Plate 4: View of the Acacia nigrescens Acacia caffra veld, note the bare areas between the trees

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1 Plate 4: View of the Acacia nigrescens Acacia caffra veld, note the bare areas between the trees 31 P a g e

2 Figure 12: Location of the Acacia nigrescens Acacia caffra veld within the study area 4496/MVR/mvr 32 P a g e

3 9.1.3 Commiphora mollis Burkea africana Sclerocarya birrea veld The southwestern corner of Portion 1 of the Farm Weltevreden 482 LQ contains a relatively large stand of Commiphora mollis (Velvet Corkwood), Boscia foetida (Stink Shepherd s Tree) and Burkea africana (Wild Seringa). The dense stand is approximately 60ha in size with minimal grass cover. In more open areas, Grewia and Rhus species dominated the understorey. Plate 5: View of the Commiphora mollis Burkea africana veld in the study area Plate 6: View of the Commiphora mollis Burkea africana veld in the study area Moving towards the east of this dense stand of trees, one encounters an area dominated by Burkea africana (Wild Seringa) and relatively large Sclerocarya birrea subspecies caffra (Marula). This area is approximately 136ha in size. 4496/MVR/mvr 33 P a g e

4 Figure 13: Location of the Commiphora mollis Burkea africana - Sclerocarya birrea veld within in the study area 4496/MVR/mvr 34 P a g e

5 9.1.4 Disturbed areas Various landuses have resulted in large areas within the study site showing degraded vegetation. These areas include land previously used for agricultural practices and as well as areas that have been heavily overgrazed, either by commercial stock farming or overstocked game farming. These disturbed areas occur on a number of properties over the study area and have a total approximate size of 510ha. The latter resulted in large parts of the study site showing areas that are completely bare of any lower storey vegetation with the existing vegetation primarily, consisting of Acacia species. These areas are particularly susceptible to erosion. The areas that were cleared and planted for agricultural practices show a level of recovery by the settlement of pioneer species such as Dichrostachys cinerea (Sickle Bush) and a range of Acacia species dominated by Acacia tortilis (Umbrella Thorn). Plate 7: View of the bare areas as a result of overgrazing 4496/MVR/mvr 35 P a g e

6 Figure 14: Location of the disturbed areas within the study area 4496/MVR/mvr 36 P a g e

7 9.2 FAUNA Mammals Mammals are generally the most conspicuous vertebrate group in the study area and hence have been well documented in several studies (Digby Wells. 2014, NSC et al, 2013, Envirolution, 2009, Bohlweki Environmental, 2006). The full list of species documented by earlier studies, as well as recorded during this assessment, is presented in Appendix A. A total of 114 species are listed of which 15 are considered to either be unlikely to be present or not present on the study site. During the present study 31 species were either observed directly or are documented with a high degree of confidence. Of the noted species, three are Red Data List species, as follows: Table 7: Red Data List species recorded in the study area SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: BIODIVERSITY ACT (ACT 10 OF 2004) Hippotragus equinus Roan Antelope Endangered Hippotragus niger niger Sable Antelope Vulnerable Parahyaena brunnea Brown Hyena Near Threatened Of the three, the first two are all present on game farms and were introduced as part of commercial breeding programmes. As such, some are even semi-domesticated and, although free roaming, are fed of stock feeds. The Parahyaena brunnea (Brown Hyena) is uncommon and individuals roam through the area as their ranges encompass numbers of farms. Plate 8: View of the Hippotragus niger niger (Sable Antelope) on the site 4496/MVR/mvr 37 P a g e

8 Plate 9: Camera trap image of an Orycteropus afer (Ant Bear) Species such as Atilax paludinosus (Water Mongoose), Aonyx capensis (Clawless Otter) and Hippopotamus amphidius (Hippopotamus) are all associated with permanent water bodies of which none occur within the study site. Other species such as small rodents (rats and mice) and bats were also not classified as they require special trapping methods Birds Birds are abundant across the study area and a total of 95 species were identified during the site visit. The Table below lists the Red Data List bird species which were found to be present. Table 8: Red Data List species recorded in the study area SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: BIODIVERSITY ACT (ACT 10 OF 2004) Gyps africanus White-backed Vulture Vulnerable Ardeotis kori Kori Bustard Vulnerable Vanellus albiceps White-crowned lapwing Near Threatened Gyps coprotheres Cape Vulture Vulnerable In addition to the above three species there are a further five species whose Probability of Occurrence is rated as being either Present or Highly likely to be present and which are Red Data listed as shown in Table P a g e

9 Table 9: Red Data Listed bird species observed in the study area SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: BIODIVERSITY ACT (ACT 10 OF 2004) Mycteria ibis Yellow-billed Stork Vulnerable Sagittarius serpentarius Secretary Bird Near Threatened Aquila rapax Tawny Eagle Vulnerable Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon Near Threatened Platysteira peltata Black-throated Wattleeye Near Threatened The Cercotrichas leucophrys (White-browed Scrub-Robin) is endemic to the South African Bird Atlas Region. The timing of the field study, resulted in many bird species being absent from the area since they are migratory and had moved away from the southern winter. They will, however, return at the end of winter and the count will increase by at least 30 terrestrial species. In addition, there are many species which are associated with wetlands such as sandpipers, stints, and some ducks and storks, which are opportunistic residents of ephemeral wetlands and will come and go depending on rainfall and the development of habitat. The bird list, attached in Appendix A, includes these species but it is recognised that their presence will be erratic and temporary Herpetofauna Relatively few reptiles were encountered during the field survey this is possibly due to the timing of the survey. Regional studies indicate the possible presence of 84 reptile species as listed in Appendix A. The composition of the groups is shown the Table below. Table 10: Summarised composition of the possible reptile assemblage in the study area GROUP NUMBER OF SPECIES Lizards, Agamas, Chameleons, Geckoes, Monitors and Skinks 31 Snakes 48 Tortoises and Terrapins 5 39 P a g e

10 Plate 10: View of the Psammophylax triteaniatus (Skaapsteker) None of the species, either included as regional possibilities, or recorded, are Red Data listed Amphibians The amphibian assemblage in the region is understandably poor as the arid nature of the area severely depresses the number of species which may be present. Bohlweki Environmental (2006) and Digby Wells (2014) collectively list only 18 frog species for the region and it is apparent that, based on habitat preferences (Minter et al, 2004), most of these will be associated with the Mokolo River to the west. Only one species Cacosternum boettgeri (Boettger s Caco) was noted at the site and was detected based on its calls. The Pyxicephalus adspersus (Giant Bullfrog) is known to occur in the ephemeral wetlands in the study area and is Red Data listed as Near Threatened Invertebrates The invertebrates that were found and which could be identified are listed in Appendix A. A search was made for the Pterinochilus murinus (Gold Baboon Spider) but none were found. None of the observed species is known to be Red Data listed. 40 P a g e

11 Plate 11: View of the Nephila species (Golden Orb Spider) Plate 12: View of a Pterinochilus murinus (Gold Baboon Spider) tunnel 41 P a g e

12 9.3 SENSITIVE BIOPHYSICAL FEATURES Watercourses No clear distinct watercourses with typical riparian habitat were encountered during the field survey. For completeness visits to both the Mokolo and Lephalale Rivers were made to consider their ecological condition. Neither of these watercourses will be impacted by the development of the mine in its proposed location. Plate 13: View of the Mokolo River west of the study site Plate 14: View of the Lephalala River east of the study site 42 P a g e

13 9.3.2 Wetlands ephemeral pans A number of ephemeral pans were identified and surveyed during the assessment. The large majority of these were dry due to the prevailing drought conditions. These pans will likely only hold water during the wet summer months of the year. The pans all show clear evidence of being used by the larger game within in the study site. An interesting aspect is the absence of any deeper hollows which are typically created by wallowing species like Phacochoerus africanus (Warthog) that increase the depth of these pans and as a consequence their capacity to hold water. Plate 15: View of a typical ephemeral pan Plate 16: View of a typical ephemeral pan 43 P a g e

14 Figure 15: Location of the ephemeral pans identified on the study site 4496/MVR/mvr 44 P a g e

15 10 IMPACT ASSESSMENT This section aims to identify and assess the significance of the impacts associated with the Construction, Operation, Decommissioning and Closure and Post-closure of the mining project. These impacts are identified and assessed in terms of their effect on the baseline biodiversity identified on the study site. The impacts are largely limited to the study site which is defined as the properties that are associated with the establishment of the mining and mining associated infrastructure METHODOLOGY USED TO DETERMINE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS The impact significance rating process serves two purposes: firstly, it helps to highlight the critical impacts requiring consideration in the management and approval process; secondly, it shows the primary impact characteristics, as defined above, used to evaluate impact significance. The impact significance rating system is presented in Table 17 and involves three parts: Part A: Define impact consequence using the three primary impact characteristics of magnitude, spatial scale/ population and duration; Part B: Use the matrix to determine a rating for impact consequence based on the definitions identified in Part A; and Part C: Use the matrix to determine the impact significance rating, which is a function of the impact consequence rating (from Part B) and the probability of occurrence. 4496/MVR/mvr 45 P a g e

16 Table 11: Significance Rating Methodology PART A: DEFINING CONSEQUENCE IN TERMS OF MAGNITUDE, DURATION AND SPATIAL SCALE Use these definitions to define the consequence in Part B Impact characteristics Definition Criteria MAGNITUDE SPATIAL SCALE OR POPULATION DURATION Major - Moderate - Minor - Minor + Moderate + Major + Site or local Regional National/ International Short term Medium term Substantial deterioration or harm to receptors; receiving environment has an inherent value to stakeholders; receptors of impact are of conservation importance; or identified threshold often exceeded Moderate/measurable deterioration or harm to receptors; receiving environment moderately sensitive; or identified threshold occasionally exceeded Minor deterioration (nuisance or minor deterioration) or harm to receptors; change to receiving environment not measurable; or identified threshold never exceeded Minor improvement; change not measurable; or threshold never exceeded Moderate improvement; within or better than the threshold; or no observed reaction Substantial improvement; within or better than the threshold; or favourable publicity Site specific or confined to the immediate project area May be defined in various ways, e.g. cadastral, catchment, topographic Nationally or beyond Up to 18 months. 18 months to 5 years Longer than 5 years 4496/MVR/mvr 46 P a g e

17 PART B: DETERMINING CONSEQUENCE RATING - Rate consequence based on definition of magnitude, spatial extent and duration SPATIAL SCALE/ POPULATION Site or Local Regional National/ international MAGNITUDE Medium Medium High Minor Moderate Major DURATION DURATION DURATION Medium term Low Low Medium Short term Low Low Medium Medium High High Medium term Medium Medium High Short term Low Medium Medium High High High Medium term Medium Medium High Short term Medium Medium High PART C: DETERMINING SIGNIFICANCE RATING - Rate significance based on consequence and probability CONSEQUENCE Low Medium High Definite Medium Medium High PROBABILITY (of exposure to impacts) Possible Low Medium High Unlikely Low Low Medium 47 P a g e

18 10.2 IMPACT IDENTIFICATION The anticipated impacts on the various biodiversity components for the life of the project have been identified as follows: Impacts on the Floral Community The following impacts on the floral community on the study area have been identified. Construction Phase All the areas that are earmarked for the establishment of the mining areas as well as associated mining infrastructure will be cleared of the current vegetation. This will result in a loss of the vegetation for the affected areas. The loss of vegetation will result in the loss of floral genetic diversity and biomass from the development footprint. The loss of genetic diversity, in turn, will result in a reduction of the number of seeds and other propagules that may originate from the cleared areas. Currently the vegetation on the development site acts as a carbon sink in which atmospheric CO 2 is stored. The clearance of the vegetation will therefore result in the loss of this ecosystem service provided by the vegetation. The clearance of vegetation will result in the loss of habitat for faunal and floral species. Operational Phase Once all the vegetation is cleared from the operational areas of the mine, no additional clearing will be done. Therefore, no additional impacts are considered to take place during the operational phase of the project that directly relate to the clearance of vegetation. Any unmanaged cleared areas within the mining area could result in the settling of alien invasive species that either migrate to these areas or are inadvertently introduced. This could lead to the creation of a source of alien species in the area and a risk to the biodiversity in the area. The foliage on the neighbouring properties could be covered in the dust and coal dust that is generated through the mining operations. This dust covering could significantly impact on the physiological function of these plants which could result in the plants dying. Decommissioning and Closure Phase The decommissioning phase will make provision for the removal of all structures and infrastructure from the operations area. Since the areas are already cleared of vegetation, no additional impacts will occur during this phase as a result of the clearing of vegetation. However, as during the operational phase, the risk of the establishment of alien invasive species on the operational area exists. Revegetation of the site will need to take place during this phase of the project. The lack of a detailed revegetation and rehabilitation plan is a major risk to the re-establishment of vegetation on the site post 4496/MVR/mvr 48 P a g e

19 closure. This revegetation and rehabilitation plan must also make provision for a level of aftercare of the replanted areas to prevent the establishment of alien invasive species. Post-closure Phase In the event that the revegetation during closure has taken place in accordance with a detailed revegetation and rehabilitation plan, no impacts relating to vegetation clearing will take place during this phase. Care must be taken post closure to ensure that the risk of alien invasive species settling on the site is minimised Impact on the Faunal Community The impacts on each of the faunal groups assessed will be considered individually in this section Mammals Construction Phase All moveable mammals will be removed from the site during the construction phase through an animal capturing programme. It must be noted that this animal capturing programme must be conducted by trained professionals in the field of the relocation of the targeted animals. Smaller mammals that do not form part of this active programme will move away from the site during construction and settle on neighbouring properties. Smaller mammals may be killed during the construction phase. This will possibly be because of illegal hunting by the unmanaged construction workers and directly by the operations of the plant and equipment used for construction. The construction of the mining operations could lead to the creation of a physical barrier through which animals cannot move. This will result in an alteration of the movement habits of these animals which could put their existence at risk. Operational Phase The potential for illegal hunting by the unmanaged mining employees pose a risk to the animals on the neighbouring properties. There is a risk of animals in the area being killed on the roads that will be used for the transport of the product from the mine. The increase in the number of vehicles and haulage truck on these roads is not known, however, it is considered that there will be a significant increase in the traffic volumes during the operational phase of the mine. Some territorial animals whose ranges border onto the mining operation are exposed to the impacts of dust and coal dust from the operations. The risk is associated with the dust settling on the foliage on the neighbouring properties which could render the plants unpalatable. The covering of dust could also impact on the physiological functioning of these plants which could result in them dying. It is possible that the noise and vibrations generated during the operational phase (blasting, operation of large plant, etc.) could impact some species through their potential inability to adapt to the change ambient 49 P a g e

20 noise levels in the area. This could impact the existence of the animals as this could result in a change to their natural behaviour that could potentially stop them from breeding. Decommissioning and Closure Phase The resettlement of the mammalian fauna on the property must form part of the rehabilitation plan for the mining area. The mammals should only be returned once the revegetation has been completed. The settled vegetation will create a habitat into which smaller mammals will naturally move back. A common risk to any aspect associated with the decommissioning of the mine relates to the level of rehabilitation being achieved. If the revegetation is not adequately completed, the vegetation communities will not be stable, which will result in the animal communities settling naturally or through a resettlement plant not surviving Birds Construction Phase The establishment of the mining and associated infrastructure will result in the movement of bird species from the mining footprint. This has the potential to decrease the avian biodiversity in the area as some species will permanently relocate. The bird species in the surrounding environment will be at risk of being killed through illegal hunting as well as bird strikes by vehicles and equipment used during construction. Operational Phase The birds in the area will be at risk to being struck by vehicles and haulage trucks moving on the access roads to and from the mine. Territorial birds whose ranges adjoin the mining area maybe impacted upon by indirect factors such as the settlement of dust and coal dust on the foliage that they utilise as a source of food. It is possible that the noise and vibration generated during the operational phase may result in a change in the natural behaviour of the birds that could lead to an inability to find a mate and as a result not bread. Decommissioning and Closure Phase Once the revegetation plan has been successfully implemented, the avian fauna will naturally return to the area. This process will take place by species moving in from the surrounding properties. The need for the implementation of a comprehensive rehabilitation plan is imperative. This rehabilitation plant should have as a goal to create a habitat to which birds will naturally migrate to Reptiles Construction Phase Typically, reptiles choose to hide rather than flee when threatened. This behaviour makes this animal group the most susceptible to mortalities during the construction phase of the project. The mortalities will reduce the number of reptiles in the area which will in turn reduce the genetic diversity amongst this group. 50 P a g e

21 Operational Phase In addition to the direct loss reptiles during the construction phase of the project, there will be an ongoing loss of reptile individuals during the operational phase. This loss can be attributed to animals being driven over during the movement of plant and vehicles along the haulage and access roads associated with the mine. It is possible that the operations of the mine will result in a reduction of the habitat quality through the settlement of dust and coal dust on the vegetation of the surrounding properties. This will impact on the behaviour of the reptiles which will have the potential to impact on their natural ecology. The impacts of vibration and noise are also considered to reduce the habitat quality. Decommissioning and Closure Phase Upon the successful completion of a comprehensive rehabilitation plan, it is very likely that the reptile species from the surrounding areas will again settle on the new rehabilitated habitat. The reptile numbers in the area will then increase which will lead to an increase in the genetic biodiversity of these species. The above positive impact is highly dependent on the implementation of a successful rehabilitation plan. The risk to the reptile population in this regard is, if the plan is not implemented successfully, it could result in these species not settling back on the rehabilitated area, which will make the losses suffered during the construction phase permanent Amphibians Construction Phase It is considered that the mortality on the amphibians that occur on the site can potentially be high based on the behavioural patterns of this animal group. They typically stay underground when not foraging or mating and, like reptiles, choose rather to hide than flee when threatened. As with reptiles this puts amphibians at risk of being killed during the construction phase. These mortalities will result in a reduction of the physical numbers of these animals, which in turn affects the genetic diversity. All indications are that Pyxicephalus adspersus (Giant Bullfrog) is present on the site, particularly in or near the ephemeral pans on the site. Any impact on the integrity of these pans during the construction phase will typically result in a potential impact on this Red Data Listed species. Operational Phase In addition to the direct loss amphibians suffer during the construction phase of the project, there will be an ongoing loss of amphibian individuals during the operational phase. This loss can be attributed to animals being driven over during the movement of plant and vehicles along the haulage and access roads associated with the mine. It is possible that the operations of the mine will result in a reduction of the habitat quality through the settlement of dust and coal dust on the vegetation of the surrounding properties. This will impact on the behaviour of the amphibians which will have the potential to impact on their natural ecology. The impacts of vibration and noise are also considered to reduce the habitat quality. 51 P a g e

22 Decommissioning and Closure Phase Upon the successful completion of a comprehensive rehabilitation plan, it is very likely that the amphibian species from the surrounding areas will again settle on the new rehabilitated habitat. The amphibian numbers in the area will then increase which will lead to an increase in the genetic biodiversity of these species. The above positive impact is highly dependent on the implementation of a successful rehabilitation plan. The risk to the amphibian population in this regard, is if the plan is not implemented successfully, it could result in these species not settling back on the rehabilitated area, which will make the losses suffered during the construction phase permanent. If consideration is given at the early stages of the mine development for the opportunity of creating aquatic / wetland habitat during the rehabilitation of the site, provision can be made during this process to facilitate the development of this habitat type specifically for the conservation of the amphibian species. The possibility of re-introducing Pyxicephalus adspersus (Giant Bullfrog) in these habitats exists Invertebrates Construction Phase Similar to the above two animal groups, the invertebrate numbers will be severely impacted during the construction phase of the mining area. This will impact on their numbers, which in turn will impact on the genetic diversity within the group. The presence of Pterinochilus murinus (Gold Baboon Spider) is confirmed by the observation of tunnel openings to their nests. This species features on the Threatened or Protected Species List. The impact on this particular species is considered to be severe on the mining footprint during construction. Operational Phase In addition to the direct loss invertebrate species during the construction phase of the project, there will be an ongoing loss of these individuals during the operational phase. This loss can be attributed to animals being driven over during the movement of plant and vehicles along the haulage and access roads associated with the mine. It is possible that the operations of the mine will result in a reduction of the habitat quality through the settlement of dust and coal dust on the vegetation of the surrounding properties. This will impact on the behaviour of the invertebrate species, which will have the potential to impact on their natural ecology. The impacts of vibration and noise are also considered to reduce the habitat quality. Decommissioning and Closure Phase Upon the successful completion of a comprehensive rehabilitation plan, it is very likely that the invertebrate species from the surrounding areas will again settle on the new rehabilitated habitat. The species numbers in the area will then increase which will lead to an increase in the genetic biodiversity of these species. The above positive impact is highly dependent on the implementation of a successful rehabilitation plan. The risk to the invertebrate population in this regard is, if the plan is not implemented successfully, it could result 52 P a g e

23 in these species not settling back on the rehabilitated area, which will make the losses suffered during the construction phase permanent. If consideration is given at the early stages of the mine development for the opportunity of creating aquatic / wetland habitat during the rehabilitation of the site, provision can be made during this process to facilitate the development of this habitat type specifically for the conservation of the invertebrate species Impacts on Aquatic Features Construction Phase The construction footprint of the mining area contains several wetland areas in the form of ephemeral pans. Although the individual sites are generally small (< 0.5 ha) and are generally only seasonally wetted, they are of high importance to the local fauna as a water source, as a foraging area, and as primary habitat for amphibians, some invertebrates, and some plants. These systems will be totally destroyed by the construction process and so there will be impacts on a wide range of species. Operational Phase The properties surrounding the site also contain these ephemeral pans. The release of dust and coal dust poses the risk of the ecological state of these pans being affected during the operational phase of the mine. The settling of dust and coal dust within these areas will potentially impact on the water quality in the pans. Decommissioning and Closure Phase All the wetlands on the site are characterised as ephemeral pans which formed in shallow ground depressions where surface water accumulates during rainfall events. These areas have naturally collected clay materials which contribute to the development of an impermeable base which is able to retain water. If consideration to the location and size of these pans are given during the rehabilitation of the mining area, an opportunity is created to recreated similar depressions to facilitate the development of these pans over time. It is considered that the mine pit has the potential of being rehabilitated in such a way that it could function as a wetland area post rehabilitation. If the areas around the pit are shaped during the rehabilitation earthworks to accept all the surrounding run-off, the pit can function as a wetland system in which wetland fauna and flora species can re-establish. 53 P a g e

24 10.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT Impacts on the flora The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the floral community as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 12: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the flora PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of vegetation from the A Search and Rescue Plan must be implemented to remove all plant species mining site resulting in the loss of genetic diversity. High significance that have the potential to survive the relocation. These plants must be planted on a designated area (or nursery) for use during any continuous rehabilitation that may take place during the operational phase of the mine. The Search and Rescue Plan must be compiled by a qualified Botanist and be Site local extent Low to medium significance implemented before the construction phase of the mine is to commence. Where possible, the removal of vegetation must take place in a phase approach to limit the amount of bear soil exposed to the elements. Loss of seed source. Medium term The Search and Rescue Plan must make provision for the collection of seeds Medium term from seeding plants before the vegetation is removed. Low significance Where possible, these seeds should be stored for use during the potential continuous rehabilitation process that should be implemented during the Low significance operational phase of the mining operation. Loss of the carbon sink Medium term Where vegetation clearing within the mining site is not required, this Medium term ecosystem service. vegetation should be kept intact. Low significance Low significance Loss of habitat for faunal Where vegetation clearing within the mining site is not required, this species vegetation should be kept intact. 4496/MVR/mvr 54 P a g e

25 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION Medium significance MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Medium significance Operation Establishment of alien An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the invasive weeds. Medium significance duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of Low significance specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. Creation of an alien An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the invasive weed source point. Medium significance duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of Low significance specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the due to dust and coal dust emissions. Medium significance Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decommissioning Establishment of alien An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the and closure invasive weeds. Medium significance duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. 55 P a g e

26 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. Creation of an alien An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the invasive weed source point. Medium significance duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. Implementation of a A comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. High significance The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. 56 P a g e

27 Impacts on mammals The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the mammalian community as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 13: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the mammals PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of mammal species A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the from the site. High significance commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified mammal species that will be Site local extent Low to medium significance relocated. Loss of mammal species Medium term The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place Medium term due to illegal hunting. Low significance for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Low significance Barrier for the movement No mitigation is possible during the construction phase, but if of mammal species Low to medium significance continuous rehabilitation is implemented during the life of mine, the movement of species will be facilitated as the habitat is recreated on the previously disturbed areas. Low significance Operation Loss of mammals due to The Environmental Management Programme for the mining illegal hunting Medium significance operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. Low significance 4496/MVR/mvr 57 P a g e

28 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Loss of animals due to The Environmental Management Programme for the mining animal strikes on access and haulage roads. Medium significance operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Low significance The fencing off of all access and haulage roads with bonox type game fencing will also limit the number of animals that will have access to the access and haulage roads. Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be due to dust and coal dust emissions. Regional extent Medium significance included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Provision must be made in the Environmental Management due to the noise and vibrations caused by the operations. Medium significance Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Low significance Decommissioning Implementation of a As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the and closure comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. High significance The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops 58 P a g e

29 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. 59 P a g e

30 Impacts on avifauna The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the avifaunal community as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 14: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the avifauna PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of bird species from A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the the site. High significance commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified bird species that will be relocated. Site local extent Low to medium significance Loss of bird species due to Medium term The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place Medium term illegal hunting. Low significance for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Low significance Operation Loss of birds due to illegal The Environmental Management Programme for the mining hunting Medium significance operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. Low significance Loss of birds due to bird The Environmental Management Programme for the mining strikes on access and haulage roads. Medium significance operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night are required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Low significance 4496/MVR/mvr 60 P a g e

31 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be due to dust and coal dust emissions. Regional extent Medium significance included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Provision must be made in the Environmental Management due to the noise and vibrations caused by the operations. Medium significance Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Low significance Decommissioning Implementation of a As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the and closure comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. High significance The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. 61 P a g e

32 Impacts on reptiles The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the reptile community as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 15: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the reptiles PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of reptile species from A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the the site. High significance commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified reptile species that will be relocated. Site local extent Low to medium significance Loss of reptile species due Medium term The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place Medium term to illegal hunting. Low significance for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Low significance Operation Loss of reptile due to illegal The Environmental Management Programme for the mining hunting Medium significance operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. Low significance Loss of reptiles due to The Environmental Management Programme for the mining strikes on access and haulage roads. Medium significance operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Low significance 4496/MVR/mvr 62 P a g e

33 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be due to dust and coal dust emissions. Regional extent Medium significance included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Provision must be made in the Environmental Management due to the noise and vibrations caused by the operations. Medium significance Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Low significance Decommissioning Implementation of a As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the and closure comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. High significance The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. 63 P a g e

34 Impacts on amphibians The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the amphibian community as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 16: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the amphibians PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of amphibian species A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the from the site. High significance commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified reptile species that will be relocated. Site local extent Low to medium significance This Relocation Plan must make provision for the capture and relocation of Pyxicephalus adspersus (Giant Bullfrog) to suitable habitats off site. The capture and relocation of this species must be done by a trained amphibian specialist familiar with the behaviour of the species. Loss of amphibian species Medium term The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place Medium term due to illegal hunting. Low significance for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Low significance Operation Loss of amphibian species The Environmental Management Programme for the mining due to illegal hunting Medium significance operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. Low significance 4496/MVR/mvr 64 P a g e

35 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Loss of amphibian species The Environmental Management Programme for the mining due to strikes on access and haulage roads. Medium significance operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be due to dust and coal dust emissions. Regional extent Medium significance included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Provision must be made in the Environmental Management due to the noise and vibrations caused by the operations. Medium significance Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Low significance Decommissioning Implementation of a As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the and closure comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. High significance The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the 65 P a g e

36 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. In the instance of this specific animal group, the Rehabilitation Plan can make provision for the creation of specific wetland habitat (ephemeral pans) in which these animals can be resettled. 66 P a g e

37 Impacts on invertebrates The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the invertebrate community as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 17: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the invertebrates PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of invertebrate A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the species from the site. High significance commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified reptile species that will be relocated. Site local extent Low to medium significance This Relocation Plan must make provision for the capture and relocation of Pterinochilus murinus (Gold Baboon Spider) to suitable habitats off site. The capture and relocation of this species must be done by a trained arachnid specialist familiar with the behaviour of the species. Loss of invertebrate Medium term The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place Medium term species due to illegal hunting. Low significance for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Low significance Operation Loss of invertebrate The Environmental Management Programme for the mining species due to illegal hunting Medium significance operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. Low significance 4496/MVR/mvr 67 P a g e

38 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Loss of invertebrate The Environmental Management Programme for the mining species due to strikes on access and haulage roads. Medium significance operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be due to dust and coal dust emissions. Regional extent Medium significance included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decrease in habitat quality Provision must be made in the Environmental Management due to the noise and vibrations caused by the operations. Medium significance Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Low significance Decommissioning Implementation of a As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the and closure comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. High significance The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the 68 P a g e

39 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. 69 P a g e

40 Impacts on wetlands The assessment of the significance of the identified impacts on the wetlands (ephemeral pans) as well as the management and mitigation measures of each of the impacts, is provided in the Table below. Table 18: Impact assessment and management and mitigation measures associated with the invertebrates PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION Construction Loss of wetland habitat High significance As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. Site local extent Low to medium significance Operation Decrease in habitat quality Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be due to dust and coal dust emissions deposited on neighbouring wetlands. Regional extent Medium significance included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Low significance Decommissioning Implementation of a As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the and closure comprehensive revegetation rehabilitation plan. and High significance management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. High significance The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, 4496/MVR/mvr 70 P a g e

41 PHASE IMPACT RATING WITHOUT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES RATING WITH MITIGATION which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the identification of areas as well as the correct engineering of these areas ensuring the recreation of ephemeral pans within the mining area. 71 P a g e

42 11 MITIGATION MEASURES Consideration of the mining project which is the focus of this study suggests that it will not be possible to return the site to its pre-development state once the mine is worked out and is decommissioned. While it might be possible to remove all mining and mining related infrastructure from the site during the decommissioning of the operations, it will not be possible to refill the mine pits. The single largest component of the mining operation therefore will be left as a landscape feature into the indefinite future. Given the above constraints, the objective of the mitigation measures proposed, is to recreate an environment which is conducive to allowing and encouraging the recolonization or resettlement of the area with locally indigenous flora and fauna and which will ensure their sustainability. The Table below makes provision for the key management and mitigation measures that must be include in the operational and Environmental Management Programme that must be implemented for the entire life cycle of the mine. Table 19: Management and mitigation measures: Flora PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES A Search and Rescue Plan must be implemented to remove all plant species that have the potential to survive the relocation. These plants must be planted on a designated area (or nursery) for use during any continuous rehabilitation that may take place during the operational phase of the mine. The Search and Rescue Plan must be compiled by a qualified Botanist and be implemented before the construction phase of the mine is to commence. Where possible, the removal of vegetation must take place in a phase approach to limit the amount of bear soil exposed to the elements. The Search and Rescue Plan must make provision for the collection of seeds from seeding plants before the vegetation is removed. Where possible, these seeds should be stored for use during the potential continuous rehabilitation process that should be implemented during the operational phase of the mining operation. Where vegetation clearing within the mining site is not required, this vegetation should be kept intact. Where vegetation clearing within the mining site is not required, this vegetation should be kept intact. Operation An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. 4496/MVR/mvr 72 P a g e

43 PHASE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Decommissioning and closure An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. An active Alien Invasive Weed Control Plan must be implemented for the duration of the life of mine. The plan must make provision for the identification of and specific eradication measures for each of the alien species that may settle on the site. The plan must also make provision for the timing of the implementation of specific eradication measures to limit the seed development of each of the species. A comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. Table 20: Management and mitigation measures: Mammals PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified mammal species that will be relocated. The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. No mitigation is possible during the construction phase, but if continuous rehabilitation is implemented during the life of mine, the movement of species will be facilitated as the habitat is recreated on the previously disturbed areas. 73 P a g e

44 PHASE Operation MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. The fencing off of all access and haulage roads with bonox type game fencing will also limit the number of animals that will have access to the access and haulage roads. Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Provision must be made in the Environmental Management Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Decommissioning and closure As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. Table 21: Management and mitigation measures: Avifauna PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified bird species that will be relocated. The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Operation The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. 74 P a g e

45 PHASE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Provision must be made in the Environmental Management Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Decommissioning and closure As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. Table 22: Management and mitigation measures: Reptiles PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified reptile species that will be relocated. The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Operation The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas 75 P a g e

46 PHASE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES Provision must be made in the Environmental Management Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Decommissioning and closure As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. Table 23: Management and mitigation measures: Amphibians PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified reptile species that will be relocated. This Relocation Plan must make provision for the capture and relocation of Pyxicephalus adspersus (Giant Bullfrog) to suitable habitats off site. The capture and relocation of this species must be done by a trained amphibian specialist familiar with the behaviour of the species. The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Operation The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas Provision must be made in the Environmental Management Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. 76 P a g e

47 PHASE Decommissioning and closure MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. In the instance of this specific animal group, the Rehabilitation Plan can make provision for the creation of specific wetland habitat (ephemeral pans) in which these animals can be resettled. Table 24: Management and mitigation measures: Invertebrates PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES A Relocation Plan must be compiled and implemented before the commencement of construction of the mining site. This plan must make provision for the capture techniques, seasonal timing of the capture procedures, the relocation procedures and the relocation areas for each of the identified reptile species that will be relocated. This Relocation Plan must make provision for the capture and relocation of Pterinochilus murinus (Gold Baboon Spider) to suitable habitats off site. The capture and relocation of this species must be done by a trained arachnid specialist familiar with the behaviour of the species. The Environmental Management Programme that must be in place for the life of mine must make provision for the prevention of illegal hunting, not only during the construction phase, but also for the duration of the life of mine. Operation The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must contain an Environmental Induction section which must be explained to each employee on the mine. This induction must include information with regards to the prohibition of any hunting on the mining site as well as any neighbouring property. The Environmental Management Programme for the mining operation must make provision for the limiting of speeds on the haulage roads. When movement of vehicles at night is required, the programme must make provision for the lighting associated with each of the vehicles. Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas 77 P a g e

48 PHASE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES Provision must be made in the Environmental Management Programme to reduce the amount of noise that is generated by the plant and vehicles associated with the mining operations. Decommissioning and closure As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the correct plant species that will need to be utilised during the rehabilitation phase as well as the seasonal timing of the implementation of the rehabilitation. Table 25: Management and mitigation measures: Aquatic Features PHASE Construction MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION MEASURES As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. Operation Decommissioning and closure Comprehensive dust and coal dust control measures must be included in the Environmental Management Programme for the entire mining operation. This will limit the amount of fugitive dust and coal dust that can pollute the surrounding areas As the recreation of species habitat is paramount for the management and mitigation of this impact, the implementation of a comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan is of utmost importance. The comprehensive Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must be compiled before the mining operations is to commence. This plan will guide the process of continuous rehabilitation as the mine develops, which will limit the amount of rehabilitation works required upon mine closure. The Revegetation and Rehabilitation Plan must make provision for the identification of areas as well as the correct engineering of these areas ensuring the recreation of ephemeral pans within the mining area. 78 P a g e

49 12 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The following section deals directly with the recommendations proposed by the specialist with regards to the project construction and operations CONDITIONS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL AUTHORISATION The following conditions must be included in the Environmental Authorisation: Compilation of the Approved Environmental Management Programme that makes provision for the principled based approach to environmental management on the mine. This document must be completed in accordance with Appendix 4 of the Environmental Impact Regulations (2014) as amended published in terms of NEMA; Compilation of an Alien Invasive Management Plan to be implemented for the duration of the life of mine; Compilation of a Rehabilitation Plan to be implemented for the duration of the life of mine. This plan must make provision for continuous rehabilitation as well as the rehabilitation upon closure of the mine. Compilation of a Revegetation Plan to be implemented for the duration of the life of mine. This plan must make provision for revegetation during the continuous rehabilitation process that must be implemented during the operation of the mine; Compilation of a Capture and Relocation Plan for the larger game species that occur on the site. This plan must make provision for the identification of species to be relocated, the specific capture methods, the specific transport requirements for each species as well as the identification of the suitable habitat that the animals will be relocated to; Compilation of a Capture and Relocation Plan, specific for Pyxicephalus adspersus (Giant Bullfrog). This plan must be compiled by a qualified zoologist with knowledge of the species; Compilation of a Capture and Relocation Plan, specific for Pterinochilus murinus (Gold Baboon Spider). This plan must be compiled by a qualified zoologist with knowledge of the species; Compilation of a Search and Rescue Plan for the plant species that can be relocated off the site. This plan must make provision for the identification of the specific plant species, the methods for collecting these and identification of the relocation sites or nursery. This plan must be compiled by a qualified botanist; Compilation of a Seed Collection Plan for plant species that are seeding. This plan must make provision for the identification of the specific plant species, the methods for collecting the seeds and the method for storage of the collected seeds. This plan must be compiled by a qualified botanist; and Compilation of a Closure Plan that makes provision for the requirements of Appendix 5 of the Environmental Impact Regulations (2014) as amended. 79 P a g e

50 In addition to the requirements mentioned above, the monitoring requirements discussed in Section 9.2 below must also be included in the Environmental Authorisation MONITORING REQUIREMENTS The monitoring requirements that must be included in the Environmental Authorisation must make provision for the following: An independent Environmental Control Officer (ECO) must monitor the site on a monthly basis for the duration the construction phase. The duties of the ECO during this phase will be: Monitoring of compliance with the sections of the Environmental Management Programme that deals with the construction of the mining and mining related activities; Compilation of a monthly report indicating the level of compliance with the requirements of the Environmental Management Programme. This audit report must, as a minimum meet the requirements of Appendix 7 of the Environmental Impact Regulations (2014) as amended; and Submission of the monthly audit report directly to the relevant authority. An independent ECO must monitor the site on a bi-annual basis (twice a year) for the duration the operational phase. The duties of the ECO during this phase will be: Monitoring of compliance with the sections of the Environmental Management Programme that deals with the operation of the mining activities; Compilation of an annual audit report to the relevant authorities in fulfilment of the requirements of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (Act No. 28 of 2002). This audit report must, as a minimum meet the requirements of Appendix 7 of the Environmental Impact Regulations (2014) as amended; and Submission of the annual audit report directly to the relevant authority. An independent ECO must monitor the site on a quarterly basis (four times a year) for the duration the decommissioning and closure phase. The duties of the ECO during this phase will be: Monitoring and auditing of the implementation of the Closure Plan; Compilation of the quarterly audit report detailing the compliance with the implementation of the Closure Plan; and Submission of the quarterly audit report to the relevant authority. An independent ECO must monitor the site on an annual basis for a period of three years after the issuing of the Closure Certificate by the relevant authority. The duties of the ECO during this phase will be: Monitoring and auditing of the specific closure objectives included in the Closure Plan once implemented; Compilation of an annual audit report of the progress of each of these closure objectives; and Submission of the annual audit report to the relevant authority. 80 P a g e

51 It must be noted that the ECO will have no contractual jurisdiction to stop works on site or to approve or reject method statements. These functions are the sole responsibility of the registered Resident Engineer SPECIALIST S OPINION It is the opinion of the specialist that none of the biodiversity impacts identified during this assessment are considered to be fatal flaws to the development of the project. It is therefore the opinion of the specialist that there are no biodiversity associated reasons why the development of the mine should not be authorised. The severity of all the impacts can be successfully managed and mitigated and to a large degree overturned with the implementation of the management and mitigation measures contained in this assessment. These outcomes must be considered during the mining planning as this will ensure that provision for achieving these will be made from the initiation of the mine. In addition, all the management and mitigation requirements must be included in all tender documents which will seek to appoint contractors for various tasks on the mine. This will ensure that the contractors make provision for these requirements as pay-items in their bid submissions. 81 P a g e

52 13 REFERENCES ADU (1). Frog Map. Animal Demography Unit. University of Cape Town. ADU (2). Mammal Map. Animal Demography Unit. University of Cape Town. ADU (3) Reptile Map. Animal Demography Unit. University of Cape Town. BOHLWEKI ENVIRONMENTAL Environmental Impact Assessment Report for the Proposed Establishment of a New Coal-fired Power station in the Lephalale Area, Limpopo Province. Bohlweki environmental (PTY) Ltd. Kyalami office Park. Kyalami. BATES, M.F., BRANCH, W.R., BAUER, A.M., MARAIS, J., ALEXANDER, G.J. & DE VILLIERS, M.S. (eds) Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. BOTHAM, N and REDDY, P Final Environmental Impact Assessment Report for the Proposed Continuous Ash Disposal Facility for the Matimba Power Station in Lephalale, Limpopo Province. Royal Haskoning DHV, Pretoria.Reference Number: E02.JNB BRANCH, B Field Guide to Snakes and other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers (Pty) Ltd. Cape Town. CARRUTHERS, V.C Frogs and Frogging in Southern Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town. CHITTENDEN, H., DAVIES, G. And WEIERSBYE, I Roberts Bird Guide (Second Edition). John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. DAVIDSON, I.H Birds of Lapalala Wilderness, Waterberg, Transvaal. Southern Birds. P.O. Box , Benmore. South Africa. DEA, Environmental Management Framework for the Waterberg District: Draft Environmental Management Framework Report. Department of Environmental Affairs, Limpopo Provincial Government, Waterberg District Municipality. DIGBY WELLS Fatal Flaw and Screening Assessment Lephalale Coal Project. Digby Wells and Associates. ENVIROLUTION CONSULTING Environmental Impact Assessment for the Proposed Construction of Eskom General Landfill and a Hazardous Waste Storage Facility in Lephalale, Limpopo Province Draft Environmental Impact Report. Envirolution Consulting (Pty) Ltd. PO Box 1898 Sunninghill. HOCKEY, P., DEAN, R. and RYAN, P. (eds) Roberts Birds of Southern Africa. (7th Edition) John Voelker Bird Book Fund. Cape Town. LEEMING, J Scorpions of southern Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town. 4496/MVR/mvr 82 P a g e

53 MECENERO, S., BALL, J.B., EDGE, D.A., HAMER, M.L., HENNING, G.A., KRUGER, M., PRINGLE, E.L., TERBLANCHE, R.F. & WILLIAMS, M.C. (eds) Conservation assessment of butterflies of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland; Red list and atlas. Saftronics (Pty) Ltd., Johannesburg & Animal Demography Unit, Cape Town. MINTER, L.R., BURGER, M., HARRISON, J.A., BRAACK, H.H., BISHOP, P.J., and KLOEPFER, D. eds Atlas and Red Data Book of the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. SI/MAB Series # 9. Smithsonian Institution. Washington DC. MORRIS, P. and THERIVEL, R Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment. Second Edition.Spon Press. London and New York. NIEMAND, L Proposed Eskom Landfill Site, Lephalale Ecological Assessment, Final Report. Pachnoda Consulting cc. Pretoria. NSC, et al Limpopo West Mine Biodiversity Assessment, Limpopo Province, Natural Scientific Services cc, Johannesburg, Nepid Consultants cc, White River, and Eco-Agent cc, Pretoria. PICKER, M., Griffiths, C. and WEAVING, A Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town. SANBI Red List of Mammals of South Africa, Lesotho & Swaziland - Summary Listings. South African National Biodiversity Institute. SKELTON, P A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town. SKINNER. J.D. AND SMITHERS. R.H.N The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. University of Pretoria. Pretoria. South Africa. STUART, C. and STUART, T Field Guide to the Mammals of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers (Pty) Ltd. Cape Town. TARBOTON, W. And TARBOTON, M A fieldguide to the Dragonflies of South Africa. Published by the authors. TARBOTON, W. And TARBOTON, M A fieldguide to the Damselflies of South Africa. Published by the authors. TAYLOR, M.R., PEACOCK, F. and WANLESS, R.W. (eds) The Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Birdlife South Africa. Johannesburg. van GINKEL, C.E., GLEN, R.P., GORDON-GRAY, K.D., CILLIERS, C.J., MUASYA, M. and van DEVENTER, P.P Easy Identification of some South African Wetland Plants. WRC Report No. TT 479/10 Water Research Commission, Gezina, P a g e

54 VAN DER WALT, R Wild Flowers of the Limpopo Valley including Mapungubwe National Park. Limpopo Valley Herb Project. Published by the author. Sponsored by Coal of Africa Limited. WOODHALL, S Field Guide to Butterflies of South Africa. Struik Publishers (Pty) Ltd. Cape Town P a g e

55 APPENDIX 2 SPECIES LISTS Floral Species List Mammalian Species List Avifaunal Species List Herpetofauna Species List Amphibian Species List Invertebrate Species List 4496/MVR/mvr 85 P a g e

56 Floral Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Abutilon angulatum MALVACEAE X Abutilon pycnodon MALVACEAE X Abutilon ramosum MALVACEAE X Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. subsp. Detinens FABACEAE X Acanthosicyos naudinianus CUCURBITACEAE X Achyropsis avicularis AMARANTHACEAE X Acrotome inflata LAMIACEAE X Afrocanthium gilfillanii RUBIACEAE X Albizia adianthifolia FABACEAE X Albizia brevifolia Schinz FABACEAE X Albizia versicolor FABACEAE X Ammannia prieuriana LYTHRACEAE X X Ammocharis coranica AMARYLLIDACEAE X Aptosimum lineare SCROPHULARIACEAE X Aristida adscensionis POACEAE X Aristida rhiniochloa POACEAE X Asparagus aggregatus ASPARAGACEAE X Asparagus aspergillus ASPARAGACEAE X Asparagus cooperi ASPARAGACEAE X Asparagus nelsii ASPARAGACEAE X X Asparagus sauveolens ASPARAGACEAE X Barleria affinis ACANTHACEAE X X Barleria saxatilis ACANTHACEAE X Barleria senensis ACANTHACEAE X Bauhinia galpinii FABACEAE X Bauhinia petersiana Bolle subsp. macrantha FABACEAE X Blepharis diversispina ACANTHACEAE X X Blepharis inaequalis ACANTHACEAE X Blepharis subvolubilis ACANTHACEAE X Blepharis subvolubilis ACANTHACEAE X 4496/MVR/mvr 86 P a g e

57 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Boscia albitrunca CAPPARACEAE X X Boscia foetida Schinz subsp. minima CAPPARACEAE X Boscia foetida Schinz subsp. rehmanniana CAPPARACEAE X Bridelia mollis PHYLLANTHACEAE X Cardiospermum corindum SAPINDACEAE X Carissa bispinosa APOCYNACEAE X Ceratotheca triloba PEDALIACEAE X Chaetacme aristata CELTIDACEAE X Chamaecrista mimosoides FABACEAE X Chloris roxburghiana POACEAE X Chorisochora transvaalensis ACANTHACEAE X Cienfugosia digitata MALVACEAE X Citrullus lanatus CUCURBITACEAE X X Coccinia rehmannii CUCURBITACEAE X X Combretum apiculatum Sond. subsp. Apiculatum COMBRETACEAE X Combretum cf. hereroense COMBRETACEAE X Combretum imberbe COMBRETACEAE X Combretum microphyllum COMBRETACEAE X Combretum zeyheri COMBRETACEAE X Commelina africana COMMELINACEAE X Commelina benghalensis COMMELINACEAE X Commelina erecta COMMELINACEAE X Commicarpus pilosus NYCTAGINACEAE X Commiphora marlothii BURSERACEAE X X Commiphora pyracanthoides BURSERACEAE X Corbichonia decumbens LOPHIOCARPACEAE X X Corchorus asplenifolius MALVACEAE X Corchorus kirkii MALVACEAE X Cotula anthemoides ASTERACEAE X Craterostigma plantagineum SCROPHULARIACEAE X Crinum buphanoides AMARYLLIDACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 87 P a g e

58 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Crinum crassicaule AMARYLLIDACEAE X X Crotalaria brachycarpa FABACEAE X Crotalaria distans FABACEAE X Crotalaria schinzii FABACEAE X Crotalaria sphaerocarpa FABACEAE X Croton gratissimus Burch. var. Subgratissimus EUPHORBIACEAE X Cymbopogon nardus POACEAE X Cymbopogon pospischilii POACEAE X Cyperus sphaerospermus CYPERACEAE X Dactyloctenium giganteum POACEAE X Denekia capensis ASTERACEAE X X Dichrostachys cinerea FABACEAE X X Dicoma tomentosa ASTERACEAE X Digitaria eriantha POACEAE X Diplorhynchus condylocarpon APOCYNACEAE X Dombeya rotundifolia MALVACEAE X Dyschoriste rogersii ACANTHACEAE X X Ehretia rigida BORAGINACEAE X Eleocharis limosa CYPERACEAE X Endostemon tereticaulis LAMIACEAE X X Enneapogon cenchroides POACEAE X Enteropogon macrostachyus POACEAE X Eragrostis gummiflua POACEAE X Eragrostis heteromera POACEAE X Eragrostis hierniana POACEAE X Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana POACEAE X Eragrostis pallens POACEAE X Eragrostis rotifer POACEAE X Eragrostis superba POACEAE X Eragrostis trichophora POACEAE X Erianthemum ngamicum LORANTHACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 88 P a g e

59 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES Euclea natalensis subsp. angustifolia EBENACEAE X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Euclea undulata EBENACEAE X X Euphorbia cf limpopoana EUPHORBIACEAE X Euphorbia hirta EUPHORBIACEAE X Euphorbia inequilatera EUPHORBIACEAE X Euphorbia peplus EUPHORBIACEAE X Evolvulus alsinoides CONVOLVULACEAE X X Felicia mossamedensis ASTERACEAE X Ficus abutilifolia MORACEAE X Gardenia volkensii subsp. Spatulifolia RUBIACEAE X Geigeria burkei ASTERACEAE X Gizekia africana GISEKIACEAE X Gladiolus rehmannii IRIDACEAE X Gomphocarpus fruticosus APOCYNACEAE X Gomphrena celosioides AMARANTHACEAE X Grewia flava MALVACEAE X X Grewia flavescens MALVACEAE X Grewia monticola MALVACEAE X X Grewia subspathulata MALVACEAE X Gymnosporia tenuispina CELASTRACEAE X Helichrysum argyrosphaerum ASTERACEAE X Heliotropium nelsonii BORAGINACEAE X Heliotropium ovalifolium BORAGINACEAE X Heliotropium strigosum BORAGINACEAE X Hermannia boraginiflora MALVACEAE X Hermannia grisea MALVACEAE X Hermannia modesta MALVACEAE X Hermbstaedtia odorata AMARANTHACEAE X X Hexalobus monopetalus ANNONACEAE X Hibiscus calyphyllus MALVACEAE X Hibiscus cf. palmatus MALVACEAE X Hibiscus engleri MALVACEAE X X Hibiscus meyeri MALVACEAE X Hibiscus micranthus MALVACEAE X Hibiscus schinzii MALVACEAE X Hirpicium bechuanense ASTERACEAE X X Hyparrhenia cymbaria POACEAE X Indigastrum costatum FABACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 89 P a g e

60 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Indigofera cf. heterotricha FABACEAE X Indigofera circinnata FABACEAE X X Indigofera holubii FABACEAE X Indigofera pongolana FABACEAE X Indigofera schimperi FABACEAE X Indigofera trita FABACEAE X Indigofera vicioides FABACEAE X Ipomoea bolusiana CONVOLVULACEAE X Ipomoea magnusiana CONVOLVULACEAE X X Ipomoea obscura CONVOLVULACEAE X X Ipomoea sinensis subsp. blepharosepala CONVOLVULACEAE X X Justicia exigua ACANTHACEAE X Justicia flava ACANTHACEAE X Justicia odora ACANTHACEAE X Justicia protracta subsp. protracta ACANTHACEAE X X Kalanchoe brachyloba CRASSULACEAE X X Kalanchoe rotundifolia CRASSULACEAE X Kleinia fulgens ASTERACEAE X Kohautia caespitosa RUBIACEAE X Kohautia cynanchica RUBIACEAE X Kyphocarpa angustifolia AMARANTHACEAE X Laggera decurrens ASTERACEAE X Lapeirousia sandersonii IRIDACEAE X Ledebouria apertiflora HYACINTHACEAE X Ledebouria cooperi HYACINTHACEAE X Ledebouria sandersonii HYACINTHACEAE X Leonotis cf. nepetifolia LAMIACEAE X Leucas glabrata LAMIACEAE X Leucas sexdentata LAMIACEAE X Limeum argute-carinatum MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum dinteri MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum pterocarpum var. pterocarpum MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum sulcatum MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum viscosum subsp. transvaalense MOLLUGINACEAE X Listia heterophylla FABACEAE X Ludwigia octovalvis ONAGRACEAE X X Maerua edulis CAPPARACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 90 P a g e

61 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Marsilia sp. MARSILACEAE X Melhania acuminata var. acuminata MALVACEAE X X Mimusops zeyheri SAPOTACEAE X Momordica balsamina CUCURBITACEAE X X Monechma debile ACANTHACEAE X Monsonia angustifolia GERANIACEAE X Monsonia glauca GERANIACEAE X Nidorella resedifolia ASTERACEAE X Nuxia oppositifolia BUDDLEJACEAE X Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea NYMPHAEACEAE X Nymphoides thunbergiana MENYANTHACEAE X Ochna inermis OCHNACEAE X Ocimum americanum L. var. Americanum LAMIACEAE X Ocimum filamentosum LAMIACEAE X Ornithogalum cf. seineri HYACINTHACEAE X Otoptera burchellii FABACEAE X X Oxygonum cf. delagoense POLYGONACEAE X Oxygonum sinuatum POLYGONACEAE X Ozoroa paniculosa. var. Paniculosa ANACARDIACEAE X Panicum subalbidum POACEAE X Pappea capensis SAPINDACEAE X Peltophorum africanum FABACEAE X Peristrophe paniculata ACANTHACEAE X Persicaria limbata POLYGONACEAE X Phaeoptilum spinosum NYCTAGINACEAE X Philyrophyllum schinzii ASTERACEAE X Phyllanthus angolensis PHYLLANTHACEAE X Phyllanthus maderaspatensis PHYLLANTHACEAE X Plicosepalus kalachariensis LORANTHACEAE X X Plumbago zeylanica PLUMBAGINACEAE X Pogonarthria squarrosa POACEAE X Pomaria burchellii FABACEAE X Portulaca quadrifida PORTULACACEAE X Pseudocrossidium porphyreoneurum POTTIACEAE X Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia var. maprouneifolia PHYLLANTHACEAE X Pterocarpus rotundifolius subsp. Rotundifolius FABACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 91 P a g e

62 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES Pterodiscus speciosus PEDALIACEAE X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Ptycholobium contortum FABACEAE X Pupalia lappacea var. lappacea AMARANTHACEAE X X Rhoicissus digitata VITACEAE X Rhoicissus revoilii VITACEAE X Rhynchosia totta FABACEAE X Rhynchosia venulosa FABACEAE X Riccia argenteolimbata RICCIACEAE X Riccia atropurpurea RICCIACEAE X Riccia congoana RICCIACEAE X Riccia okahandjana RICCIACEAE X Ruellia patula ACANTHACEAE X Sansevieria aethiopica DRACAENACEAE X Sarcostemma viminale APOCYNACEAE X Schkuhria pinnata ASTERACEAE X Schmidtia pappophoroides POACEAE X Schoenoplectus erectus CYPERACEAE X Schoenoplectus muricinux CYPERACEAE X Schotia brachypetala FABACEAE X Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra ANACARDIACEAE X X Seddera capensis CONVOLVULACEAE X Selaginella dregei SELAGINELLACEAE X Senna italica subsp. arachoides FABACEAE X X Sesamum triphyllum var. triphyllum PEDALIACEAE X X Sida cordifolia L. subsp. cordifolia MALVACEAE X Sida ovata MALVACEAE X X Solanum delagoense SOLANACEAE X Sphaeranthus peduncularis subsp. Peduncularis ASTERACEAE X Spirostachys africana EUPHORBIACEAE X X Stapelia gettliffei APOCYNACEAE X Stapelia kwebensis APOCYNACEAE X Sterculia rogersii MALVACEAE X Stipagrostis uniplumis var. Uniplumis POACEAE X Strychnos madagascariensis STRYCHNACEAE X Sutherlandia frutescens FABACEAE X Syncolostemon canescens LAMIACEAE X Tephrosia longipes subsp. longipes var. Longipes FABACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 92 P a g e

63 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Tephrosia purpurea FABACEAE X Tephrosia rhodesica var. Rhodesica FABACEAE X Terminalia sericea COMBRETACEAE X X Tribulus terrestris ZYGOPHYLLACEAE X Tribulus zeyheri subsp. Zeyheri ZYGOPHYLLACEAE X Tricholaena monachne POACEAE X Tylosema fassoglense FABACEAE X Urochloa brachyura POACEAE X Vernonia fastigiata ASTERACEAE X X Waltheria indica MALVACEAE X X Xanthocercis zambesiaca FABACEAE X Ximenia americana var. Microphylla OLACACEAE X Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata RHAMNACEAE X Zornia glochidiata FABACEAE X * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern 2016 STATUS* 93 P a g e

64 Mammalian Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Aepyceros melampus melampus Impala X 1 X Alcelaphus buselaphus caama Red Hartebeest X 1 Antidorcas marsupialis Springbok X 3 Connochaetes taurinus taurinus Blue Wildebeest X 1 X Damaliscus lunatus lunatus Tsessebe X 4 Vulnerable Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi Blesbok X 1 Hippotragus equinus Roan Antelope X 1 X Endangered Hippotragus niger niger Sable Antelope X 1 X Vulnerable Kobus ellipsiprymnus ellipsiprymnus Common Waterbuck X 1 Oreotragus oreotragus Klipspringer X 4 Oryx gazella Gemsbok X 1 Pelea capreolus Grey Rhebok X 4 Raphicerus campestris Steenbok X 1 X Redunca fulvorufula fulvorufula Near Threatened Mountain Reedbuck X 4 Endangered Sylvicapra grimmia Common Duiker X 1 X Syncerus caffer caffer Southern Buffalo Savannah X 1 X Tragelaphus angasii Nyala X 1 X Tragelaphus oryx Eland X 1 X Tragelaphus strepsiceros Greater Kudu X 1 X Tragelaphus sylvaticus Southern Bushbuck X 2 Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa South African Giraffe X 1 X Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus X 4 Phacochoerus africanus Common Warthog X 1 X Potamochoerus larvatus Bushpig X 2 Canis mesomelas Black-backed Jackal X 1 X Lycaon pictus African Wild Dog X 5 Endangered Otocyon megalotis Bat-eared Fox X 2 Vulpes chama Cape Fox X 2 Acinonyx jubatus Cheetah X 3 Vulnerable Caracal caracal Caracal X 1 X Felis nigripes Black-footed Cat X 3 Vulnerable Felis silvestris African Wildcat X /MVR/mvr 94 P a g e

65 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** Leptailurus serval Serval X 2 Panthera leo Lion X 1 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened Panthera pardus Leopard X 2 Vulnerable Atilax paludinosus Water Mongoose X 2 Cynictis penicillata Yellow Mongoose X 4 Helogale parvula Dwarf Mongoose X 2 Herpestes sanguineus Slender Mongoose X 1 X Ichneumia albicauda White-tailed Mongoose X 3 Mungos mungo Banded Mongoose X 1 Crocuta crocuta Spotted Hyaena X 1 Parahyaena brunnea Brown Hyaena X 1 X Proteles cristata Aardwolf X 1 X Aonyx capensis Cape Clawless Otter X 4 Ictonyx striatus Striped Polecat X 2 Mellivora capensis Honey Badger X 1 Poecilogale albinucha African Striped Weasel X 2 Civettictis civetta African Civet X 2 Genetta genetta Small-spotted Genet X 2 Genetta tigrina Cape Genet X 2 Taphozous mauritianus Mauritian Tomb Bat X 2 Near Threatened Near Threatened Near Threatened Near Threatened Cloeotis percivali Short-eared Trident Bat X 3 Endangered Hipposideros caffer Sundevall's Bat Leaf-nosed X 2 Tadarida aegyptiaca Egyptian Free-tailed Bat X 2 Nycteris thebaica Egyptian Slit-faced Bat X 2 Epomophorus wahlbergi Wahlberg's Fruit Bat Epauletted X 4 Rhinolophus clivosus Geoffroy's Horseshoe Bat X 3 Rhinolophus cohenae Cohen's Horseshoe Bat X 3 Vulnerable Rhinolophus darlingi Darling's Horseshoe Bat X 3 Rhinolophus simulator Bushveld Horseshoe Bat X 3 Laephotis botswanae Botswana Bat Long-eared X 4 Miniopterus natalensis Natal Long-fingered Bat X 3 95 P a g e

66 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Miniopterus schreibersii Long- Schreiber's fingered Bat X 3 Myotis tricolor Temminck's Hairy Bat X 3 Neoromicia capensis Cape Serotine Bat X 2 Neoromicia zuluensis Aloe Bat X 3 Pipistrellus hesperidus African Pipistrelle X 2 Pipistrellus rusticus Rusty Bat X 2 Scotophilus dinganii Yellow House Bat X 2 Atelerix frontalis South African Hedgehog X 2 Procavia capensis Rock Hyrax X 4 Lepus saxatilis Scrub Hare X 1 X Pronolagus randensis Jameson's Red Rock Rabbit X 4 Elephantulus intufi Bushveld Sengi X 2 Elephantulus myurus Eastern Rock Sengi X 2 Elephantulus brachyrhyncus Short-snouted Sengi Rock X 2 Equus quagga Plains Zebra X 1 X Ceratotherium simum simum Smutsia temminckii Southern Rhinoceros Temminck's Pangolin White Ground X 1 Chlorocebus pygerythrus Vervet Monkey X 1 X Papio ursinus Chacma Baboon X 1 X Galago moholi Southern Lesser Galago X 1 X Loxodonta africana African Elephant X 5 Cryptomys hottentotus Common Mole-rat X 1 Graphiurus murinus Woodland Dormouse X 2 Graphiurus platyops Rock Dormouse X 3 Hystrix africaeaustralis Cape Porcupine X 1 X Acomys spinosissimus Spiny Mouse X 2 Aethomys ineptus Tete Veld Rat X 2 Gerbilliscus brantsii Highveld Gerbil X 3 Gerbilliscus leucogaster Bushveld Gerbil X 1 X Gerbilliscus paeba Hairy-footed Gerbil X 2 Lemniscomys rosalia Single-striped Mouse X 2 Mastomys coucha Multimammate Mouse X 2 Mastomys natalensis Natal Mouse Multimammate X 2 X 1 X Near Threatened Near Threatened Vulnerable 96 P a g e

67 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** Micaelamys namaquensis Namaqua Rock Mouse X 3 Mus indutus Desert Pygmy Mouse X 3 Mus minutoides Pygmy Mouse X 4 Otomys angoniensis Angoni Vlei Rat X 2 Otomys irroratus Vlei Rat (Fynbos type) X 2 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Dasymys incomtus Water Rat X 3 Thallomys paedulcus Tree Rat X 2 Dendromus melanotis Grey Climbing Mouse X 1 X Dendromus mystacalis Chestnut Climbing Mouse X 4 Saccostomus campestris Pouched Mouse X 2 Steatomys krebsii Krebs's Fat Mouse X 4 Steatomys pratensis Fat Mouse X 2 Pedetes capensis Springhare X 1 X Paraxerus cepapi Tree Squirrel X 1 X Thryonomys swinderianus Greater Cane Rat X 2 Crocidura cyanea Reddish-grey Musk Shrew X 2 Crocidura hirta Lesser Red Musk Shrew X 2 Orycteropus afer Aardvark X 1 X Near Threatened * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 97 P a g e

68 Avifaunal Species List SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Struthio camelus Common Ostrich X 1 X X Tachybaptus ruficollis Little Grebe X 1 X X Pelecanus rufescens Pink-backed Pelican X 3 Vulnerable Phalacrocorax africanus Reed Cormorant X 2 X X Anhinga rufa African Darter 2 X Ardea cinerea Grey Heron X 2 X Ardea melanocephala Black-headed Heron X 1 X X Ardea purpurea Purple Heron 2 X Egretta alba Great Egret X 1 X Egretta garzetta Little Egret X 1 X X Egretta intermedia Yellow-billed Egret 2 X Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret X 1 X X Ardeola ralloides Squacco Heron 2 X Butorides striata Gorsachius leuconotus Green-backed Heron 1 X White-backed Night-Heron X 5 Vulnerable Scopus umbretta Hamerkop X 1 X X Ciconia ciconia White Stork X 1 X Ciconia nigra Black Stork X 4 Near Threatened Ciconia abdimii Abdim's Stork 1 X Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Saddle-billed Stork X 4 EN Leptoptilos crumeniferus Marabou Stork X 3 Near Threatened Mycteria ibis Yellow-billed Stork X 1 X Vulnerable Threskiornis aethiopicus African Sacred Ibis X 3 Plegadis falcinellus Glossy Ibis X 4 Bostrychia hagedash Hadeda Ibis X 1 X X Platalea alba African Spoonbill X 1 X Phoenicopterus ruber Greater Flamingo X 4 Phoenicopterus minor Lesser Flamingo X 4 Near Threatened Near Threatened Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Duck X 1 X Thalassornis leuconotus White-backed Duck X /MVR/mvr 98 P a g e

69 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Alopochen aegyptiaca Egyptian Goose X 1 X X Anas undulata Yellow-billed Duck X 2 Anas sparsa African Black Duck 1 X Anas capensis Cape Teal X 3 Anas erythrorhyncha Red-billed Teal X 4 Sarkidiornis melanotos Comb Duck X 1 X Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose X 1 X Oxyura maccoa Maccoa Duck X STATUS* Sagittarius serpentarius Secretarybird X 2 Near Threatened Gyps coprotheres Cape Vulture X 1 X Vulnerable Gyps africanus Aegypius tracheliotus Aegypius occipitalis White-backed Vulture X 1 X X Vulnerable Lappet-faced Vulture X 3 Vulnerable White-headed Vulture X 3 Vulnerable Milvus migrans Black Kite X 3 Elanus caeruleus Black-shouldered Kite 1 X X Aquila verreauxii Verreauxs' Eagle 1 X Aquila rapax Tawny Eagle X 1 X Vulnerable Aquila nipalensis Steppe Eagle 1 X Aquila wahlbergi Wahlberg's Eagle X 1 X Aquila spilogaster African Hawk-Eagle 1 X Aquila ayresii Ayres's Hawk-Eagle X 4 Near Threatened Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle X 3 Vulnerable Circaetus cinereus Brown Snake-Eagle X 1 X Circaetus pectoralis Black-chested Snake-Eagle X 1 X Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur X 4 Vulnerable Haliaeetus vocifer African Fish-Eagle 1 X X Buteo vulpinus Steppe Buzzard X 1 X Accipiter ovampensis Ovambo Sparrowhawk 1 X Accipiter minullus Little Sparrowhawk 1 X Accipiter badius Shikra 1 X Melierax gabar Gabar Goshawk X 1 X 99 P a g e

70 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Melierax canorus Melierax metabates Circus aeruginosus COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Southern Pale Chanting Goshawk X 1 X X Dark Chanting Goshawk 1 X Circus macrourus Pallid Harrier X 4 Polyboroides typus Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon X 3 Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon X 2 Falco amurensis Amur Falcon X 2 Falco rupicolus Rock Kestrel 3 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened Near Threatened Near Threatened Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel X 3 Vulnerable Peliperdix coqui Coqui Francolin 1 X Dendroperdix sephaena Crested Francolin X 1 X X Pternistis natalensis Natal Spurfowl X 1 X X Pternistis swainsonii Swainson's Spurfowl X 1 X X Coturnix coturnix Common Quail 1 X Coturnix delegorguei Harlequin Quail X 4 Numida meleagris Helmeted Guineafowl X 1 X X Guttera edouardi Crested Guineafowl 5 Turnix sylvaticus Kurrichane Buttonquail X 1 X Amaurornis flavirostris Black Crake 1 X Gallinula chloropus Common Moorhen 1 X Podica senegalensis African Finfoot X 5 Vulnerable Ardeotis kori Kori Bustard X 1 X X Vulnerable Lophotis ruficrista Red-crested Korhaan X 1 X X Actophilornis africanus African Jacana X 1 X Rostratula benghalensis Western Marsh- Harrier 1 X African Harrier- Hawk 1 X Greater Paintedsnipe X 4 Charadrius pecuarius Kittlitz's Plover X 3 Charadrius tricollaris Three-banded Plover X 1 X Vanellus coronatus Crowned Lapwing X 1 X X Near Threatened 100 P a g e

71 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Vanellus armatus Blacksmith Lapwing X 1 X X Vanellus albiceps Vanellus senegallus White-crowned Lapwing 4 X African Wattled Lapwing 1 X Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper X 1 X Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper X 1 X Tringa nebularia Common Greenshank X 1 X Calidris minuta Little Stint X 3 Philomachus pugnax Ruff X 3 Recurvirostra avosetta Pied Avocet X 4 Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt X 4 Burhinus capensis Spotted Thick-knee X 1 X X Burhinus vermiculatus Water Thick-knee X 3 X Cursorius temminckii Rhinoptilus chalcopterus Glareola nordmanni Temminck's Courser 1 X Bronze-winged Courser X 1 X Black-winged Pratincole X 4 Larus cirrocephalus Grey-headed Gull X 4 Chlidonias leucopterus White-winged Tern X 4 Pterocles burchelli Pterocles bicinctus Burchell's Sandgrouse X 1 X Double-banded Sandgrouse 1 X Columba guinea Speckled Pigeon X 1 X Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove X 1 X X Streptopelia capicola Cape Turtle-Dove X 1 X X Streptopelia senegalensis Laughing Dove X 1 X X Oena capensis Namaqua Dove X 1 X X Turtur chalcospilos Treron calvus Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove X 1 X X African Green- Pigeon 1 X Poicephalus meyeri Meyer's Parrot 1 X Corythaixoides concolor Grey Go-away-bird X 1 X X Cuculus gularis African Cuckoo 1 X Cuculus solitarius Red-chested Cuckoo X 1 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened Near Threatened 101 P a g e

72 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Cuculus clamosus Black Cuckoo X 1 X Clamator jacobinus Jacobin Cuckoo X 1 X Chrysococcyx klaas Klaas's Cuckoo X 1 X Chrysococcyx caprius Diderick Cuckoo X 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Centropus burchellii Burchell's Coucal X 1 X X Tyto alba Barn Owl X 1 X Otus senegalensis African Scops-Owl 1 X X Ptilopsis granti Southern Whitefaced Scops-Owl X 1 X X Glaucidium perlatum Pearl-spotted Owlet 1 X X Glaucidium capense African Barred Owlet 4 X Bubo africanus Spotted Eagle-Owl X 1 X Caprimulgus pectoralis Caprimulgus rufigena Fiery-necked Nightjar X 1 X Rufous-cheeked Nightjar X 1 X Caprimulgus tristigma Freckled Nightjar 1 X Apus barbatus African Black Swift 1 X Apus caffer White-rumped Swift 1 X Apus affinis Little Swift X 1 X X Cypsiurus parvus African Palm-Swift 1 X Colius striatus Urocolius indicus Speckled Mousebird 1 X Red-faced Mousebird X 1 X Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher 1 X Alcedo semitorquata Ispidina picta Halcyon senegalensis Halcyon albiventris Half-collared Kingfisher X 5 African Pygmy- Kingfisher 1 X Woodland Kingfisher X 1 X Brown-hooded Kingfisher X 1 X X Halcyon chelicuti Striped Kingfisher 1 X Merops apiaster European Bee-eater X 1 X Merops persicus Merops nubicoides Blue-cheeked Beeeater X 1 X Southern Carmine Bee-eater X 1 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened 102 P a g e

73 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Merops bullockoides COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE White-fronted Beeeater 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Merops pusillus Little Bee-eater X 1 X X Merops hirundineus Swallow-tailed Beeeater X 1 X Coracias garrulus European Roller 1 X X Coracias caudatus Lilac-breasted Roller X 1 X X Coracias naevius Purple Roller X 1 X X Eurystomus glaucurus Broad-billed Roller 4 X Upupa africana African Hoopoe X 1 X X Phoeniculus purpureus Rhinopomastus cyanomelas Tockus nasutus Common Scimitarbill X 1 X X African Grey Hornbill X 1 X X Tockus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Hornbill X 1 X X Tockus leucomelas Bucorvus leadbeateri Lybius torquatus Green Wood- Hoopoe 1 X X Southern Yellowbilled Hornbill X 1 X X 2016 STATUS* Southern Ground- Hornbill X 3 Vulnerable Black-collared Barbet 1 X Tricholaema leucomelas Acacia Pied Barbet X 1 X X Pogoniulus chrysoconus Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird 1 X X Trachyphonus vaillantii Crested Barbet X 1 X X Indicator indicator Greater Honeyguide X 1 X Indicator minor Lesser Honeyguide X 1 X Campethera bennettii Campethera abingoni Dendropicos fuscescens Dendropicos namaquus Jynx ruficollis Bennett's Woodpecker 1 X X Golden-tailed Woodpecker X 1 X Cardinal Woodpecker X 1 X Bearded Woodpecker 1 X X Red-throated Wryneck 1 X Mirafra passerina Monotonous Lark X 1 X Mirafra africana Rufous-naped Lark X 1 X 103 P a g e

74 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Calendulauda africanoides Fawn-coloured Lark X 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Calendulauda sabota Sabota Lark X 1 X X Pinarocorys nigricans Dusky Lark 1 X Calandrella cinerea Red-capped Lark X 1 X Eremopterix leucotis Eremopterix verticalis Chestnut-backed Sparrowlark 1 X Grey-backed Sparrowlark 1 X Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow X 1 X Hirundo albigularis White-throated Swallow 1 X Hirundo smithii Wire-tailed Swallow X 3 Hirundo dimidiata Hirundo semirufa Hirundo cucullata Hirundo abyssinica Pearl-breasted Swallow 1 X Red-breasted Swallow X 1 X Greater Striped Swallow X 3 Lesser Striped Swallow 1 X Hirundo fuligula Rock Martin 1 X Delichon urbicum Riparia paludicola Common House- Martin 1 X Brown-throated Martin 1 X Riparia cincta Banded Martin X 1 X Campephaga flava Black Cuckooshrike X 1 X Dicrurus adsimilis Fork-tailed Drongo X 1 X X Oriolus oriolus Oriolus larvatus Eurasian Golden Oriole 1 X Black-headed Oriole X 1 X Corvus albus Pied Crow 1 X X Parus cinerascens Ashy Tit X 5 Parus niger Southern Black Tit X 1 X X Anthoscopus caroli Grey Penduline-Tit 1 X Turdoides jardineii Turdoides bicolor Pycnonotus nigricans Arrow-marked Babbler X 1 X X Southern Pied Babbler X 1 X X African Red-eyed Bulbul X 1 X 2016 STATUS* 104 P a g e

75 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Pycnonotus tricolor Dark-capped Bulbul X 1 X X Chlorocichla flaviventris Yellow-bellied Greenbul 1 X Turdus libonyanus Kurrichane Thrush 1 X Psophocichla litsitsirupa Groundscraper Thrush X 1 X Cercomela familiaris Familiar Chat 1 X Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris Mocking Cliff-Chat 1 X Myrmecocichla formicivora Ant-eating Chat 1 X Saxicola torquatus African Stonechat X 1 X X Cossypha caffra Cape Robin-Chat X 1 X Cossypha humeralis Cercotrichas leucophrys Cercotrichas paena White-throated Robin-Chat 1 X 2016 STATUS* White-browed Scrub-Robin X 1 X X ENDEMIC Sylvia borin Garden Warbler X 3 Sylvia communis Parisoma subcaeruleum Common Whitethroat X 1 X X Chestnut-vented Tit-Babbler X 1 X Hippolais icterina Icterine Warbler X 1 X Hippolais olivetorum Olive-tree Warbler X 4 Acrocephalus arundinaceus Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Sedge Warbler 1 X Acrocephalus gracilirostris Phylloscopus trochilus Willow Warbler X 1 X Apalis thoracica Bar-throated Apalis 1 X Sylvietta rufescens Eremomela icteropygialis Eremomela usticollis Camaroptera brachyura Calamonastes fasciolatus Long-billed Crombec X 1 X X Yellow-bellied Eremomela X 1 X Burnt-necked Eremomela X 1 X Green-backed Camaroptera X 1 X Kalahari Scrub- Robin X 1 X X Great Reed- Warbler 1 X Lesser Swamp- Warbler 1 X Barred Wren- Warbler X 1 X 105 P a g e

76 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Cisticola juncidis Zitting Cisticola 1 X Cisticola aridulus Desert Cisticola 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Cisticola chiniana Rattling Cisticola X 1 X X Cisticola erythrops Red-faced Cisticola 1 X Cisticola tinniens Levaillant's Cisticola 1 X Cisticola fulvicapilla Neddicky 1 X Prinia subflava Tawny-flanked Prinia X 1 X Prinia flavicans Black-chested Prinia X 1 X Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher 1 X X Muscicapa caerulescens Ashy Flycatcher 1 X Myioparus plumbeus Grey Tit-Flycatcher 1 X Melaenornis pammelaina Southern Black Flycatcher X 1 X Bradornis mariquensis Marico Flycatcher X 1 X Bradornis pallidus Pale Flycatcher 3 X Sigelus silens Fiscal Flycatcher 1 X Batis molitor Chinspot Batis X 1 X X Platysteira peltata Black-throated Wattle-eye 1 X Stenostira scita Fairy Flycatcher 1 X Terpsiphone viridis African Paradise- Flycatcher X 1 X Anthus cinnamomeus African Pipit 1 X Anthus vaalensis Buffy Pipit 1 X Lanius minor Lesser Grey Shrike X 1 X Lanius collaris Common Fiscal 1 X X Lanius collurio Red-backed Shrike X 1 X Lanius souzae Souza's Shrike 5 Corvinella melanoleuca Magpie Shrike X 1 X X Laniarius ferrugineus Southern Boubou 1 X Laniarius aethiopicus Tropical Boubou 1 X Laniarius atrococcineus Dryoscopus cubla Crimson-breasted Shrike X 1 X Black-backed Puffback X 1 X X Nilaus afer Brubru X 1 X Tchagra australis Brown-crowned Tchagra X 1 X X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened 106 P a g e

77 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Tchagra senegalus Telophorus sulfureopectus Malaconotus blanchoti Prionops plumatus Eurocephalus anguitimens COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Black-crowned Tchagra X 1 X X Orange-breasted Bush-Shrike X 1 X Grey-headed Bush- Shrike 1 X White-crested Helmet-Shrike X 1 X X Southern Whitecrowned Shrike X 1 X X Acridotheres tristis Common Myna X 4 Creatophora cinerea Wattled Starling X 1 X Cinnyricinclus leucogaster Violet-backed Starling X 1 X Lamprotornis australis Burchell's Starling X 2 Lamprotornis mevesii Meves's Starling X 2 Lamprotornis nitens Cape Glossy Starling X 1 X X Lamprotornis chalybaeus Greater Blue-eared Starling 1 X Onychognathus morio Red-winged Starling 1 X Buphagus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Oxpecker X 1 X Cinnyris mariquensis Marico Sunbird X 1 X Cinnyris talatala White-bellied Sunbird X 1 X X Chalcomitra amethystina Amethyst Sunbird 1 X Zosterops virens Cape White-eye X 1 X Bubalornis niger Plocepasser mahali Red-billed Buffalo- Weaver X 1 X X White-browed Sparrow-Weaver X 1 X X Passer domesticus House Sparrow X 1 X X Passer motitensis Great Sparrow X 1 X Passer melanurus Cape Sparrow X 1 X X Passer diffusus Petronia superciliaris Sporopipes squamifrons Southern Greyheaded Sparrow X 1 X X Yellow-throated Petronia 1 X Scaly-feathered Finch X 1 X X Ploceus cucullatus Village Weaver X 1 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened 107 P a g e

78 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Ploceus velatus Ploceus intermedius Anaplectes melanotis COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Southern Masked- Weaver X 1 X Lesser Masked- Weaver X 1 X Red-headed Weaver 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Quelea quelea Red-billed Quelea X 1 X X Euplectes orix Euplectes afer Euplectes albonotatus Pytilia melba Southern Red Bishop 1 X Yellow-crowned Bishop X 1 X White-winged Widowbird 1 X Green-winged Pytilia X 1 X Lagonosticta rhodopareia Jameson's Firefinch X 1 X Lagonosticta senegala Red-billed Firefinch 1 X Uraeginthus angolensis Blue Waxbill X 1 X X Granatina granatina Violet-eared Waxbill X 1 X Estrilda astrild Common Waxbill 1 X X Estrilda erythronotos Black-faced Waxbill X 1 X X Ortygospiza atricollis African Quailfinch 1 X Sporaeginthus subflavus Orange-breasted Waxbill 1 X Amadina fasciata Cut-throat Finch X 1 X Amadina erythrocephala Red-headed Finch X 1 X Spermestes cucullatus Bronze Mannikin 1 X Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah X 1 X Vidua regia Vidua paradisaea Shaft-tailed Whydah X 1 X Long-tailed Paradise-Whydah X 1 X Vidua funerea Dusky Indigobird 1 X Vidua chalybeata Village Indigobird 1 X Crithagra mozambicus Crithagra atrogularis Yellow-fronted Canary X 1 X X Black-throated Canary X 1 X Crithagra flaviventris Yellow Canary X 2 Emberiza flaviventris Golden-breasted Bunting X 1 X X 2016 STATUS* 108 P a g e

79 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Emberiza capensis Cape Bunting 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Emberiza tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Bunting X 1 X X Milvus aegyptius Yellow-billed Kite X 1 X Camaroptera brevicaudata Grey-backed Camaroptera 1 X * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 109 P a g e

80 Herpetofauna Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Acanthocercus atricollis Southern Tree Agama X 1 X Agama aculeata Common Ground Agama X 1 X Agama armata Peters' Ground Agama X 1 Agama atra Southern Rock Agama X 3 Dalophia pistillum Blunt-tailed Worm Lizard X 4 Monopeltis infuscata Dusky Worm Lizard X 1 Chamaeleo dilepis Common Flap-neck Chameleon X 1 X Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia Red-lipped Snake X 1 Dasypeltis scabra Rhombic Egg-eater X 1 Dispholidus typus Boomslang X 1 X Philothamnus hoplogaster South Eastern Green Snake X 1 Philothamnus natalensis Eastern Natal Green Snake X 4 Philothamnus semivariegatus Telescopus semiannulatus Spotted Bush Snake X 1 X Eastern Tiger Snake X 2 Thelotornis capensis Southern Twig Snake X 4 Cordylus vittifer Common Girdled Lizard X 1 Smaug breyeri Waterberg Girdled Lizard X 4 Smaug vandami Van Dam's Girdled Lizard X 3 Dendroaspis polylepis Black Mamba X 1 1 Elapsoidea boulengeri Boulenger's Garter Snake X 3 Elapsoidea sundevallii Sundevall's Garter Snake X 1 Hemachatus haemachatus Rinkhals X 4 Naja annulifera Snouted Cobra X 2 Naja mossambica Mozambique Spitting Cobra X 1 Chondrodactylus turneri Turner's Gecko X 4 Hemidactylus mabouia Common Tropical House Gecko X 1 X Homopholis wahlbergii Wahlberg's Velvet Gecko X 4 Lygodactylus capensis Common Dwarf Gecko X 1 Pachydactylus punctatus Speckled Gecko X 4 Broadleysaurus major Rough-scaled Plated Lizard X 4 Gerrhosaurus flavigularis Yellow-throated Plated Lizard X 1 Matobosaurus validus Common Giant Plated Lizard X /MVR/mvr 110 P a g e

81 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE Ichnotropis capensis Ornate Rough-scaled Lizard X 4 Meroles squamulosus Common Rough-scaled Lizard X 1 Nucras holubi Holub's Sandveld Lizard X 1 Nucras intertexta Spotted Sandveld Lizard X 1 Nucras ornata Ornate Sandveld Lizard X 1 Pedioplanis lineoocellata Spotted Sand Lizard X 4 Amblyodipsas concolor Natal Purple-glossed Snake X 3 Amblyodipsas polylepis Common Purple-glossed Snake X 2 Aparallactus capensis Black-headed Centipede-eater X 1 Aparallactus scutatus Cape Centipede-eater X 1 Duberria lutrix South African Slug-eater X 1 Gonionotophis capensis Common File Snake X 1 Gonionotophis nyassae Black File Snake X 1 Homoroselaps lacteus Spotted Harlequin Snake X 4 Lamprophis aurora Aurora House Snake X 1 Lamprophis fuscus Yellow-bellied House Snake X 3 Lamprophis guttatus Spotted House Snake X 4 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Lycodonomorphus inornatus Lycodonomorphus rufulus Olive House Snake X 4 Brown Water Snake X 1 Lycophidion capense Cape Wolf Snake X 1 Lycophidion variegatum Variegated Wolf Snake X 4 Prosymna bivittata Two-striped Shovel-snout X 4 Prosymna sundevallii Sundevall's Shovel-snout X 4 Psammophis brevirostris Short-snouted Grass Snake X 1 Psammophis crucifer Cross-marked Grass Snake X 3 Psammophis mossambicus Olive Grass Snake X 1 Psammophis subtaeniatus Western Yellow-bellied Sand Snake X 3 Psammophylax rhombeatus Psammophylax tritaeniatus Spotted Grass Snake X 1 Striped Grass Snake X 1 X Pseudaspis cana Mole Snake X 1 Xenocalamus transvaalensis Speckled Quill-snouted Snake X 4 Leptotyphlops scutifrons Peters' Thread Snake X P a g e

82 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE Myriopholis longicauda Long-tailed Thread Snake X 4 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Pelomedusa subrufa Central Marsh Terrapin X 1 X Pelusios sinuatus Serrated Hinged Terrapin X 3 Python natalensis Southern African Python X 2 X Mochlus sundevallii Sundevall's Writhing Skink X 4 Panaspis maculicollis Spotted-neck Snake-eyed Skink X 4 Panaspis wahlbergii Wahlberg's Snake-eyed Skink X 1 Trachylepis capensis Cape Skink X 1 Trachylepis striata Striped Skink X 1 Trachylepis varia Variable Skink X 1 Kinixys lobatsiana Lobatse Hinged Tortoise X 4 Kinixys spekii Speke's Hinged Tortoise X 4 Stigmochelys pardalis Leopard Tortoise X 1 Afrotyphlops bibronii Bibron's Blind Snake X 2 Rhinotyphlops lalandei Delalande's Beaked Blind Snake X 2 Varanus albigularis Rock Monitor X 1 Varanus niloticus Water Monitor X 2 Bitis arietans Puff Adder X 1 X Causus defilippii Snouted Night Adder X 3 Causus rhombeatus Rhombic Night Adder X 1 X * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 2016 STATUS* 112 P a g e

83 Amphibian Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL RECORDS 2004 STATUS* Afrana angolensis Common River Frog X 1 Afrixalus aureus Golden Leaf-Folding Frog X 5 Breviceps adspersus Bushveld Rain Frog X 1 Bufo fenoulheti Northern Pygmy Toad X 2 Bufo garmani Olive Toad X 1 Bufo gutturalis Guttural Toad X 1 Cacosternum boettgeri Common Caco X 1 X Chiromantis xerampelina Foam Nest Frog X 2 Kassina senegalensis Bubbling Kassina X 1 Phrynobatrachus mababiensis Dwarf Puddle Frog X 4 Phrynobatrachus natalensis Snoring Puddle Frog X 1 Phrynomantis bifasciatus Banded Rubber Frog X 1 Ptychadena anchietae Plain Grass frog X 1 Pyxicephalus adspersus Giant Bullfrog X 2 Schismaderma carens Red Toad X 1 Tomopterna cryptotis Tremolo Sand Frog X 1 Tomopterna krugerensis Knocking Sand Frog X 2 Xenopus laevis Common Platanna X 1 Near Threatened * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 4496/MVR/mvr 113 P a g e

84 Invertebrate Species List ORDER FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME LEPIDOPTERA: BUTTERFLIES NEUROPTERA: ANT- LIONS ODONATA: DAMSELFLIES DRAGONFLIES COLEOPTERA: BEETLES & Lycaenidae Anthene amarah Black-striped Hairtail Lycaenidae Cupidopsis jobates Tailed Meadow Blue Lycaenidae Eicochrysops messapus Cupreous Blue Lycaenidae Iolaus bowkeri Bowker's Sapphire Nymphalidae Acraea aglaonice Clear-spotted Acraea Nymphalidae Byblia ilithyia Spotted Joker Nymphalidae Charaxes phaeus Demon Emperor Nymphalidae Danaus chrysippus African Monarch Nymphalidae Hamanumida daedalus Guineafowl Nymphalidae Hyalites eponina Orange Acraea Nymphalidae Hypolimnas misippus Common Diadem Nymphalidae Junonia hierta Yellow Pansy Nymphalidae Junonia oenone Blue Pansy Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui Painted Lady Pieridae Catopsilia florella African Migrant Pieridae Colias electo African Clouded Yellow Pieridae Colotis antevippe gavisa Red Tip Pieridae Colotis evenina Common Orange Tip Pieridae Eurema brigitta Broad-bordered Grass Yellow Pieridae Mylothris agathina Common Dotted Border Pieridae Pinacopteryx eriphia Zebra White Myrmeleontidae Ant-Lion Aeshnidae Anax emperator Blue Emperor Libellulidae Orthetrum julia Julia Skimmer Libellulidae Trithemis kirbyi Kirby's Dropwing Coenagrionidae Ischnura senegalensis Common Bluetail Curculionoidae Afrocorynus asparagi Weevil Scarabaeidae Phalops smaragdinus Dung Beetle Buprestidae Sternocera orissa Giant Jewel Beetle HEMIPTERA: BUGS Pyrrhocoridae Dysdercus fasciatus Cotton Stainer ARANEAE: SPIDERS AGELENIDAE Agelena gaerdesi Grass Funnel-web Spider ARANEIDAE Argiope australis Garden Orb-web Spider CTENIZIDAE Stasimopus sp. African Cork-lid Trapdoor Spider CYRTOPHORA Cyrtophora citricola Tropical Tent-web Spider LYCOSIDAE Hippasa sp. Funnel-web Wolf Spider LYCOSIDAE Hogna spenceri Burrow Living Wolf Spider 4496/MVR/mvr 114 P a g e

85 ORDER FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME NEPHILIDAE Nephila senegalensis Golden Orb-web Spider SALTICIDAE Hyllus treleaveni Jumping Spider SOLIFUGAE SOLIFUGIDAE Solifugidae sp. Sun Spider SCORPIONES BUTHIDAE Parabuthus transvaalicus Transvaal Thick-tailed Scorpion AMBLIPYGAE AMBLYPYGID Daemon cf. variegatus Whip Scorpion 115 P a g e

86 APPENDIX 2 CURRICULA VITAE OF THE SPECIALISTS Magnus van Rooyen Jake Alletson Amanda Austin 4496/MVR/mvr 116 P a g e

87 Magnus van Rooyen 4496/MVR/mvr 117 P a g e

88 Jake Alletson 4496/MVR/mvr 118 P a g e

89 Amanda Austin 4496/MVR/mvr 119 P a g e

90 APPENDIX 3 SPECIALIST DECLARATION 4496/MVR/mvr 120 P a g e

91 APPENDIX 1 SPECIES LISTS Floral Species List Mammalian Species List Avifaunal Species List Herpetofauna Species List Amphibian Species List Invertebrate Species List 4496/MVR/mvr 85 P a g e

92 Floral Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Abutilon angulatum MALVACEAE X Abutilon pycnodon MALVACEAE X Abutilon ramosum MALVACEAE X Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. subsp. Detinens FABACEAE X Acanthosicyos naudinianus CUCURBITACEAE X Achyropsis avicularis AMARANTHACEAE X Acrotome inflata LAMIACEAE X Afrocanthium gilfillanii RUBIACEAE X Albizia adianthifolia FABACEAE X Albizia brevifolia Schinz FABACEAE X Albizia versicolor FABACEAE X Ammannia prieuriana LYTHRACEAE X X Ammocharis coranica AMARYLLIDACEAE X Aptosimum lineare SCROPHULARIACEAE X Aristida adscensionis POACEAE X Aristida rhiniochloa POACEAE X Asparagus aggregatus ASPARAGACEAE X Asparagus aspergillus ASPARAGACEAE X Asparagus cooperi ASPARAGACEAE X Asparagus nelsii ASPARAGACEAE X X Asparagus sauveolens ASPARAGACEAE X Barleria affinis ACANTHACEAE X X Barleria saxatilis ACANTHACEAE X Barleria senensis ACANTHACEAE X Bauhinia galpinii FABACEAE X Bauhinia petersiana Bolle subsp. macrantha FABACEAE X Blepharis diversispina ACANTHACEAE X X Blepharis inaequalis ACANTHACEAE X Blepharis subvolubilis ACANTHACEAE X Blepharis subvolubilis ACANTHACEAE X 4496/MVR/mvr 86 P a g e

93 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Boscia albitrunca CAPPARACEAE X X Boscia foetida Schinz subsp. minima CAPPARACEAE X Boscia foetida Schinz subsp. rehmanniana CAPPARACEAE X Bridelia mollis PHYLLANTHACEAE X Cardiospermum corindum SAPINDACEAE X Carissa bispinosa APOCYNACEAE X Ceratotheca triloba PEDALIACEAE X Chaetacme aristata CELTIDACEAE X Chamaecrista mimosoides FABACEAE X Chloris roxburghiana POACEAE X Chorisochora transvaalensis ACANTHACEAE X Cienfugosia digitata MALVACEAE X Citrullus lanatus CUCURBITACEAE X X Coccinia rehmannii CUCURBITACEAE X X Combretum apiculatum Sond. subsp. Apiculatum COMBRETACEAE X Combretum cf. hereroense COMBRETACEAE X Combretum imberbe COMBRETACEAE X Combretum microphyllum COMBRETACEAE X Combretum zeyheri COMBRETACEAE X Commelina africana COMMELINACEAE X Commelina benghalensis COMMELINACEAE X Commelina erecta COMMELINACEAE X Commicarpus pilosus NYCTAGINACEAE X Commiphora marlothii BURSERACEAE X X Commiphora pyracanthoides BURSERACEAE X Corbichonia decumbens LOPHIOCARPACEAE X X Corchorus asplenifolius MALVACEAE X Corchorus kirkii MALVACEAE X Cotula anthemoides ASTERACEAE X Craterostigma plantagineum SCROPHULARIACEAE X Crinum buphanoides AMARYLLIDACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 87 P a g e

94 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Crinum crassicaule AMARYLLIDACEAE X X Crotalaria brachycarpa FABACEAE X Crotalaria distans FABACEAE X Crotalaria schinzii FABACEAE X Crotalaria sphaerocarpa FABACEAE X Croton gratissimus Burch. var. Subgratissimus EUPHORBIACEAE X Cymbopogon nardus POACEAE X Cymbopogon pospischilii POACEAE X Cyperus sphaerospermus CYPERACEAE X Dactyloctenium giganteum POACEAE X Denekia capensis ASTERACEAE X X Dichrostachys cinerea FABACEAE X X Dicoma tomentosa ASTERACEAE X Digitaria eriantha POACEAE X Diplorhynchus condylocarpon APOCYNACEAE X Dombeya rotundifolia MALVACEAE X Dyschoriste rogersii ACANTHACEAE X X Ehretia rigida BORAGINACEAE X Eleocharis limosa CYPERACEAE X Endostemon tereticaulis LAMIACEAE X X Enneapogon cenchroides POACEAE X Enteropogon macrostachyus POACEAE X Eragrostis gummiflua POACEAE X Eragrostis heteromera POACEAE X Eragrostis hierniana POACEAE X Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana POACEAE X Eragrostis pallens POACEAE X Eragrostis rotifer POACEAE X Eragrostis superba POACEAE X Eragrostis trichophora POACEAE X Erianthemum ngamicum LORANTHACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 88 P a g e

95 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES Euclea natalensis subsp. angustifolia EBENACEAE X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Euclea undulata EBENACEAE X X Euphorbia cf limpopoana EUPHORBIACEAE X Euphorbia hirta EUPHORBIACEAE X Euphorbia inequilatera EUPHORBIACEAE X Euphorbia peplus EUPHORBIACEAE X Evolvulus alsinoides CONVOLVULACEAE X X Felicia mossamedensis ASTERACEAE X Ficus abutilifolia MORACEAE X 2016 STATUS* Gardenia volkensii subsp. Spatulifolia RUBIACEAE X Geigeria burkei ASTERACEAE X Gizekia africana GISEKIACEAE X Gladiolus rehmannii IRIDACEAE X Gomphocarpus fruticosus APOCYNACEAE X Gomphrena celosioides AMARANTHACEAE X Grewia flava MALVACEAE X X Grewia flavescens MALVACEAE X Grewia monticola MALVACEAE X X Grewia subspathulata MALVACEAE X Gymnosporia tenuispina CELASTRACEAE X Helichrysum argyrosphaerum ASTERACEAE X Heliotropium nelsonii BORAGINACEAE X Heliotropium ovalifolium BORAGINACEAE X Heliotropium strigosum BORAGINACEAE X Hermannia boraginiflora MALVACEAE X Hermannia grisea MALVACEAE X Hermannia modesta MALVACEAE X Hermbstaedtia odorata AMARANTHACEAE X X Hexalobus monopetalus ANNONACEAE X Hibiscus calyphyllus MALVACEAE X Hibiscus cf. palmatus MALVACEAE X Hibiscus engleri MALVACEAE X X Hibiscus meyeri MALVACEAE X Hibiscus micranthus MALVACEAE X Hibiscus schinzii MALVACEAE X Hirpicium bechuanense ASTERACEAE X X Hyparrhenia cymbaria POACEAE X Indigastrum costatum FABACEAE X 89 P a g e

96 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Indigofera cf. heterotricha FABACEAE X Indigofera circinnata FABACEAE X X Indigofera holubii FABACEAE X Indigofera pongolana FABACEAE X Indigofera schimperi FABACEAE X Indigofera trita FABACEAE X Indigofera vicioides FABACEAE X Ipomoea bolusiana CONVOLVULACEAE X Ipomoea magnusiana CONVOLVULACEAE X X Ipomoea obscura CONVOLVULACEAE X X Ipomoea sinensis subsp. blepharosepala CONVOLVULACEAE X X Justicia exigua ACANTHACEAE X Justicia flava ACANTHACEAE X Justicia odora ACANTHACEAE X Justicia protracta subsp. protracta ACANTHACEAE X X Kalanchoe brachyloba CRASSULACEAE X X Kalanchoe rotundifolia CRASSULACEAE X Kleinia fulgens ASTERACEAE X Kohautia caespitosa RUBIACEAE X Kohautia cynanchica RUBIACEAE X Kyphocarpa angustifolia AMARANTHACEAE X Laggera decurrens ASTERACEAE X Lapeirousia sandersonii IRIDACEAE X Ledebouria apertiflora HYACINTHACEAE X Ledebouria cooperi HYACINTHACEAE X Ledebouria sandersonii HYACINTHACEAE X Leonotis cf. nepetifolia LAMIACEAE X Leucas glabrata LAMIACEAE X Leucas sexdentata LAMIACEAE X Limeum argute-carinatum MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum dinteri MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum pterocarpum var. pterocarpum MOLLUGINACEAE X Limeum sulcatum MOLLUGINACEAE X 2016 STATUS* Limeum viscosum subsp. transvaalense MOLLUGINACEAE X Listia heterophylla FABACEAE X Ludwigia octovalvis ONAGRACEAE X X Maerua edulis CAPPARACEAE X 90 P a g e

97 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Marsilia sp. MARSILACEAE X Melhania acuminata var. acuminata MALVACEAE X X Mimusops zeyheri SAPOTACEAE X Momordica balsamina CUCURBITACEAE X X Monechma debile ACANTHACEAE X Monsonia angustifolia GERANIACEAE X Monsonia glauca GERANIACEAE X Nidorella resedifolia ASTERACEAE X Nuxia oppositifolia BUDDLEJACEAE X Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea NYMPHAEACEAE X Nymphoides thunbergiana MENYANTHACEAE X Ochna inermis OCHNACEAE X Ocimum americanum L. var. Americanum LAMIACEAE X Ocimum filamentosum LAMIACEAE X Ornithogalum cf. seineri HYACINTHACEAE X Otoptera burchellii FABACEAE X X Oxygonum cf. delagoense POLYGONACEAE X Oxygonum sinuatum POLYGONACEAE X Ozoroa paniculosa. var. Paniculosa ANACARDIACEAE X Panicum subalbidum POACEAE X Pappea capensis SAPINDACEAE X Peltophorum africanum FABACEAE X Peristrophe paniculata ACANTHACEAE X Persicaria limbata POLYGONACEAE X Phaeoptilum spinosum NYCTAGINACEAE X Philyrophyllum schinzii ASTERACEAE X Phyllanthus angolensis PHYLLANTHACEAE X Phyllanthus maderaspatensis PHYLLANTHACEAE X Plicosepalus kalachariensis LORANTHACEAE X X Plumbago zeylanica PLUMBAGINACEAE X Pogonarthria squarrosa POACEAE X Pomaria burchellii FABACEAE X Portulaca quadrifida PORTULACACEAE X Pseudocrossidium porphyreoneurum POTTIACEAE X Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia var. maprouneifolia PHYLLANTHACEAE X Pterocarpus rotundifolius subsp. Rotundifolius FABACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 91 P a g e

98 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES Pterodiscus speciosus PEDALIACEAE X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Ptycholobium contortum FABACEAE X Pupalia lappacea var. lappacea AMARANTHACEAE X X Rhoicissus digitata VITACEAE X Rhoicissus revoilii VITACEAE X Rhynchosia totta FABACEAE X Rhynchosia venulosa FABACEAE X Riccia argenteolimbata RICCIACEAE X Riccia atropurpurea RICCIACEAE X Riccia congoana RICCIACEAE X Riccia okahandjana RICCIACEAE X Ruellia patula ACANTHACEAE X Sansevieria aethiopica DRACAENACEAE X Sarcostemma viminale APOCYNACEAE X Schkuhria pinnata ASTERACEAE X Schmidtia pappophoroides POACEAE X Schoenoplectus erectus CYPERACEAE X Schoenoplectus muricinux CYPERACEAE X Schotia brachypetala FABACEAE X Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra ANACARDIACEAE X X Seddera capensis CONVOLVULACEAE X Selaginella dregei SELAGINELLACEAE X Senna italica subsp. arachoides FABACEAE X X Sesamum triphyllum var. triphyllum PEDALIACEAE X X Sida cordifolia L. subsp. cordifolia MALVACEAE X Sida ovata MALVACEAE X X Solanum delagoense SOLANACEAE X Sphaeranthus peduncularis subsp. Peduncularis ASTERACEAE X Spirostachys africana EUPHORBIACEAE X X Stapelia gettliffei APOCYNACEAE X Stapelia kwebensis APOCYNACEAE X Sterculia rogersii MALVACEAE X Stipagrostis uniplumis var. Uniplumis POACEAE X Strychnos madagascariensis STRYCHNACEAE X Sutherlandia frutescens FABACEAE X Syncolostemon canescens LAMIACEAE X Tephrosia longipes subsp. longipes var. Longipes FABACEAE X 2016 STATUS* 92 P a g e

99 SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY REGIONAL STUDIES OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Tephrosia purpurea FABACEAE X Tephrosia rhodesica var. Rhodesica FABACEAE X Terminalia sericea COMBRETACEAE X X Tribulus terrestris ZYGOPHYLLACEAE X Tribulus zeyheri subsp. Zeyheri ZYGOPHYLLACEAE X Tricholaena monachne POACEAE X Tylosema fassoglense FABACEAE X Urochloa brachyura POACEAE X Vernonia fastigiata ASTERACEAE X X Waltheria indica MALVACEAE X X Xanthocercis zambesiaca FABACEAE X Ximenia americana var. Microphylla OLACACEAE X 2016 STATUS* Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata RHAMNACEAE X Zornia glochidiata FABACEAE X * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern 93 P a g e

100 Mammalian Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Aepyceros melampus melampus Impala X 1 X Alcelaphus buselaphus caama Red Hartebeest X 1 Antidorcas marsupialis Springbok X 3 Connochaetes taurinus taurinus Blue Wildebeest X 1 X Damaliscus lunatus lunatus Tsessebe X 4 Vulnerable Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi Blesbok X 1 Hippotragus equinus Roan Antelope X 1 X Endangered Hippotragus niger niger Sable Antelope X 1 X Vulnerable Kobus ellipsiprymnus ellipsiprymnus Common Waterbuck X 1 Oreotragus oreotragus Klipspringer X 4 Oryx gazella Gemsbok X 1 Pelea capreolus Grey Rhebok X 4 Raphicerus campestris Steenbok X 1 X Redunca fulvorufula fulvorufula Near Threatened Mountain Reedbuck X 4 Endangered Sylvicapra grimmia Common Duiker X 1 X Syncerus caffer caffer Southern Buffalo Savannah X 1 X Tragelaphus angasii Nyala X 1 X Tragelaphus oryx Eland X 1 X Tragelaphus strepsiceros Greater Kudu X 1 X Tragelaphus sylvaticus Southern Bushbuck X 2 Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa South African Giraffe X 1 X Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus X 4 Phacochoerus africanus Common Warthog X 1 X Potamochoerus larvatus Bushpig X 2 Canis mesomelas Black-backed Jackal X 1 X Lycaon pictus African Wild Dog X 5 Endangered Otocyon megalotis Bat-eared Fox X 2 Vulpes chama Cape Fox X 2 Acinonyx jubatus Cheetah X 3 Vulnerable Caracal caracal Caracal X 1 X Felis nigripes Black-footed Cat X 3 Vulnerable Felis silvestris African Wildcat X /MVR/mvr 94 P a g e

101 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** Leptailurus serval Serval X 2 Panthera leo Lion X 1 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened Panthera pardus Leopard X 2 Vulnerable Atilax paludinosus Water Mongoose X 2 Cynictis penicillata Yellow Mongoose X 4 Helogale parvula Dwarf Mongoose X 2 Herpestes sanguineus Slender Mongoose X 1 X Ichneumia albicauda White-tailed Mongoose X 3 Mungos mungo Banded Mongoose X 1 Crocuta crocuta Spotted Hyaena X 1 Parahyaena brunnea Brown Hyaena X 1 X Proteles cristata Aardwolf X 1 X Aonyx capensis Cape Clawless Otter X 4 Ictonyx striatus Striped Polecat X 2 Mellivora capensis Honey Badger X 1 Poecilogale albinucha African Striped Weasel X 2 Civettictis civetta African Civet X 2 Genetta genetta Small-spotted Genet X 2 Genetta tigrina Cape Genet X 2 Taphozous mauritianus Mauritian Tomb Bat X 2 Near Threatened Near Threatened Near Threatened Near Threatened Cloeotis percivali Short-eared Trident Bat X 3 Endangered Hipposideros caffer Sundevall's Bat Leaf-nosed X 2 Tadarida aegyptiaca Egyptian Free-tailed Bat X 2 Nycteris thebaica Egyptian Slit-faced Bat X 2 Epomophorus wahlbergi Wahlberg's Fruit Bat Epauletted X 4 Rhinolophus clivosus Geoffroy's Horseshoe Bat X 3 Rhinolophus cohenae Cohen's Horseshoe Bat X 3 Vulnerable Rhinolophus darlingi Darling's Horseshoe Bat X 3 Rhinolophus simulator Bushveld Horseshoe Bat X 3 Laephotis botswanae Botswana Bat Long-eared X 4 Miniopterus natalensis Natal Long-fingered Bat X 3 95 P a g e

102 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Miniopterus schreibersii Long- Schreiber's fingered Bat X 3 Myotis tricolor Temminck's Hairy Bat X 3 Neoromicia capensis Cape Serotine Bat X 2 Neoromicia zuluensis Aloe Bat X 3 Pipistrellus hesperidus African Pipistrelle X 2 Pipistrellus rusticus Rusty Bat X 2 Scotophilus dinganii Yellow House Bat X 2 Atelerix frontalis South African Hedgehog X 2 Procavia capensis Rock Hyrax X 4 Lepus saxatilis Scrub Hare X 1 X Pronolagus randensis Jameson's Red Rock Rabbit X 4 Elephantulus intufi Bushveld Sengi X 2 Elephantulus myurus Eastern Rock Sengi X 2 Elephantulus brachyrhyncus Short-snouted Sengi Rock X 2 Equus quagga Plains Zebra X 1 X Ceratotherium simum simum Smutsia temminckii Southern Rhinoceros Temminck's Pangolin White Ground X 1 Chlorocebus pygerythrus Vervet Monkey X 1 X Papio ursinus Chacma Baboon X 1 X Galago moholi Southern Lesser Galago X 1 X Loxodonta africana African Elephant X 5 Cryptomys hottentotus Common Mole-rat X 1 Graphiurus murinus Woodland Dormouse X 2 Graphiurus platyops Rock Dormouse X 3 Hystrix africaeaustralis Cape Porcupine X 1 X Acomys spinosissimus Spiny Mouse X 2 Aethomys ineptus Tete Veld Rat X 2 Gerbilliscus brantsii Highveld Gerbil X 3 Gerbilliscus leucogaster Bushveld Gerbil X 1 X Gerbilliscus paeba Hairy-footed Gerbil X 2 Lemniscomys rosalia Single-striped Mouse X 2 Mastomys coucha Multimammate Mouse X 2 Mastomys natalensis Natal Mouse Multimammate X 2 X 1 X Near Threatened Near Threatened Vulnerable 96 P a g e

103 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** Micaelamys namaquensis Namaqua Rock Mouse X 3 Mus indutus Desert Pygmy Mouse X 3 Mus minutoides Pygmy Mouse X 4 Otomys angoniensis Angoni Vlei Rat X 2 Otomys irroratus Vlei Rat (Fynbos type) X 2 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Dasymys incomtus Water Rat X 3 Thallomys paedulcus Tree Rat X 2 Dendromus melanotis Grey Climbing Mouse X 1 X Dendromus mystacalis Chestnut Climbing Mouse X 4 Saccostomus campestris Pouched Mouse X 2 Steatomys krebsii Krebs's Fat Mouse X 4 Steatomys pratensis Fat Mouse X 2 Pedetes capensis Springhare X 1 X Paraxerus cepapi Tree Squirrel X 1 X Thryonomys swinderianus Greater Cane Rat X 2 Crocidura cyanea Reddish-grey Musk Shrew X 2 Crocidura hirta Lesser Red Musk Shrew X 2 Orycteropus afer Aardvark X 1 X Near Threatened * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 97 P a g e

104 Avifaunal Species List SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Struthio camelus Common Ostrich X 1 X X Tachybaptus ruficollis Little Grebe X 1 X X Pelecanus rufescens Pink-backed Pelican X 3 Vulnerable Phalacrocorax africanus Reed Cormorant X 2 X X Anhinga rufa African Darter 2 X Ardea cinerea Grey Heron X 2 X Ardea melanocephala Black-headed Heron X 1 X X Ardea purpurea Purple Heron 2 X Egretta alba Great Egret X 1 X Egretta garzetta Little Egret X 1 X X Egretta intermedia Yellow-billed Egret 2 X Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret X 1 X X Ardeola ralloides Squacco Heron 2 X Butorides striata Gorsachius leuconotus Green-backed Heron 1 X White-backed Night-Heron X 5 Vulnerable Scopus umbretta Hamerkop X 1 X X Ciconia ciconia White Stork X 1 X Ciconia nigra Black Stork X 4 Near Threatened Ciconia abdimii Abdim's Stork 1 X Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Saddle-billed Stork X 4 EN Leptoptilos crumeniferus Marabou Stork X 3 Near Threatened Mycteria ibis Yellow-billed Stork X 1 X Vulnerable Threskiornis aethiopicus African Sacred Ibis X 3 Plegadis falcinellus Glossy Ibis X 4 Bostrychia hagedash Hadeda Ibis X 1 X X Platalea alba African Spoonbill X 1 X Phoenicopterus ruber Greater Flamingo X 4 Phoenicopterus minor Lesser Flamingo X 4 Near Threatened Near Threatened Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Duck X 1 X Thalassornis leuconotus White-backed Duck X /MVR/mvr 98 P a g e

105 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Alopochen aegyptiaca Egyptian Goose X 1 X X Anas undulata Yellow-billed Duck X 2 Anas sparsa African Black Duck 1 X Anas capensis Cape Teal X 3 Anas erythrorhyncha Red-billed Teal X 4 Sarkidiornis melanotos Comb Duck X 1 X Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose X 1 X Oxyura maccoa Maccoa Duck X STATUS* Sagittarius serpentarius Secretarybird X 2 Near Threatened Gyps coprotheres Cape Vulture X 1 X Vulnerable Gyps africanus Aegypius tracheliotus Aegypius occipitalis White-backed Vulture X 1 X X Vulnerable Lappet-faced Vulture X 3 Vulnerable White-headed Vulture X 3 Vulnerable Milvus migrans Black Kite X 3 Elanus caeruleus Black-shouldered Kite 1 X X Aquila verreauxii Verreauxs' Eagle 1 X Aquila rapax Tawny Eagle X 1 X Vulnerable Aquila nipalensis Steppe Eagle 1 X Aquila wahlbergi Wahlberg's Eagle X 1 X Aquila spilogaster African Hawk-Eagle 1 X Aquila ayresii Ayres's Hawk-Eagle X 4 Near Threatened Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle X 3 Vulnerable Circaetus cinereus Brown Snake-Eagle X 1 X Circaetus pectoralis Black-chested Snake-Eagle X 1 X Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur X 4 Vulnerable Haliaeetus vocifer African Fish-Eagle 1 X X Buteo vulpinus Steppe Buzzard X 1 X Accipiter ovampensis Ovambo Sparrowhawk 1 X Accipiter minullus Little Sparrowhawk 1 X Accipiter badius Shikra 1 X Melierax gabar Gabar Goshawk X 1 X 99 P a g e

106 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Melierax canorus Melierax metabates Circus aeruginosus COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Southern Pale Chanting Goshawk X 1 X X Dark Chanting Goshawk 1 X Circus macrourus Pallid Harrier X 4 Polyboroides typus Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon X 3 Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon X 2 Falco amurensis Amur Falcon X 2 Falco rupicolus Rock Kestrel 3 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened Near Threatened Near Threatened Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel X 3 Vulnerable Peliperdix coqui Coqui Francolin 1 X Dendroperdix sephaena Crested Francolin X 1 X X Pternistis natalensis Natal Spurfowl X 1 X X Pternistis swainsonii Swainson's Spurfowl X 1 X X Coturnix coturnix Common Quail 1 X Coturnix delegorguei Harlequin Quail X 4 Numida meleagris Helmeted Guineafowl X 1 X X Guttera edouardi Crested Guineafowl 5 Turnix sylvaticus Kurrichane Buttonquail X 1 X Amaurornis flavirostris Black Crake 1 X Gallinula chloropus Common Moorhen 1 X Podica senegalensis African Finfoot X 5 Vulnerable Ardeotis kori Kori Bustard X 1 X X Vulnerable Lophotis ruficrista Red-crested Korhaan X 1 X X Actophilornis africanus African Jacana X 1 X Rostratula benghalensis Western Marsh- Harrier 1 X African Harrier- Hawk 1 X Greater Paintedsnipe X 4 Charadrius pecuarius Kittlitz's Plover X 3 Charadrius tricollaris Three-banded Plover X 1 X Vanellus coronatus Crowned Lapwing X 1 X X Near Threatened 100 P a g e

107 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Vanellus armatus Blacksmith Lapwing X 1 X X Vanellus albiceps Vanellus senegallus White-crowned Lapwing 4 X African Wattled Lapwing 1 X Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper X 1 X Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper X 1 X Tringa nebularia Common Greenshank X 1 X Calidris minuta Little Stint X 3 Philomachus pugnax Ruff X 3 Recurvirostra avosetta Pied Avocet X 4 Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt X 4 Burhinus capensis Spotted Thick-knee X 1 X X Burhinus vermiculatus Water Thick-knee X 3 X Cursorius temminckii Rhinoptilus chalcopterus Glareola nordmanni Temminck's Courser 1 X Bronze-winged Courser X 1 X Black-winged Pratincole X 4 Larus cirrocephalus Grey-headed Gull X 4 Chlidonias leucopterus White-winged Tern X 4 Pterocles burchelli Pterocles bicinctus Burchell's Sandgrouse X 1 X Double-banded Sandgrouse 1 X Columba guinea Speckled Pigeon X 1 X Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove X 1 X X Streptopelia capicola Cape Turtle-Dove X 1 X X Streptopelia senegalensis Laughing Dove X 1 X X Oena capensis Namaqua Dove X 1 X X Turtur chalcospilos Treron calvus Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove X 1 X X African Green- Pigeon 1 X Poicephalus meyeri Meyer's Parrot 1 X Corythaixoides concolor Grey Go-away-bird X 1 X X Cuculus gularis African Cuckoo 1 X Cuculus solitarius Red-chested Cuckoo X 1 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened Near Threatened 101 P a g e

108 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Cuculus clamosus Black Cuckoo X 1 X Clamator jacobinus Jacobin Cuckoo X 1 X Chrysococcyx klaas Klaas's Cuckoo X 1 X Chrysococcyx caprius Diderick Cuckoo X 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Centropus burchellii Burchell's Coucal X 1 X X Tyto alba Barn Owl X 1 X Otus senegalensis African Scops-Owl 1 X X Ptilopsis granti Southern Whitefaced Scops-Owl X 1 X X Glaucidium perlatum Pearl-spotted Owlet 1 X X Glaucidium capense African Barred Owlet 4 X Bubo africanus Spotted Eagle-Owl X 1 X Caprimulgus pectoralis Caprimulgus rufigena Fiery-necked Nightjar X 1 X Rufous-cheeked Nightjar X 1 X Caprimulgus tristigma Freckled Nightjar 1 X Apus barbatus African Black Swift 1 X Apus caffer White-rumped Swift 1 X Apus affinis Little Swift X 1 X X Cypsiurus parvus African Palm-Swift 1 X Colius striatus Urocolius indicus Speckled Mousebird 1 X Red-faced Mousebird X 1 X Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher 1 X Alcedo semitorquata Ispidina picta Halcyon senegalensis Halcyon albiventris Half-collared Kingfisher X 5 African Pygmy- Kingfisher 1 X Woodland Kingfisher X 1 X Brown-hooded Kingfisher X 1 X X Halcyon chelicuti Striped Kingfisher 1 X Merops apiaster European Bee-eater X 1 X Merops persicus Merops nubicoides Blue-cheeked Beeeater X 1 X Southern Carmine Bee-eater X 1 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened 102 P a g e

109 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Merops bullockoides COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE White-fronted Beeeater 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Merops pusillus Little Bee-eater X 1 X X Merops hirundineus Swallow-tailed Beeeater X 1 X Coracias garrulus European Roller 1 X X Coracias caudatus Lilac-breasted Roller X 1 X X Coracias naevius Purple Roller X 1 X X Eurystomus glaucurus Broad-billed Roller 4 X Upupa africana African Hoopoe X 1 X X Phoeniculus purpureus Rhinopomastus cyanomelas Tockus nasutus Common Scimitarbill X 1 X X African Grey Hornbill X 1 X X Tockus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Hornbill X 1 X X Tockus leucomelas Bucorvus leadbeateri Lybius torquatus Green Wood- Hoopoe 1 X X Southern Yellowbilled Hornbill X 1 X X 2016 STATUS* Southern Ground- Hornbill X 3 Vulnerable Black-collared Barbet 1 X Tricholaema leucomelas Acacia Pied Barbet X 1 X X Pogoniulus chrysoconus Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird 1 X X Trachyphonus vaillantii Crested Barbet X 1 X X Indicator indicator Greater Honeyguide X 1 X Indicator minor Lesser Honeyguide X 1 X Campethera bennettii Campethera abingoni Dendropicos fuscescens Dendropicos namaquus Jynx ruficollis Bennett's Woodpecker 1 X X Golden-tailed Woodpecker X 1 X Cardinal Woodpecker X 1 X Bearded Woodpecker 1 X X Red-throated Wryneck 1 X Mirafra passerina Monotonous Lark X 1 X Mirafra africana Rufous-naped Lark X 1 X 103 P a g e

110 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Calendulauda africanoides Fawn-coloured Lark X 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Calendulauda sabota Sabota Lark X 1 X X Pinarocorys nigricans Dusky Lark 1 X Calandrella cinerea Red-capped Lark X 1 X Eremopterix leucotis Eremopterix verticalis Chestnut-backed Sparrowlark 1 X Grey-backed Sparrowlark 1 X Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow X 1 X Hirundo albigularis White-throated Swallow 1 X Hirundo smithii Wire-tailed Swallow X 3 Hirundo dimidiata Hirundo semirufa Hirundo cucullata Hirundo abyssinica Pearl-breasted Swallow 1 X Red-breasted Swallow X 1 X Greater Striped Swallow X 3 Lesser Striped Swallow 1 X Hirundo fuligula Rock Martin 1 X Delichon urbicum Riparia paludicola Common House- Martin 1 X Brown-throated Martin 1 X Riparia cincta Banded Martin X 1 X Campephaga flava Black Cuckooshrike X 1 X Dicrurus adsimilis Fork-tailed Drongo X 1 X X Oriolus oriolus Oriolus larvatus Eurasian Golden Oriole 1 X Black-headed Oriole X 1 X Corvus albus Pied Crow 1 X X Parus cinerascens Ashy Tit X 5 Parus niger Southern Black Tit X 1 X X Anthoscopus caroli Grey Penduline-Tit 1 X Turdoides jardineii Turdoides bicolor Pycnonotus nigricans Arrow-marked Babbler X 1 X X Southern Pied Babbler X 1 X X African Red-eyed Bulbul X 1 X 2016 STATUS* 104 P a g e

111 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Pycnonotus tricolor Dark-capped Bulbul X 1 X X Chlorocichla flaviventris Yellow-bellied Greenbul 1 X Turdus libonyanus Kurrichane Thrush 1 X Psophocichla litsitsirupa Groundscraper Thrush X 1 X Cercomela familiaris Familiar Chat 1 X Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris Mocking Cliff-Chat 1 X Myrmecocichla formicivora Ant-eating Chat 1 X Saxicola torquatus African Stonechat X 1 X X Cossypha caffra Cape Robin-Chat X 1 X Cossypha humeralis Cercotrichas leucophrys Cercotrichas paena White-throated Robin-Chat 1 X 2016 STATUS* White-browed Scrub-Robin X 1 X X ENDEMIC Sylvia borin Garden Warbler X 3 Sylvia communis Parisoma subcaeruleum Common Whitethroat X 1 X X Chestnut-vented Tit-Babbler X 1 X Hippolais icterina Icterine Warbler X 1 X Hippolais olivetorum Olive-tree Warbler X 4 Acrocephalus arundinaceus Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Sedge Warbler 1 X Acrocephalus gracilirostris Phylloscopus trochilus Willow Warbler X 1 X Apalis thoracica Bar-throated Apalis 1 X Sylvietta rufescens Eremomela icteropygialis Eremomela usticollis Camaroptera brachyura Calamonastes fasciolatus Long-billed Crombec X 1 X X Yellow-bellied Eremomela X 1 X Burnt-necked Eremomela X 1 X Green-backed Camaroptera X 1 X Kalahari Scrub- Robin X 1 X X Great Reed- Warbler 1 X Lesser Swamp- Warbler 1 X Barred Wren- Warbler X 1 X 105 P a g e

112 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Cisticola juncidis Zitting Cisticola 1 X Cisticola aridulus Desert Cisticola 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Cisticola chiniana Rattling Cisticola X 1 X X Cisticola erythrops Red-faced Cisticola 1 X Cisticola tinniens Levaillant's Cisticola 1 X Cisticola fulvicapilla Neddicky 1 X Prinia subflava Tawny-flanked Prinia X 1 X Prinia flavicans Black-chested Prinia X 1 X Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher 1 X X Muscicapa caerulescens Ashy Flycatcher 1 X Myioparus plumbeus Grey Tit-Flycatcher 1 X Melaenornis pammelaina Southern Black Flycatcher X 1 X Bradornis mariquensis Marico Flycatcher X 1 X Bradornis pallidus Pale Flycatcher 3 X Sigelus silens Fiscal Flycatcher 1 X Batis molitor Chinspot Batis X 1 X X Platysteira peltata Black-throated Wattle-eye 1 X Stenostira scita Fairy Flycatcher 1 X Terpsiphone viridis African Paradise- Flycatcher X 1 X Anthus cinnamomeus African Pipit 1 X Anthus vaalensis Buffy Pipit 1 X Lanius minor Lesser Grey Shrike X 1 X Lanius collaris Common Fiscal 1 X X Lanius collurio Red-backed Shrike X 1 X Lanius souzae Souza's Shrike 5 Corvinella melanoleuca Magpie Shrike X 1 X X Laniarius ferrugineus Southern Boubou 1 X Laniarius aethiopicus Tropical Boubou 1 X Laniarius atrococcineus Dryoscopus cubla Crimson-breasted Shrike X 1 X Black-backed Puffback X 1 X X Nilaus afer Brubru X 1 X Tchagra australis Brown-crowned Tchagra X 1 X X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened 106 P a g e

113 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Tchagra senegalus Telophorus sulfureopectus Malaconotus blanchoti Prionops plumatus Eurocephalus anguitimens COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Black-crowned Tchagra X 1 X X Orange-breasted Bush-Shrike X 1 X Grey-headed Bush- Shrike 1 X White-crested Helmet-Shrike X 1 X X Southern Whitecrowned Shrike X 1 X X Acridotheres tristis Common Myna X 4 Creatophora cinerea Wattled Starling X 1 X Cinnyricinclus leucogaster Violet-backed Starling X 1 X Lamprotornis australis Burchell's Starling X 2 Lamprotornis mevesii Meves's Starling X 2 Lamprotornis nitens Cape Glossy Starling X 1 X X Lamprotornis chalybaeus Greater Blue-eared Starling 1 X Onychognathus morio Red-winged Starling 1 X Buphagus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Oxpecker X 1 X Cinnyris mariquensis Marico Sunbird X 1 X Cinnyris talatala White-bellied Sunbird X 1 X X Chalcomitra amethystina Amethyst Sunbird 1 X Zosterops virens Cape White-eye X 1 X Bubalornis niger Plocepasser mahali Red-billed Buffalo- Weaver X 1 X X White-browed Sparrow-Weaver X 1 X X Passer domesticus House Sparrow X 1 X X Passer motitensis Great Sparrow X 1 X Passer melanurus Cape Sparrow X 1 X X Passer diffusus Petronia superciliaris Sporopipes squamifrons Southern Greyheaded Sparrow X 1 X X Yellow-throated Petronia 1 X Scaly-feathered Finch X 1 X X Ploceus cucullatus Village Weaver X 1 X 2016 STATUS* Near Threatened 107 P a g e

114 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Ploceus velatus Ploceus intermedius Anaplectes melanotis COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Southern Masked- Weaver X 1 X Lesser Masked- Weaver X 1 X Red-headed Weaver 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Quelea quelea Red-billed Quelea X 1 X X Euplectes orix Euplectes afer Euplectes albonotatus Pytilia melba Southern Red Bishop 1 X Yellow-crowned Bishop X 1 X White-winged Widowbird 1 X Green-winged Pytilia X 1 X Lagonosticta rhodopareia Jameson's Firefinch X 1 X Lagonosticta senegala Red-billed Firefinch 1 X Uraeginthus angolensis Blue Waxbill X 1 X X Granatina granatina Violet-eared Waxbill X 1 X Estrilda astrild Common Waxbill 1 X X Estrilda erythronotos Black-faced Waxbill X 1 X X Ortygospiza atricollis African Quailfinch 1 X Sporaeginthus subflavus Orange-breasted Waxbill 1 X Amadina fasciata Cut-throat Finch X 1 X Amadina erythrocephala Red-headed Finch X 1 X Spermestes cucullatus Bronze Mannikin 1 X Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah X 1 X Vidua regia Vidua paradisaea Shaft-tailed Whydah X 1 X Long-tailed Paradise-Whydah X 1 X Vidua funerea Dusky Indigobird 1 X Vidua chalybeata Village Indigobird 1 X Crithagra mozambicus Crithagra atrogularis Yellow-fronted Canary X 1 X X Black-throated Canary X 1 X Crithagra flaviventris Yellow Canary X 2 Emberiza flaviventris Golden-breasted Bunting X 1 X X 2016 STATUS* 108 P a g e

115 SCIENTIFIC NAMES COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** SABAP DATABASE Emberiza capensis Cape Bunting 1 X OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Emberiza tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Bunting X 1 X X Milvus aegyptius Yellow-billed Kite X 1 X Camaroptera brevicaudata Grey-backed Camaroptera 1 X * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 109 P a g e

116 Herpetofauna Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Acanthocercus atricollis Southern Tree Agama X 1 X Agama aculeata Common Ground Agama X 1 X Agama armata Peters' Ground Agama X 1 Agama atra Southern Rock Agama X 3 Dalophia pistillum Blunt-tailed Worm Lizard X 4 Monopeltis infuscata Dusky Worm Lizard X 1 Chamaeleo dilepis Common Flap-neck Chameleon X 1 X Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia Red-lipped Snake X 1 Dasypeltis scabra Rhombic Egg-eater X 1 Dispholidus typus Boomslang X 1 X Philothamnus hoplogaster South Eastern Green Snake X 1 Philothamnus natalensis Eastern Natal Green Snake X 4 Philothamnus semivariegatus Telescopus semiannulatus Spotted Bush Snake X 1 X Eastern Tiger Snake X 2 Thelotornis capensis Southern Twig Snake X 4 Cordylus vittifer Common Girdled Lizard X 1 Smaug breyeri Waterberg Girdled Lizard X 4 Smaug vandami Van Dam's Girdled Lizard X 3 Dendroaspis polylepis Black Mamba X 1 1 Elapsoidea boulengeri Boulenger's Garter Snake X 3 Elapsoidea sundevallii Sundevall's Garter Snake X 1 Hemachatus haemachatus Rinkhals X 4 Naja annulifera Snouted Cobra X 2 Naja mossambica Mozambique Spitting Cobra X 1 Chondrodactylus turneri Turner's Gecko X 4 Hemidactylus mabouia Common Tropical House Gecko X 1 X Homopholis wahlbergii Wahlberg's Velvet Gecko X 4 Lygodactylus capensis Common Dwarf Gecko X 1 Pachydactylus punctatus Speckled Gecko X 4 Broadleysaurus major Rough-scaled Plated Lizard X 4 Gerrhosaurus flavigularis Yellow-throated Plated Lizard X 1 Matobosaurus validus Common Giant Plated Lizard X /MVR/mvr 110 P a g e

117 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE Ichnotropis capensis Ornate Rough-scaled Lizard X 4 Meroles squamulosus Common Rough-scaled Lizard X 1 Nucras holubi Holub's Sandveld Lizard X 1 Nucras intertexta Spotted Sandveld Lizard X 1 Nucras ornata Ornate Sandveld Lizard X 1 Pedioplanis lineoocellata Spotted Sand Lizard X 4 Amblyodipsas concolor Natal Purple-glossed Snake X 3 Amblyodipsas polylepis Common Purple-glossed Snake X 2 Aparallactus capensis Black-headed Centipede-eater X 1 Aparallactus scutatus Cape Centipede-eater X 1 Duberria lutrix South African Slug-eater X 1 Gonionotophis capensis Common File Snake X 1 Gonionotophis nyassae Black File Snake X 1 Homoroselaps lacteus Spotted Harlequin Snake X 4 Lamprophis aurora Aurora House Snake X 1 Lamprophis fuscus Yellow-bellied House Snake X 3 Lamprophis guttatus Spotted House Snake X 4 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL 2016 STATUS* Lycodonomorphus inornatus Lycodonomorphus rufulus Olive House Snake X 4 Brown Water Snake X 1 Lycophidion capense Cape Wolf Snake X 1 Lycophidion variegatum Variegated Wolf Snake X 4 Prosymna bivittata Two-striped Shovel-snout X 4 Prosymna sundevallii Sundevall's Shovel-snout X 4 Psammophis brevirostris Short-snouted Grass Snake X 1 Psammophis crucifer Cross-marked Grass Snake X 3 Psammophis mossambicus Olive Grass Snake X 1 Psammophis subtaeniatus Western Yellow-bellied Sand Snake X 3 Psammophylax rhombeatus Psammophylax tritaeniatus Spotted Grass Snake X 1 Striped Grass Snake X 1 X Pseudaspis cana Mole Snake X 1 Xenocalamus transvaalensis Speckled Quill-snouted Snake X 4 Leptotyphlops scutifrons Peters' Thread Snake X P a g e

118 SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE Myriopholis longicauda Long-tailed Thread Snake X 4 OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL Pelomedusa subrufa Central Marsh Terrapin X 1 X Pelusios sinuatus Serrated Hinged Terrapin X 3 Python natalensis Southern African Python X 2 X Mochlus sundevallii Sundevall's Writhing Skink X 4 Panaspis maculicollis Spotted-neck Snake-eyed Skink X 4 Panaspis wahlbergii Wahlberg's Snake-eyed Skink X 1 Trachylepis capensis Cape Skink X 1 Trachylepis striata Striped Skink X 1 Trachylepis varia Variable Skink X 1 Kinixys lobatsiana Lobatse Hinged Tortoise X 4 Kinixys spekii Speke's Hinged Tortoise X 4 Stigmochelys pardalis Leopard Tortoise X 1 Afrotyphlops bibronii Bibron's Blind Snake X 2 Rhinotyphlops lalandei Delalande's Beaked Blind Snake X 2 Varanus albigularis Rock Monitor X 1 Varanus niloticus Water Monitor X 2 Bitis arietans Puff Adder X 1 X Causus defilippii Snouted Night Adder X 3 Causus rhombeatus Rhombic Night Adder X 1 X * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 2016 STATUS* 112 P a g e

119 Amphibian Species List SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME REGIONAL STUDIES LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE** OBSERVED AND ANECDOTAL RECORDS 2004 STATUS* Afrana angolensis Common River Frog X 1 Afrixalus aureus Golden Leaf-Folding Frog X 5 Breviceps adspersus Bushveld Rain Frog X 1 Bufo fenoulheti Northern Pygmy Toad X 2 Bufo garmani Olive Toad X 1 Bufo gutturalis Guttural Toad X 1 Cacosternum boettgeri Common Caco X 1 X Chiromantis xerampelina Foam Nest Frog X 2 Kassina senegalensis Bubbling Kassina X 1 Phrynobatrachus mababiensis Dwarf Puddle Frog X 4 Phrynobatrachus natalensis Snoring Puddle Frog X 1 Phrynomantis bifasciatus Banded Rubber Frog X 1 Ptychadena anchietae Plain Grass frog X 1 Pyxicephalus adspersus Giant Bullfrog X 2 Schismaderma carens Red Toad X 1 Tomopterna cryptotis Tremolo Sand Frog X 1 Tomopterna krugerensis Knocking Sand Frog X 2 Xenopus laevis Common Platanna X 1 Near Threatened * Unless otherwise stated, the 2016 Status of each of the species are Least Concern ** The scale used if from 1 to 5 where 1 = Definitely Present and 5 = Highly Unlikely to be present 4496/MVR/mvr 113 P a g e

120 Invertebrate Species List ORDER FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME LEPIDOPTERA: BUTTERFLIES NEUROPTERA: ANT- LIONS ODONATA: DAMSELFLIES DRAGONFLIES COLEOPTERA: BEETLES & Lycaenidae Anthene amarah Black-striped Hairtail Lycaenidae Cupidopsis jobates Tailed Meadow Blue Lycaenidae Eicochrysops messapus Cupreous Blue Lycaenidae Iolaus bowkeri Bowker's Sapphire Nymphalidae Acraea aglaonice Clear-spotted Acraea Nymphalidae Byblia ilithyia Spotted Joker Nymphalidae Charaxes phaeus Demon Emperor Nymphalidae Danaus chrysippus African Monarch Nymphalidae Hamanumida daedalus Guineafowl Nymphalidae Hyalites eponina Orange Acraea Nymphalidae Hypolimnas misippus Common Diadem Nymphalidae Junonia hierta Yellow Pansy Nymphalidae Junonia oenone Blue Pansy Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui Painted Lady Pieridae Catopsilia florella African Migrant Pieridae Colias electo African Clouded Yellow Pieridae Colotis antevippe gavisa Red Tip Pieridae Colotis evenina Common Orange Tip Pieridae Eurema brigitta Broad-bordered Grass Yellow Pieridae Mylothris agathina Common Dotted Border Pieridae Pinacopteryx eriphia Zebra White Myrmeleontidae Ant-Lion Aeshnidae Anax emperator Blue Emperor Libellulidae Orthetrum julia Julia Skimmer Libellulidae Trithemis kirbyi Kirby's Dropwing Coenagrionidae Ischnura senegalensis Common Bluetail Curculionoidae Afrocorynus asparagi Weevil Scarabaeidae Phalops smaragdinus Dung Beetle Buprestidae Sternocera orissa Giant Jewel Beetle HEMIPTERA: BUGS Pyrrhocoridae Dysdercus fasciatus Cotton Stainer ARANEAE: SPIDERS AGELENIDAE Agelena gaerdesi Grass Funnel-web Spider ARANEIDAE Argiope australis Garden Orb-web Spider CTENIZIDAE Stasimopus sp. African Cork-lid Trapdoor Spider CYRTOPHORA Cyrtophora citricola Tropical Tent-web Spider LYCOSIDAE Hippasa sp. Funnel-web Wolf Spider LYCOSIDAE Hogna spenceri Burrow Living Wolf Spider 4496/MVR/mvr 114 P a g e

121 ORDER FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME NEPHILIDAE Nephila senegalensis Golden Orb-web Spider SALTICIDAE Hyllus treleaveni Jumping Spider SOLIFUGAE SOLIFUGIDAE Solifugidae sp. Sun Spider SCORPIONES BUTHIDAE Parabuthus transvaalicus Transvaal Thick-tailed Scorpion AMBLIPYGAE AMBLYPYGID Daemon cf. variegatus Whip Scorpion 115 P a g e

122 APPENDIX 2 CURRICULA VITAE OF THE SPECIALISTS Magnus van Rooyen Jake Alletson Amanda Austin 4496/MVR/mvr 116 P a g e

123 CURRICULUM VITAE MAGNUS VAN ROOYEN Profession Position in Firm Area of Specialisation Qualifications ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST Executive Associate ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS, SCOPING REPORTS, PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, MINING RIGHT AND PERMIT APPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OFFICER DUTIES; ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES, STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS, WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PLANS, ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS. BSc, BSc (Hons), MPhil. (Environmental Management) Years of Experience 13 Years with Firm 10 SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCE Mr Van Rooyen is currently an Executive Associate and the Regional Head of the Environmental Division of a National Consulting Engineering Firm in South Africa. He is located in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu- Natal. In addition to holding a Masters degree in Environmental Management, he also holds a BSc degree in Botany and Zoology, an Honors Degree in Botany and a Post Graduate Certificate in Education. He has 13 years experience in projects involving Environmental Impact Assessments in various developmental sectors (Mining and Agricultural Sector, National Roads, Pipelines, Dams, and Residential Developments), conducting of Specialist Biodiversity Assessments associated with Environmental Impact Assessments and Project Feasibility Studies. He has experience in the compilation of Resettlement Policy Framework Plans associated with infrastructure development projects. Mr van Rooyen has experience in working on various private and public sectors as well as rural and urban environments in various countries. Mr Van Rooyen s expertise lies within the mining sector where he has gained extensive exposure to all the aspects of mining projects from the pre-feasibility, prospecting, environmental impact assessment CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 1 of 8

124 and implementation and monitoring stages. In addition, he has conducted Due Diligence Assessments as well as Environmental Compliance Monitoring and Management of a variety of mining sites. EDUCATION Date (from to): Degree/Institution: Date (from to): 1999 Degree/Institution: Date (from to): 2001 BSc Botany & Zoology (Stellenbosch University) Special Student - Department of Agriculture (Stellenbosch University) Degree/Institution: B.Sc Honnours Botany (Stellenbosch University ) Date (from to): 2002 Degree/Institution: Date (from to) Degree/Institution: Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching (Stellenbosch University) Masters Degree in Environmental Management (Stellenbosch University) Other Training: Jeffares and Green Consulting Engineers and Environmental Consultants Accelerated Development Programme 2014: Wetland Delineation and Modeling Course Rhodes University 2015: Wetland Buffer Determination Course Water Research Commission CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 2 of 8

125 EMPLOYMENT RECORD Date (from to) 1999 Location Witley Bay, Northumberland, United Kingdom Employer Marden Bridge Middle School Position(s) Physical Education Teacher Description Physical Educator associated with the Marden Bridge Middle School Sport Centre. Date (from to) 2000 Location Bradenton, Florida, USA Employer Gene s Citrus Ranch Position(s) Farm Manager Description Management of the day to day operations of an export citrus farm operation. Date (from to) Location Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa Employer Paul Roos Gymnasium Position(s) Biology Teacher Description Teaching the South African Biology curriculum to high school pupils. Date (from to) Location Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa Employer Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University Position(s) Junior Lecturer in Botany Description Lectured the Botany practical component of the first-year Natural Science Degree. Date (from to) Location Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa Employer Department of Conservation Ecology, University of Stellenbosch Position(s) Biodiversity Researcher Description Conducted field work, sampling, laboratory work and logistics associated with two projects within the Conservation Ecology Department SPECIFIC EXPERIENCE JG Afrika (Pty) Ltd (Previously Jeffares & Green (Pty) Ltd) CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 3 of 8

126 Position(s) Description Date (from to) Location Environmental Scientist Conducted a wide range of infrastructure related Environmental Impact Assessments present Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Employer Position(s) Description JG Afrika (Pty) Ltd (Previously Jeffares & Green (Pty) Ltd) Consultants Project Manager, Senior Environmental Specialist Project Management of an environmental contingent of 4 people and conducting Environmental Impact Assessments. RECENT PROJECT EXPERIENCE Biodiversity Assessment Projects Mamatwan Tailings Facility Biodiversity and Wetland Assessment for the site to be used for the establishment of the new tailings facility on the South32 Mamatwan Manganese Mine near Hotazel. Hillside Aluminum Desalination Plant Biodiversity Screening Assessment for the infrastructure network associated with the South32 Hillside Aluminum Desalination Plant in Richards Bay. Lichtenburg Siding Expansion Biodiversity Assessment for the proposed expansion of the Lichtenburg Cement Siding, North West Province. Nacala Dam Project Riparian Vegetation Study for the Ecological Reserve Determination Specialist Study for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Nacala Dam Project in Mozambique. National Route N8 Vegetation Specialist Study for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the National Route N8. National Route N2 umgeni Interchange Improvements Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed improvements to the umgeni Road Interchange and the National Route N2. The project included an extensive public participation process within the city of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal during the process. Qudeni Link Road Vegetation Specialist Study for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Qudeni Rural Link Road. Municipal Landfill Site Identification Negative mapping and ground truthing for the options analysis for the identification of a District Municipality Landfill Site. CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 4 of 8

127 Port Related Projects Pier 1 Phase 2 expansion Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed expansions to Pier 1 within the Durban Harbour. Locomotive Turning Table in the Port of Richards Bay Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed Locomotive Turn Table in within the Port of Richards Bay. Rail line construction in the Port of Richards Bay Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed additional rail line into the Richards Bay Coal Terminal in the Port of Richards Bay. Environmental Monitoring RME Projects Durban Harbour Environmental Monitoring Duties for all the RME construction projects within the Durban harbour. Ore Loading Facility at Kalia in Guinea Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed Ore Loading Facility in Kalia in Guinea, West Africa. Roads Projects National Route N2 umgeni Interchange Improvements Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed improvements to the umgeni Road Interchange and the National Route N2. The project included an extensive public participation process with a range of public and private sector stakeholders. National Route N11 upgrade Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed upgrade of the National Route N11. The project included a public participation process with a range of public and private sector stakeholders as well as specialist studies associated with the river crossings. National Route N2 improvement and upgrade Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed upgrade of the National Route N2. The project included a public participation process with a range of public and private sector stakeholders as well as specialist studies associated with the river crossings. National Route N3 Chota Motala Interchange Environmental Audits Environmental Monitoring for the construction of the Chota Motala Interchange on the National Route N3. National Route R30 Environmental Audits Environmental Monitoring for the construction of the National Route R30. Agricultural Projects umngano Community Dairy Development Project Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the Development of a 200ha dairy for the umngano Community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. umngano Community Vegetable Project CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 5 of 8

128 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the Development of a 180ha vegetable growing project for the umngano Community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Sundays River Citrus Project Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the Development of a 100ha citrus project in the Sundays River Valley in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Water Projects Nacala Dam project in Mozambique for the Millennium Challenge Corporation Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the Nacala Dam project in Nacala, Mozambique. The study included the management of a range of specialist studies which included; biodiversity (fauna and flora) assessments, health impact assessments, social impact assessments, a hydrocensus, geotechnical investigation and an ecological flow requirement assessment. The project was conducted under the auspices of the Millennium Challenge Corporation. Mpofana Bulk Water Supply Scheme Environmental Impact Assessment for the Bulk Water Supply Scheme which included an extensive public facilitation process with affected landowners and other specialist studies. KwaHlokohloko Rural Water Supply Scheme Environmental Impact Assessment for the Rural Water Supply Scheme which included an extensive public facilitation process with the rural landowners and tribal leaders. Conservation Management Plans Project Name Description of Works Ndumo Game Reserve Management Plan Compilation of the Management Plan for the KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife Ndumo Game Reserve in northern KwaZulu-Natal. The compilation was conducted in accordance to the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (No 57 of 2003). Mining Projects Uithoek Colliery for Miranda Mineral Holdings Environmental Impact Assessment for the establishment of the Uithoek Colliery including the management of a range of specialist studies which included a hydrological and geohydrological assessment, a biodiversity assessment, a social and heritage assessment and a repatriation plan for residents on the site. CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 6 of 8

129 Burnside Colliery for Miranda Mineral Holdings Environmental Impact Assessment for the establishment of the Burnside Colliery including the management of a range of specialist studies which included a hydrological and geohydrological assessment, a biodiversity assessment, a social and heritage assessment and a repatriation plan for residents on the site. Ultimate Goal Colliery for Corobrik (Pty) Ltd Environmental Impact Assessment for the establishment of the Ultimate Goal Colliery including the management of a range of specialist studies which included a hydrological and geohydrological assessment, a biodiversity assessment, a social and heritage assessment and a repatriation plan for residents on the site. Klipwaal Gold Mine for Miranda Mineral Holdings Environmental Due Diligence assessment on the Klipwaal Gold Mine which included an assessment of completed and required rehabilitation, a contaminated land liability assessment and an evaluation of the structure and the possible impact of the slurry dams. Afrimat Quarries Compliance Audits Compliance audits and Due Diligence assessments of the Afrimat Quarry operations in South Africa. These audits are conducted on a two yearly basis. Private and Public Sector Development Projects Provincial Legislature Precinct Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the proposed Provincial Legislature Precinct. This study consisted of a large public facilitation component and extensive engagement with private and public sector stakeholders. Camps Drift Canal Mixed Use Development Environmental Impact Assessment for proposed improvements to the umgeni Road Interchange and the National Route N2. The project included an extensive public participation process within the city of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal during the process. Tiger Lodge Development Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed Tiger Lodge Tourism Development. Paradise Lodge Development Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed Paradise Lodge Tourism Development. A full list of projects managed and studies conducted as well as contact details of references can be supplied on request. CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 7 of 8

130 PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION AND SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP: Professionally registered with the South African Council for Natural Scientific Professionals (SACNASP Reg. No /11) International Association of Impact Assessors South Africa Suite, membership number 1839 PERSONAL DETAILS Nationality South African Date of Birth 4 September 1976 Languages Language reading speaking writing English Excellent Excellent Excellent Afrikaans Excellent Excellent Excellent German Fair Fair Poor Dutch Fair Fair Poor Zulu Poor Communication Poor CV FULL MVR 03/2017 Page 8 of 8

131 CURRICULUM VITAE JAKE ALLETSON Profession Position in Firm Area of Specialisation Qualifications Years of Experience Years with Firm Consulting Ecological Scientist Consulting Ecological Scientist Specialist Ecologist BSc (Biol Sci), BSc (Hons) (Zoology) 41 Years 4 Years SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCE Mr Alletson has long experience in the fields of conservation and management of the natural environment and has specialised in aquatic species and systems and in conservation at the scale of landscape. In 1975 he joined to the Natal Parks Board where he served for 21 years in several positions. His activities in this time included research and management of certain fish species, management of a trout hatchery, provision of an extension service in the farm game section, and participation in management of game and nature reserves including drafting of management plans. From 1984 onwards he served as the Board s river and wetland specialist ecologist and was involved in wetlandrelated research and management activities. In the process he instigated the development of the KwaZulu-Natal Environmental Atlas and participated in environmental impact assessments including that of the St Lucia Eastern Shores dune mining. In 1997 he formed Alletson Ecologicals, an environmental consultancy and has undertaken a wide variety of environmental investigation and monitoring programmes. Amongst these are some 100 Environmental Impact Assessments. These range from small-scale developments such as timber planting permits, gravel pits, and irrigation dams, through to coal mines, large state dams, housing schemes, private property developments, and pipelines. Some of these projects were undertaken as a member of a team of specialists while in others all facets of impact assessment were undertaken. In the course of this work he has gained a good understanding of the requirements of the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), the Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA), and the Environment Conservation Act. He has developed a standardised procedure for assessing and describing impacts and this has become widely used by others. He has also consulted for government departments and quasi-government organisations. For Water Affairs he has worked on numerous projects including the raising of Hazelmere Dam, Mearns Weir, the Mooi-Mgeni Transfer Scheme (Spring Grove Dam, Receiving Streams, Fish surveys, etc.), the TuVa canals decommissioning, and parts of reserve studies for the Upper Tugela Catchment, Ngagane Catchment, and the Umkomaas Catchment. The Mooi- Mgeni project was given the 2003 excellence award by the SA Institute of Civil Engineers. Similar projects have included water quality studies on the proposed Metolong Dam in Lesotho, a water reticulation scheme in and around Taung (North West Province), fishways on the Komati River, and wetland rehabilitation studies, and aquatic ecosystem monitoring including both fish and SASS surveys. He has worked on several forestry related studies for the Department of Agriculture and Environment Affairs and has given training to staff in relation to afforestation issues, including both infield site analysis, and facets of impact assessment. CV FULL J ALLETSON 06/2017 Page 1 of 5

132 Several dam, pipeline and wetland studies (past and current) have been done for Umgeni Water. Prominent amongst these was the EIA processes for the Ozwathini Bulk Water Supply Scheme which included the Sikoto Dam and the Mbizana Flagstaff Bulk Water Supply Scheme including the Ludeke Dam. He has also regional planning studies for the Town and Regional Planning Commission. Numerous studies have been done on environmental assessment for various housing and other infrastructure upgrade projects. Apart from the planning and impact studies, Mr Alletson also acts as Environmental Control Officer for construction projects and carries out routine environmental monitoring around coal mines which are being rehabilitated as a part of the closure process. Since joining JG Afrika (Pty) Ltd Mr Alletson has worked primarily as a specialist ecologist and undertakes biodiversity and aquatic surveys for a wide range of projects being serviced by the company. These have included contributions to Eskom powerlines, water pipelines, roads, new dams, biodiversity monitoring compliance, water use licences, and factory and mining developments. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATIONS & INSTITUTE MEMBERSHIPS IAIAsa ASSA PCC International Association of Impact Assessors, South Africa Astronomical Society of South Africa (Previous chairman of KZN Midlands Branch) Pietermaritzburg Camera Club (Chairman) EDUCATION 1965 Matric Hilton College, Hilton, KwaZulu-Natal 1968 BSc (Biological Sciences) University of Natal - Durban 1972 BSc (Hons) (Zoology) Rhodes University SPECIFIC EXPERIENCE JG Afrika (Pty) Ltd (Previously Jeffares & Green (Pty) Ltd) 2013 Date Position Consultant The list below is a partial list of projects completed. Environmental Assessments Eastern Shore Dune Mining EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment Client:Natal Parks Board Umgeni Water Pipeline (Umgeni Valley Nature Reserve) Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Umgeni Water Timber plantation development on six farms in the Underberg area Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Development of a residential complex on the properties Baviaans Rest and Heartsease in the Cathkin Valley Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of the impact of development of plantations on a group of six properties in the Maclear region, North-eastern Cape Environmental Impact Assessment - Client: Mondi CV FULL J ALLETSON 06/2017 Page 2 of 5

133 Preliminary Assessment - of Environmental Impacts associated with development of timber plantations on the properties Blue Bend 16042, Aasvogelkop 7932, Schaapkranz 11382, Strydfontein 7599, Boschbokkloof 8526, Groetklip 7933, Vaalkranz 8851, Vergelegen 9770, and Rhee-bok-vlei 8566 in the Newcastle District Kwazulu-Natal - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the development of a new housing scheme at Ibisi in the Eastern Cape Province Environmental Impact Assessment Client: CCI Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the construction and operation of the Donnegal Dam on the Mzalanyoni stream near Donnybrook, KwaZulu-Natal - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of certain biophysical impacts associated - with the proposed raising of the Hazelmere Dam water level Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Umgeni Water Table Mountain pumped storage scheme - Pre-feasibility environmental impact assessment Client: Eskom Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the construction and operation of a weir and pumphouse on the Mzintlava River near Kokstad Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Ninham Shand Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the construction of an irrigation dam on the Lindequespruit near Winterton, KwaZulu-Natal - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the construction of an irrigation dam on the farm Vaalbank in the Newcastle district of KwaZulu-Natal - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the construction of two irrigation dams on the farm Lone Tree Hill in the Fouriesburg district of Free State Province - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the construction of a water supply dam on the farm Commissie Drift in the Richmond district of KwaZulu-Natal -Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Umlaas Irrigation Board Scoping ecological assessment - of a proposed low cost housing development on the properties Rem of Portion 6 of the Farm Riet Spruit No. 899, Portion 7 of the Farm Brookdales No. 935, and Portion 9 of the Farm Rosedene No , near Merrivale, Kwazulu-Natal Environmental Impact Assessment Client: umngeni Municipality Assessment of the potential risks to rare and endangered species - which could be affected by proposed extensions of the Lafarge quarry at Inanda near Durban together with management recommendations for future conservation measures Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Larfarge Scoping level ecological assessment - in relation to the proposed "Camdeboo Chase" housing development in the Hilton area - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners CV FULL J ALLETSON 06/2017 Page 3 of 5

134 Findings of a preliminary environmental survey - in the Inadi area of the umshwathi Municipal Area - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: umshwathi Municipality Assessment of the environmental impacts - associated with the cultivation of 251 ha of virgin grassland on the farm Shawlands in the Nottingham Road district of KwaZulu-Natal - Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Private landowners Assessment of biodiversity-related issues - associated with the proposed Taung Dam Water Utilisation Feasibility Study, North West Province Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Darius Mguni and Associates Environmental Scoping Report - Proposed Ludeke Water Supply Dam, Greater Mbizana/Flagstaff Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Environmental Impact Assessment Client: Umgeni Water Proposed Sikoto Dam and Associated Bulk Works Ozwathini Bulk Water Supply Scheme Environmental Impact Assessment - Client: Umgeni Water Environmental Monitoring Findings of the first biomonitoring survey of the Allerton Stream, Pietermaritzburg in relation to a creosote spill on the N3 highway Client: Spilltech Fish Ecospecs and Monitoring Client: Mzimkhulu Catchment Project Workshop Water Services Findings of a survey made on fish and invertebrate populations at two sites near the new Dube Tradeport - Client: Institute of Natural Resources Findings of a biological survey of sections of the Buffalo and Ngagane Rivers following a pollution event - Client: Iscor Compendium of results of various SASS surveys undertaken by Alletson Ecologicals. Report for Client: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Findings of a SASS survey of the Manzana, Tshoba, and Nkongolwana Rivers near the Hlobane Colliery (Several reports on sequential surveys) - Client: Exarro Findings of biological monitoring surveys on the Knockbrex Spruit and the adjacent reaches of the Ngagane River near Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal (Several reports on sequential surveys) Client: Department of Water Affairs Final report on the findings of a visit to the site of a train derailment and associated spill of phosphoric acid near Nyalazi and recommendations on certain future actions - Client: Transnet Findings of a biological monitoring event on the Horn River near the Gardinia Mine rehabilitation site Siltech Environmental issues relating to the upgrading of the road between Chissano and Chibuto (En 206) in Gaza Province, Moçambique Findings of a survey of the fauna and flora on the farm "Dumblane" in the Newcastle district of Kwazulu-Natal Client: Landowner Specialist Ecologist Contributions Botanical assessment for the proposed new Eskom powerline through the Nkandla Forest Reserve Client: Eskom Botanical assessment for the proposed new Eskom powerline in the Sizamisemi area near the town of KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal - Client: Eskom Baseline Assessment of the Biodiversity at the site of the Old Durban Airport in relation to the development of a Dig-out Container Shipping Terminal at the Site. Conducted some surveys but also acted as leader of a team of specialists - Client: Portnet SOC CV FULL J ALLETSON 06/2017 Page 4 of 5

135 Assessment and Delineation of Riparian Zones and Floral Surveys in relation to the widening of the N2 freeway between the Mbilo and Mhlatuzana River Bridges - Client: Sanral Assessment and Delineation of Riparian Zones and Floral Surveys in relation to the development of a Viaduct on the Key Ridge section of the N3 Client: Sanral Assessment of the Biodiversity along three possible new N11 routes around the town of Ladysmith Client: AECOM Assessment of wetlands and biodiversity at sites close to the Mhlali and Mvoti Rivers where realignment of the route is being planned Client: Sanral Assessment of wetlands and biodiversity along the routes of a new road and bridge over the Tugela River near Tugela Ferry Client: Royal Haskoning DHV Assessment of wetlands and associated biodiversity along the route of a water pipeline from Spioenkop Dam to Ladysmith Client: WMN Consultancy Assessment of wetlands at a coal mine near Kriel together with management recommendations Client: ukhozi Environmental Consultancy Assessment of wetlands at the site of a new road bridge across the Thukela River near Tugela Ferry - Client: Royal Haskoning DHV Assessment of wetlands within the Simbithi Eco-Estate together with management guidelines and recommendations Client: Simbithi Eco-Estate Assessment of the biodiversity and wetlands along three potential Ladysmith by-pass road routes Client: Sanral Assessment of the wetland and river crossings along the route of a new bulk water pipeline near Ladysmith, together with management recommendations Client: WMN Consultancy Water Reserve Studies Ngagane River Catchment Water Reserve Determination Workshop: Fish Ngagane River Catchment Water Reserve Determination Workshop: Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Mkomazi River Instream Flow Requirement Study. River Importance CONTINUED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Courses 2017 SASS refresher training for renewal of accreditation as a SASS5 practitioner. Awards Published Papers PERSONAL DETAILS Nationality South African Date of Birth Domicile Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Languages English Very Good Afrikaans Good Zulu - Poor CV FULL J ALLETSON 06/2017 Page 5 of 5

136 CURRICULUM VITAE AMANDA AUSTIN Profession Position in Firm Area of Specialisation Qualifications Years of Experience Years with Firm Aquatic Scientist Senior Aquatic Scientist Aquatic Sciences/Ecology/ Environmental BSc (Zoology and Chemistry), BSc Hons. (Aquatic Health), MSc (Aquatic Health) Pr Sci Nat (Aquatic Sc) 11 Years 1 Year SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCE Amanda Austin joined JG Afrika (Pty) Ltd in July 2016, as the Senior Aquatic Scientist, at the Johannesburg Division, South Africa. She was previously employed by Natural Scientific Services CC, an Environmental Consulting Company, also based in Johannesburg from August 2011 until June She is a professionally registered natural scientist in the field of aquatic science and holds a MSc degree in aquatic health from the University of Johannesburg. During her studies, she published two articles and presented her work at many colloquiums and conferences. She is an accredited SASS5 practitioner, since, and has her skipper s certificate. She has gained experience in project management and fieldwork for numerous aquatic assessment projects throughout South Africa, Lesotho, Mozambique and Zambia. During these assessments, she determined the ecological health of the rivers with the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) protocols i.e. South African Scoring System (SASS5), Index of Habitat Integrity (IHI), Invertebrate Habitat Assessment system (IHAS), Macro-Invertebrate Response Assessment Index (MIRAI), Fish Response Assessment Index (FRAI), Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI), Water Quality, Diatom and Sediment assessments. She assisted in the overall compilation of biodiversity, terrestrial and wetland reports, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), Environmental Management Plans (EMPs), Biodiversity Management & Action Plans (BMAPs) & Demarcation Permit Applications for Category 2 Alien Invasive Plants (AIPs) in accordance with NEM:BA (Act 10 of 2004) and CARA (Act 43 of 1983). She has worked hand in hand with the governmental departments i.e. Limpopo Economic Development Environmental and Tourism (LEDET), Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Agency (MPTA), Department of Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) etc. Amanda has also been a part of teams that reduced their rates to facilitate three pro bono projects done by the Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), two projects for and Centre of Aquatic Research (CAR) as well as done pro bono work for LEDET. CV FULL A AUSTIN 06/2017 Page 1 of 9