Aboriginal economics and societies. Chapter 7 (pp )

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1 Aboriginal economics and societies Chapter 7 (pp )

2 Technologies Adapted to the land and survival Adapted to landscape and climate

3 Farming Horticulture (culture of plants) No cattle Importance of corn Preservation techniques to survive the winter Spirituality attached to the land = most Aboriginal peoples methods respected sustainability and biodiversity In Europe at the same time: monoculture = one crop at a time, on large parcels of land

4 Farming Very few Aboriginal peoples had extensive farming The one exception in Canada: the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands regions

5 Haudenosaunee The Three Sisters: bean, corn, squash Mainly sedentary people, with large villages of a few hundreds to over one thousand people Permanent long houses Matriarchal society: women had more status than men, because they tended to the crops

6 Hunters and gatherers Vast majority of Aboriginal peoples were hunters and gatherers They gathered: fruit, berries, roots, vegetables, herbs, wild rice, and maple sap (in the East/Maritimes region) They hunted/fished: fish, shellfish, caribou, sea mammals, bison, moose, deer, and small games (racoon, beavers, muskrats, rabbits, porcupines, etc.) See map p. 89 (figure 7.2)

7 Aboriginal economies

8 Medical technologies Very developed pharmacology Used herbs, plants and trees for spiritual and medical reasons: sweet grass, barks, needles, saps Aboriginal peoples knew cures against scurvy, headaches, dysentery, joint pains, etc.

9 Trade Two main purposes: Obtain goods they could not produce/find where they lived Create and maintain relationships and alliances with other groups Trading networks established way before Europeans arrived See map p. 91 (figure 7.3)

10 Trade Aboriginal peoples traded natural resources: different types of stones, copper, shells, and wampum beads They also traded human-made materials: baskets, tools, jewellery, etc.

11 Baskets

12 Trade routes

13 Wampum beads The word wampum originates from Aboriginal peoples living in what is today s Rhode Island and Massachusetts Wampum beads were not a currency but were very valuable when Europeans arrived, they did use wampum beads as currency when trading with Aboriginal peoples

14 Wampum beads They were used by Aboriginal people from the East coast to the Iroquois Confederacy around the Great Lakes They were used in the making of ceremonial clothing (not every day clothing), and during ceremonies Belts made of wampum beads recorded alliances, laws, history, etc. and were worn during specific ceremonies

15 Hiawatha belt This belts represents the Iroquois Confederacy It is read from right to left: the Mohawk Nation, the Oneida Nation, the Onondaga Nation, the Cayuga Nation, and the Seneca Nation

16 New Brunswick s coat of arms One deer bears a British flag One deer bears the French fleurs-de-lis Both deer wear Maliseet wampum beads Three founders of the province

17 Transportation Canoes almost everywhere; not extensively in the Plains made of wood and birch bark Dog sleighs Prairies and North made of wood and bark Snowshoes everywhere from wood and sinew) Travois mainly Prairies wood Kayaks North drift wood or bone frame and skin Umiaks North drift wood or bone and sealskins

18 Canoes

19 Use of dogs

20 Snow shoes

21 Kayaks and umiaks

22 Spirituality Close relationship to their environment Equality between all living things: humans, plants, animals, water, rocks Strong notion of not taking more than what you need Notion of property/ownership very loose: goods are shared within the community; land does not belong to anyone territories are recognised

23 Social standing Generosity towards the community and strangers is valued gifts are very important in maintaining relationships and alliances People are valued for their hunting skills, leadership skills, spiritual gifts, bravery, etc.

24 The Potlatch Found along the Pacific coast Occurred for special occasions (births, deaths, adoptions, weddings, etc.) Noble families (higher ranked) would share the wealth and gifts they had accumulated established their power and prestige insured everyone in the community had enough

25 Two-spirited people Describe people who have both a masculine and a feminine spirit Often seen as having access to more spirits than one-spirited people: keep the oral tradition foretell the future give lucky names to children and adults matchmakers special roles in ceremonies and dances

26 Questions?

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