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1 1. Jane s mother left some cherries for her children. Jane ate 10 cherries, which was exactly 2 of all the cherries that her mother left. Her brother Sam ate all the remaining cherries. How many cherries did he eat? Answer: 1 Solution 1. Since the 10 cherries Jane ate were exactly 2 of all the cherries, then 10 2 = cherries were 1 of all the cherries. Jane s brother Sam ate all the remaining cherries, which was exactly 1 2 = 3 of all the cherries, so he ate 3 = 1 cherries. Solution 2. Since the 10 cherries Jane ate were exactly 2 of all the cherries, then Jane s mother left 10 2 = 10 = 2 cherries for her children. So Sam ate 2 10 = 1 2 remaining cherries. 2. From a big piece of paper Steve cut out 2016 shapes squares and regular pentagons. Then Michael cut each pentagon along one of its diagonals. How many quadrilaterals were there at the end? (A regular pentagon has five equal sides and five equal angles. A diagonal of a pentagon is a segment which connects two corners that are not already connected by a side.) Answer: 2016 Solution. Cutting a regular pentagon along one of its diagonals leaves one triangle and one quadrilateral. Squares are also quadrilaterals. Thus there will be one quadrilateral at the end for each shape Steve cut out, or 2016, no matter how many of these shapes were squares or regular pentagons. 3. There are 30 puppies, kittens, and mice altogether in the RSM Pet Hotel. There are twice as many kittens' ears as puppies' tails. There are twice as many puppies' paws as mice's eyes. How many kittens are there in the RSM Pet Hotel (if every animal has the usual number of body parts)? Answer: 10 Solution. Since kittens have two ears each, there are twice as many kittens ears as kittens. Since puppies have one tail each, there are as many puppies tails as puppies. So the number of kittens equals half the number of kittens ears, and therefore the number of kittens equals the number of puppies tails which equals the number of puppies. Since puppies have four paws each, there are four times as many puppies paws as puppies. Since mice have two eyes each, there are twice as many mice s eyes as mice. So the number of puppies equals a quarter of the number of puppies paws, and therefore the number of puppies equals half the number of mice s eyes which equals the number of mice. This means that the RSM Pet Hotel has the same number of puppies, kittens, and mice for a total of 30 tenants. Thus there are 10 (one third of 30) kittens in the RSM Pet Hotel. 4. The diagram shows a 4-by-7 rectangle composed of unit squares, where parts of some lines have been erased. How many squares of all sizes and positions are there in this diagram, including squares that are made up of other squares?

3 Let s also designate the after the fifth folding 2 cm-by-3 cm rectangle Z as having horizontal sides 3 cm long and vertical sides 2 cm long. Note that there are just two possibilities for the after the fourth folding rectangle Y. The first one has a vertical crease along the 2-cm side. In this case the longest possible adjacent side of rectangle Y is 2 3 = 6 cm long (twice the length of the folded side), and all other possible (for this case) rectangles Y are fully covered by this 2 cm-by-6 cm rectangle Y1. The second possibility has a horizontal crease along the 3-cm side. In this case the longest possible adjacent side of rectangle Y is 2 2= 4 cm long (twice the length of the folded side), and all other possible (for this case) rectangles Y are fully covered by this 4 cm-by-3 cm rectangle Y2. Since each possible after the fourth folding rectangle Y is fully covered either by rectangle Y1 or by rectangle Y2, in order to get the original rectangle having the greatest possible perimeter, we can continue to unfold only rectangles Y1 and Y2. By applying similar reasoning, we conclude that each possible after the third folding rectangle X is fully covered either by 2 cm-by-12 cm rectangle X1, or by 4 cm-by-6 cm rectangle X2, or by 8 cm-by-3 cm rectangle X3, so in order to get the original rectangle having the greatest possible perimeter, we can continue to unfold only rectangles X1, X2, and X3. After applying similar reasoning a few more times, we conclude that each possible original rectangle U is fully covered either by 2 cm-by-96 cm rectangle U1, or by 4 cm-by-48 cm rectangle U2, or by 8 cm-by-24 cm rectangle U3, or by 16 cm-by-12 cm rectangle U4, or by 32 cm-by-6 cm rectangle U, or by 64 cm-by-3 cm rectangle U6. Thus, to find the greatest possible perimeter of the original rectangle, we can simply compute perimeters of the six rectangles U1, U2, U3, U4, U, and U6, and take the greatest of their values. These six rectangles have perimeters of 2 (2 + 96) = 196 cm, 2 (4 + 48) = 104 cm, 2 (8 + 24) = 64 cm, 2 ( ) = 6 cm, 2 (32 + 6) = 76 cm, and 2 (64 + 3) = 134 cm, so the answer is There are four pens (black, blue, red, and green) and four pen caps (blue, blue, red, and green). How many ways are there to put all four caps on all four pens (exactly one cap per pen) with the restriction that pen s and cap s colors should be different for each pen? Note that the two blue caps are identical. Answer: 4 Solution. A cap on the blue pen could be either red or green. Let s start from the case when the blue pen is capped by the red cap, and other three pens are yet uncapped. In this case the green cap could be put on any of the two yet-uncapped non-green pens (black or red, 2 possibilities), and the remaining two blue caps must be put on the two yetuncapped pens (just 1 possibility, since the two blue caps are identical). In total, we counted 2 ways to put all four caps on all four pens (exactly one cap per pen) with the red cap on the blue pen. By symmetry, there are also 2 ways to put all four caps on all four pens (exactly one cap per pen) with the green cap on the blue pen. Since no other cap can be put on the blue pen, there are a total of = 4 ways to put all four caps on all four pens (exactly one cap per pen) with the restriction that pen s and cap s colors should be different for each pen. 10. Ravi wrote (using white chalk) the number 123,46,789 on the board. Then he wrote (using yellow chalk) the number 20 near every white odd digit on the board, and the number 16 near every white even digit on the board. Then he wrote (using pink chalk) the number 20 near every non-pink odd digit on the board, and the number 16 near every non-pink even digit on the board. Finally, he wrote (using grey chalk) the number 20 near

4 every non-grey odd digit on the board, and the number 16 near every non-grey even digit on the board. How many even digits are on the board now? Answer: 162 Solution 1. Ravi wrote (using white chalk) odd (1, 3,, 7, 9) and 4 even (2, 4, 6, 8) digits on the board. For each of the (white) odd digits, he wrote the number 20 in yellow near it. Since both digits 2 and 0 are even, Ravi wrote 10 yellow even digits ( twos and zeroes). For each of the 4 white even digits, he wrote the number 16 in yellow near it. Since 1 is odd and 6 is even, Ravi wrote 4 yellow odd digits (1s) and 4 more yellow even digits (6s). Thus the total number of even digits now is 4 (white even digits from the original number) + 10 (yellow 2s and 0s) + 4 (yellow 6s) = 18. The total number of odd digits now is (white odd digits from the original number) + 4 (yellow 1s) = 9. All of the digits on the board are non-pink. Then Ravi wrote, all in pink, 9 twos (even), 9 zeroes (even), 18 ones (odd) and 18 sixes (even). This adds = 36 more even digits (for a total of = 4) and 18 more odd digits (for a total of = 27). All of the digits on the board are non-grey. Finally Ravi wrote, all in grey, 27 twos (even), 27 zeroes (even), 4 ones (odd) and 4 sixes (even). This adds = 108 more even digits, bringing the total number of even digits on the board to = 162. Solution 2. For each of the 9 white digits on the board, Ravi wrote two yellow digits near it. After this there are 3 times as many digits on the board as white digits, for a total of 3 9 = 27 white/yellow digits. Similarly, there is a total of 3 27 = 81 white/yellow/pink (non-grey) digits on the board. Each of these non-grey digits is either even or odd. Ravi wrote the number 20 in grey near every non-grey odd digit on the board. Both digits 2 and 0 are even, so each non-grey odd digit owns 2 even digits on the board. Then Ravi wrote the number 16 in grey near every non-grey even digit on the board. Only one of the digits 1 and 6 is even (6), so each non-grey even digit also owns 2 even digits on the board (one grey digit near it and itself). Thus, now there are twice as many even digits on the board as non-grey digits, for a total of 2 81 = 162 even digits. 11. Ben thought of four different positive numbers. Exactly two of his numbers are multiples of 2, exactly two of his numbers are multiples of 3, and exactly two of his numbers are multiples of. What is the least possible value of the sum of the four numbers Ben thought of? Answer: 24 Solution. If Ben thought of the four positive numbers 3,, 6 = 2 3, and 10 = 2, their sum would be = 24, and exactly two of his numbers are multiples of 2, exactly two of his numbers are multiples of 3, and exactly two of his numbers are multiples of. Now let s prove that if the four numbers Ben thought of satisfy all the conditions of the problem, the sum of these four numbers is at least 24. Exactly two of the four numbers are multiples of. If neither of them is exactly, then the sum of these two different positive multiples of is at least = 2 > 24. If one of them is and the other one is at least 20, then their sum is at least + 20 = 2 > 24. If one of them is and the other one is 1, then both of them are odd, so the other two of the four numbers must be the multiples of 2. The sum of these two different positive multiples of 2 is at least = 6, so the sum of the four numbers is at least = 26 > 24.

5 Finally, if one of the two multiples of is and the other one is 10, then neither of them is a multiple of 3, so the other two of the four numbers must be the multiples of 3. The sum of these two different positive multiples of 3 is at least = 9, so the sum of the four numbers is at least = 24. Thus, the least possible value of the sum of the four numbers Ben thought of is Say that a pair of numbers X and Y (X may equal Y) is special if their sum and their product have the same units digit. How many different special pairs of two-digit whole numbers are there? Count pairs (X, Y) and (Y, X) as one pair. Answer: 171 Solution. If both whole numbers in a pair are odd, then their sum is even (and therefore has an even units digit) and their product is odd (and therefore has an odd units digit), so the sum and the product have different units digits and the pair cannot be special. If one of the two whole numbers in a pair is even and the other one is odd, then their sum is odd (and therefore has an odd units digit) and their product is even (and therefore has an even units digit), so the sum and the product have different units digits and again the pair cannot be special. Thus, both whole numbers making a special pair must be even. In other words, each of them must have an even units digit. Note that for any two whole numbers, the units digit of their sum and the units digit of their product depend only on the units digits of the numbers themselves. If one of the two whole numbers in a pair has units digit 0, the product of the two numbers has units digit 0, and therefore for the pair to be special the sum of the two numbers must also have units digit 0, so the other number in the pair must have units digit 0. And vice versa, when both whole numbers have the same units digit 0, their sum and their product have the same units digit (namely 0) and the pair is special. Checking other possibilities for the units digits of two even whole numbers (2 and 2, 2 and 4, 2 and 6, 2 and 8, 4 and 4, 4 and 6, 4 and 8, 6 and 6, 6 and 8, 8 and 8) yields that only cases 2 and 2 and 4 and 8 produce special pairs. When both whole numbers have the same units digit 2, their sum and their product have the same units digit (namely 4) and the pair is special. When one of the two whole numbers has units digits 4 and the other one has units digit 8, their sum and their product have the same units digit (namely 2) and the pair is special. Now let s count how many different pairs of two-digit whole numbers satisfy the following condition: either both numbers have the same units digit 0; or both numbers have the same units digit 2; or one of the numbers has units digit 4 and the other one has units digit 8. Remember that pairs (X, Y) and (Y, X) should be counted as only one pair. There are 9 two-digit whole numbers with units digit 0 (the tens digit could be any of the 9 non-zero digits). These numbers produce 9 9 = 81 pairs, 9 pairs of type (X, X) and 81 9 = 72 pairs of type (X, Y) with X Y. But we need to count pairs (X, Y) and (Y, X) as one pair, so we have to count 72 pairs (X, Y) with X Y as just 72 2 = 36 different pairs. Pairs (X, X) were already counted once each, so there are = 4 different pairs of two-digit whole numbers having units digit 0. Similarly, there are 4 different pairs of two-digit whole numbers having units digit 2. Finally, let s count how many different pairs of two-digit whole numbers satisfy the following condition: one of the numbers has units digit 4 and the other one has units digit 8. To avoid counting duplicate pairs (like (14, 98) and (98, 14)), we can simply assume that the first number in a pair has units digit 4, and the second number has units digit 8. There are 9 two-digit whole numbers with units digit 4 (the tens digit could be

6 any of the 9 non-zero digits). Similarly, there are 9 two-digit whole numbers with units digit 8. Thus, there are 9 9 = 81 different pairs of two-digit whole numbers with one number in a pair having units digit 4 and the other one having units digit 8. Altogether, there are = 171 special pairs of two-digit whole numbers.

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