

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1 A C E Applications Connections Extensions Applications 1. a. Miki tosses a coin 50 times, and the coin shows heads 28 times. What fraction of the 50 tosses is heads? What percent is this? b. Suppose the coin is fair, and Miki tosses it 500 times. About how many times can she expect it to show heads? Explain your reasoning. 2. Suppose Kalvin tosses a coin to determine his breakfast cereal every day. He starts on his twelfth birthday and continues until his eighteenth birthday. About how many times would you expect him to eat Cocoa Blast cereal? 3. Kalvin tosses a coin five days in a row and gets tails every time. Do you think there is something wrong with the coin? How can you find out? 4. Len tosses a coin three times. The coin shows heads every time. What are the chances the coin shows tails on the next toss? Explain. 5. Is it possible to toss a coin 20 times and have it land heads-up 20 times? Is this likely to happen? Explain. 6. Kalvin tosses a paper cup once each day for a year to determine his breakfast cereal. Use your results from Problem 1.2 to answer the following. a. How many times do you expect the cup to land on its side? On one of its ends? b. How many times do you expect Kalvin to eat Cocoa Blast in a month? In a year? Explain. 7. Dawn tosses a pawn from her chess set five times. It lands on its base four times and on its side only once. Andre tosses the same pawn 100 times. It lands on its base 28 times and on its side 72 times. Based on their data, if you toss the pawn one more time, is it more likely to land on its base or its side? Explain. 1

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3 8. Kalvin flips a small paper cup 50 times and a large paper cup 30 times. The table below displays the results of his experiments. Based on these data, should he use the small cup or the large cup to determine his breakfast each morning? Explain. Cup-Toss Results Where Cup Lands Small Paper Cup Large Paper Cup Side 39 times 22 times One of Its Ends 11 times 8 times 9. Kalvin s sister Kate finds yet another way for him to pick his breakfast. She places one blue marble and one red marble in each of two bags. She says that each morning he can choose one marble from each bag. If the marbles are the same color, he eats Cocoa Blast. If not, he eats Health Nut Flakes. Explain how selecting one marble from each of the two bags and tossing two coins are similar. 10. Adsila and Adahy have to decide who will take out the garbage. Adahy suggests they toss two coins. He says that if at least one head comes up, Adsila takes out the garbage. If no heads come up, Adahy takes out the garbage. Should Adsila agree to Adahy s proposal? Explain why or why not. 2

4 For Exercises 11 15, decide whether the possible results are equally likely. Explain. Action Possible Results 11. Your phone rings at 9:00 P.M. The caller is your best friend, the caller is a relative, or the caller is someone else. 12. You check the temperature at your The temperature is 30 F or above, or home tomorrow morning. the temperature is below 30 F. 13. You spin the pointer once. The pointer lands on yellow, the pointer lands on red, or the pointer lands on blue. 14. You find out how many car There were fewer than five accidents, accidents occurred in your city or there were exactly five accidents, or town yesterday. there were more than five accidents. 15. You choose a card from a standard The card is a spade, the card is a heart, deck of playing cards (with the card is a diamond, or the card is no jokers). a club. For Exercises 16 17, first list all the possible results for each action. Then decide whether the results are equally likely. 16. You choose a block from a bag containing one red block, three blue blocks, and one green block. 17. You try to steal second base during a baseball game. 18. For parts (a) (f ), give an example of a result that would have a probability near the percent given. a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% e. 80% f. 100% 3

5 Connections 19. Colby rolls a number cube 50 times. She records the result of each roll and organizes her data in the table below. a. What fraction of the rolls are 2 s? What percent is this? b. What fraction of the rolls are odd numbers? What percent is this? c. What percent of the rolls is greater than 3? d. Suppose Colby rolls the number cube 100 times. About how many times can she expect to roll a 2? Explain. e. If Colby rolls the number cube 1,000 times, about how many times can she expect to roll an odd number? Explain. 20. Find a fraction between each pair of fractions. a and 8 25 b. 3 8 and

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7 For Exercises 21 23, use the bar graph below. Reasons People Moved 21. Multiple Choice Suppose 41,642 people moved. About how many of those people moved for family-related reasons? A. 28 B. 11,000 C. 21,000 D. 31, Multiple Choice What fraction of the people represented in the graph moved for reasons other than work-related, housing-related, or family-related? F G H J Multiple Choice Suppose 41,642 people moved. About how many moved for housing-related reasons? A. 52 B. 11,000 C. 21,000 D. 31,000 5

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9 24. Suppose you write all the factors of 42 on pieces of paper and put them in a bag. You shake the bag. Then, you choose one piece of paper from the bag. Find the experimental probability of choosing the following. a. an even number b. a prime number 25. Weather forecasters often use percents to give probabilities in their forecasts. For example, a forecaster might say that there is a 50% chance of rain tomorrow. For the forecasts below, change the fractional probabilities to percents. a. The probability that it will rain tomorrow is 2 5. b. The probability that it will snow Monday is c. The probability that it will be cloudy this weekend is

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11 For Exercises 26 29, use the graph below. Average Number of Tornadoes Per Year 26. Is a tornado equally likely to occur in California and in Florida? Explain your reasoning. 27. Is a tornado equally likely to occur in Arkansas and in Pennsylvania? 28. Is a tornado equally likely to occur in Massachusetts and in Texas? 29. Based on these data, is a person living in Montana more likely to experience a tornado than a person living in Massachusetts? Explain. Extensions 30. Monday is the first day Kalvin tosses a coin to determine his cereal. During the first five days, he has Cocoa Blast only twice. One possible pattern of Kalvin s coin tosses is shown. Coin-Toss Results Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday H H T T T Find every way Kalvin can toss the coin during the week and have Cocoa Blast cereal twice. Explain how you know that you found every possible way. 7

12 31. Yolanda watches a carnival game in which a paper cup is tossed. It costs \$1 to play the game. If the cup lands upright, the player receives \$5. Otherwise, the player receives nothing. The cup is tossed 50 times. It lands on its side 32 times, upside-down 13 times, and upright 5 times. a. If Yolanda plays the game ten times, about how many times can she expect to win? How many times can she expect to lose? b. Do you expect her to have more or less money at the end of ten games? Explain. 8

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