1 AC : A PROJECT-BASED ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING LABORATORY COURSE FOR LOWER-DIVISION ENGINEERING STUDENTS Jianbiao Pan, California Polytechnic State University Dr. Jianbiao (John) Pan is an assistant professor in the Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA. After completing a PhD at Lehigh University in Industrial Engineering in 2000, he joined the optoelectronics center at Lucent Technologies/Agere Systems as a member of technical staff. He received a M.E degree in Manufacturing Engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and a B.E. degree in Mechatronics from Xidian University, Xian, China. Dr. Pan's research interests include electronics packaging, optoelectronics packaging, surface mount assembly, hybrid microelectronics, design and analysis of experiment, and computer aided manufacturing. He has been a Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) advisor on Electronics Manufacturing, and served on the National Technical Committee for the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society (IMAPS), and as Chair of SME Electronics Manufacturing Engineering Certification Committee. He is a senior member of IEEE, IMAPS, and SME, and a member of Sigma Xi and ASEE. Dr. Pan is a recipient of the 2004 M. Eugene Merchant Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award from the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME). He is a Highly Commended Winner of the Emerald Literati Network Awards for Excellence He is also an invitee of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Frontiers in Engineering Symposium in Albert Liddicoat, California Polytechnic State University Albert A. Liddicoat received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering and his M.S. degree in Engineering Management from Stanford University in 1996, 2002 and 1999, respectively. Dr. Liddicoat worked for IBM s Storage Technology Division from 1990 until 2002 where he held many positions in disk drive development including: servo system test and integration, ASIC development, system electronics and architecture, program management, and business line management. Currently, he is the Forbes Associate Professor and the Director of the Computer Engineering Program at Cal Poly State University in San Luis Obispo. His research interests include computer architecture, computer arithmetic, networks, and re-configurable computing. James Harris, California Polytechnic State University James G. Harris received his BS and MS in EE from UCB and the PhD in EE from Syracuse University. He was an Assistant Professor at Howard University, and an Associate Professor at the University of the District of Columbia, both in Washington, D.C. He is a Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Computer Engineering Program at Cal Poly in San Luis Obispo, CA. He served as the Department Head of the EE Department from , and was Director of the Computer Engineering Program from From , he was a Program Director in the Division of Undergraduate Education at the National Science Foundation in Washington, D.C. He worked for TRW in Redondo Beach, CA for 11 years, primarily on signal processing projects. He is a member of IEEE, ASEE, ACM, AAAS, and SHOT. Dominic Dalbello, Allan Hancock College American Society for Engineering Education, 2008
2 A Project-Based Electronics Manufacturing Laboratory Course for Lower-division Engineering Students Abstract This paper presents a project-based laboratory course on electronics design and manufacturing. The goal of this course is to provide lower-division engineering students a hands-on experience involving actual printed circuit board (PCB) design, layout, fabrication, assembly, and testing. Through project-based learning, students not only learn technical skills in designing and manufacturing an electronic device, but also develop their project management and communication skills early in their course of study at the university. The course outline and examples of the student projects are presented in this paper as well as project evaluations and students feedback. This paper also presents the selection of a PCB design tool for the lowerdivision electronics manufacturing course. Introduction The electronics industry in the United States and around the world continues to grow at a high rate due to the ever-expanding range of electronic applications. The $1.3 trillion electronics industry has become a major sector in the manufacturing industry. Thus, it is of critical importance to increase production of engineering graduates who are capable of keeping the United States competitive in these rapidly-evolving areas of electronics manufacturing. However, electronics manufacturing is not traditionally taught in a manufacturing engineering degree curriculum. Out of the 300 engineering colleges in the United States, there are only 24 ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology)-accredited manufacturing engineering programs, and only a few of these programs offer electronics manufacturing related curricula. Based on a review of the curricula of ABET-accredited manufacturing engineering programs, only Boston University, 1 Oregon State University, 2 and Cal Poly San Luis Obispo have electronics manufacturing courses. Recently, the newly established manufacturing engineering program (not yet ABET-accredited) at Washington State University Vancouver began to offer a microelectronics emphasis area. 3 It should be noted that electronics manufacturing is a multidisciplinary topic because it is relevant to the fields of materials engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing, reliability, and statistical analysis. Therefore, various engineering programs may offer courses in electronics manufacturing as well. For example, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) has a Microelectronic Engineering Department that offers the only ABETaccredited B.S. program in Microelectronics Engineering in the United States. 4 Microelectronics Process Engineering degree program at San Jose State University, 5 currently being phased out, is hosted in the Chemical and Material Engineering Department. While over a dozen researchintensive universities such as Georgia Institute of Technology and University of Maryland have graduate-level courses on semiconductor manufacturing and microelectronics packaging, to the authors knowledge, a very limited number of universities offer undergraduate-level electronics manufacturing courses, let alone a lower-division course.
3 People may argue that students in the United States do not need to learn electronics manufacturing because today American companies are increasingly moving their manufacturing offshore, especially to China and focusing only on high value-added core design functions. It is worthwhile to mention that a new Microelectronic Manufacturing Engineering program was established at Guilin University of Electronic Technology in China. 6 But the authors believe that a good design engineer should understand the manufacturing processes since designing products with acceptable cost yields can be a difficult task. This is why we advocate that electrical and computer engineering students should be educated on design for manufacturability (DFM). Based on the experience of the Network Performance Research Laboratory (NetPRL) faculty at Cal Poly and feedback from Cal Poly s computer engineering industry advisory board, a knowledge and skills gap exists between the engineering curricula and professional practice. Students in computer engineering and electrical engineering were not prepared to develop complex systems requiring custom printed circuit boards (PCB) because PCB layout, fabrication, and assembly are not typically taught in most computer engineering and electrical engineering programs. The majority of electrical engineering programs teach basic electronics laboratories using solderless prototyping boards and circuit analysis using simulation software such as PSpice. But there is a wide gap between prototype design and analysis and the ability to implement an actual electronic device. 7 To fill the gap, several universities started to develop electronic manufacturing laboratories and offer courses for electrical and computer engineering students Under the support of a NSF ILI grant, the Electrical Engineering Department at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has developed several laboratory courses on electronics manufacturing But all of these courses are upper-division and most of them are technical electives. There is a need to have a required lower-division PCB design and manufacture course in engineering education. This paper will present a project-based electronics manufacturing laboratory course. The goal of this course was to provide a hands-on experience for lower-division engineering students to design and manufacture an electronic device. Students acquire electronics manufacturing knowledge through a hands-on project involving printed circuit board design, layout, fabrication, assembly, and testing. Each student selects his/her own design project. Some examples of student projects include a power supply, a laser light show, a stepper motor driver, and a compression circuit for a guitar pedal. By selecting their-own projects to implement, students enjoy the laboratory experience and they are proud of the product that they created. This experience strengthens their confidence to take on further challenging design projects. Teaching methodology Traditional teaching methodology is the lecture-based format, in which instructors present course materials on chalkboards or in PowerPoint format, then ask students to reproduce and/or apply the information on their homework or examinations. 15 This teaching methodology, which currently predominates in engineering education, may not be the best way to achieve learning outcomes. 16 There are two major drawbacks associated with the traditional teaching methodology. One is that it fails to develop the complete set of skills and abilities desired in a contemporary college graduate, 17 especially non-technical skills such as communication and
4 project management skills. 18 The other is that problem-solving skills can be developed only through practice, not by watching and listening in the lecture room. 19 That is why the Boyer Commission report 20 recommended to shift the undergraduate culture of receivers into a culture of inquirers, or from passive learning to active learning. Project-based learning (PBL) can overcome the above two drawbacks. In project-based learning approach, the students are presented with a challenge project, then students decide how to solve the problem in a preset timeline and what activities to pursue. Thus, it shifts education from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered and it is an active learning method. Other variations of this approach include problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning. This PBL teaching method has gained increasing popular in engineering education recently as evidenced by a significant number of papers on PBL appeared in educational literatures This teaching methodology will enhance the compliance with the ABET 2000 requirements including the ability to design a system, component, or process (ABET 3c), multi-disciplinary teamwork (ABET 3d), ability to formulate and solve problems (ABET 3e), and effective communication skills (ABET 3g). Course Objectives IME 157 Electronics Manufacturing is an introductory course in the field of electronic manufacturing for manufacturing engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer engineering students. Lectures introduce the major manufacturing processes, materials, and technologies of electronics packaging, surface mount assembly and printed circuit board fabrication. Labs are an integral part of the course and expose students to design, document and fabricate electronic units with emphasis on CAD/CAM. The learning outcomes of the laboratory component are that students will be able to: identify through-hole component types, values, and polarity; identify surface mount packaging types, pitch, and component orientation; use an Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool to create schematics and layouts of electronic circuits; use an EDA tool to develop a component library, check design rules, and output manufacturing files; choose suitable trace width/space for both electrical current and manufacturability requirements, select angular ring size for through-hole leads and footprints for surface mount components; explain the materials and fabrication processes of printed circuit boards; select and order components kits online, and read component datasheets; operate various equipments used in PCB fabrication process; assemble PCBs through manual soldering and test PCBs; design a chassis and operate various equipment used in making a chassis for an electronic device; exercise project management skills and use the Gantt chart; exercise communication skills through preparing a proposal, writing a final report, and presenting in class.
5 Details of Project IME 157 Electronics Manufacturing is a lower-division engineering course and has no prerequisite. The lecture meets twice per week for fifty minutes each and the lab meets twice per week for three hours each over the ten weeks of a quarter. We believe that laboratory work is very important component in engineering education and Cal Poly s teaching philosophy is learning-by-doing. Each student will work on two projects. The first project is a continuity tester. The purpose of this project is to guide students to design, manufacture, assembly, and test an electronic device. The second project is an open-ended project and selected by students. The overall schedule of the lab is shown in Table 1. The lab learning modules include Project selection and proposal writing PCB Design PCB Manufacture PCB Assembly Chassis Design Chassis Fabrication Device Testing and Inspection Final report and presentation It is very challenging to accomplish all learning modules over a ten-week quarter. Table 1. Overall Schedule of the Laboratory Course Week Activities Session 1 (3 hours) Session 2 (3 hours) 1 Syllabus Lab safety training Project discussion PCB design tool training Proposal writing training 2 Continuity tester chassis fabrication Design continuity tester board 3 Soldering training Manufacture continuity tester board 2 nd project proposal due 2 nd project proposal approval 4 Continuity tester board assembly Continuity tester final assembly Order 2 nd project components and kits Start to design 2 nd project board 5 Continuity tester report due Students work on their own projects Students work on their own projects 6-9 Students work on their own projects Students work on their own projects 10 Final project presentation and report due PCB Design Tool Selection One of the significant lab activities is the use of a PCB design tool to layout a PCB. We have used OrCAD version 9.0 for several year in IME 157 and found that the learning curve of the tool was too steep for a freshman-level student in the ten weeks of a quarter. Many students had difficulty finishing the second project without open labs every Saturday and weekday nights. In the revised curriculum, we also scheduled a week (week 10) dedicated for final project
6 presentation. This makes time management more difficult. We decided to investigate which EDA tool is better for the freshman-level PCB design and manufacturing course. There are over 50 PCB design tools available. 26 We divided them into three groups. The first group is the state-of-the-art professional EDA tools, for example, Allegro of Cadence and Expedition of Mentor Graphics. Both Cadence and Mentor Graphics have excellent educational packages for universities. Cadence claimed that over 200 universities in the U.S. have Cadence software licenses. Both companies EDA tools are very powerful and have been used in university curricula. For example, Purdue University used Cadence EDA tools for the design of PCBs 10 and IUPUI used Mentor Graphics tools in their upper-division electrical engineering course. 13 We at Cal Poly have also used both tools in upper-division and graduatelevel courses. However, formal in-depth training of these tools is needed before students are able to work on their own projects. We concluded from our experiences that both tools are not suitable for lower-division PCB design and manufacturing course. But we recommend these tools for upper-division, or graduate-level electrical engineering and computer engineering courses since these tools are widely used in industry and we believe students want and need to learn the leading technology to meet the industry demands. The second group is free PCB design tools provided by PCB manufacturers such as PCB by Sunstone Circuits, expresspcb 28 by ExpressPCB, and PCB Artist 29 by Advanced Circuits. All these packages have schematics capture and PCB layout tools. All these tools are user-friendly and were developed to require no formal training or in-depth experience with PCB design. Thus, these tools are excellent choices for the freshman-level course. However, all these tools do not allow the user to export the industry standard Gerber, or ODB++ manufacturing format files. PCB design files can only be submitted and ordered through these manufacturers. Thus, we cannot use these tools to make our own boards in our lab or submit manufacturing files to other PCB vendors. The third group is the medium or low-range PCB design tools such as Eagle, CADSTAT, MCCAD, and DipTrace. We listed the following questions as the main selection criteria: How much does the tool cost? Free or lower cost is better since some universities and colleges do not have the budget to purchase specialized software. Prefer having student version or free version so that students can work on their own computers at home. What are limitations of the tools? e.g., the number of pins, the board size, and the number of layers? Does the tool have autorouting and design rule check features? Can the tool export standard manufacturing format files such as Gerber, ODB++, etc. Does the software have comprehensive component libraries, both for schematic and layout? How easy is it to create a new custom component library? Is the tool easy to use overall? The first author and two of his students downloaded and compared CADSTAT, DipTrace, Eagle, VUTRAX, MCCAD, and Free PCB. The results are shown in Table 2. Note that we do not list CADSTAT, VUTURE, MCCAD, and Free PCB in Table 2 because of the limit of the table size. These four PCB design tools did not meet at least one of our selection criteria.
7 We selected DipTrace as the PCB design tool for the lower-division engineering course on PCB design and manufacturing. The DipTrace freeware allows students to work on their projects on their own computers outside of lab. Students can export manufacturing files in the university lab where several license seats of non-profit version are installed. Eagle was not selected mainly because of the board size limitation since some of our student project boards are larger than 160 mm by 100 mm. Note that the license fee for both DipTrace and Eagle is per seat (with no expiration date), while the license fee for both Cadence and Mentor Graphics tools are per year (with multiple seats, normally over 25 seats). Also note that both Cadence and Mentor Graphics EDA tools are only allowed to be installed on university computers that point to a license server. Thus, students cannot work on projects outside of the lab. Table 2. Comparisons of Various PCB Design Tools EDA tools DipTrace Eagle PCB123, Nonprofiprofit PCB Non- ExpressPCB Version Freeware Freeware Artist License cost Free $125 Free $125 Free Allegro and OrCAD $2000 per year PADS or Expedition $200 or $500 per year # of pin limit No No No No No CAD 100 x 160 x Board size limit None None Limits 80 mm 100 mm No No No # of layer limit No No No AutoRouting Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Features Design rule check Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Library Comprehensive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes library provided Easy to create Require in-depth Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes custom library training Ability to export Gerber or ODB++ files No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Overall ease of use Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Require in-depth training Continuity Tester Project The purpose of the continuity tester project is to guide students in designing, manufacturing, assembling, and testing an electronics device. The project consists of a circuit board exercise and a chassis exercise. In the circuit board exercise, students go through the steps to design and produce a circuit board. The continuity tester consists of 12 components listed in Table 3. The schematic of the project is shown in Figure 1. Students were given the schematic of the project and all components. After finishing the DipTrace tutorial, students were asked to re-draw the schematic using the DipTrace tool. Students were guided to create libraries of all components, and lay out the circuit. Then students fabricated the PCB under the supervision of the instructor or a teaching assistant. The chassis exercise exposes students to basic sheet metal processes to fabricate an enclosure for the continuity tester circuit. After that, students were trained on how to solder components manually. Students also learned how to identify resistor values using the
8 resistor color codes, how to identify the polarity of the diode and the LED, and how to identify pin 1 of the surface mount component, U1. Table 3: Bill of Materials of the Continuity Tester ITEM QTY. REF. DESCRIPTION 1 1 D1 Diode, 1N D2 LED, red, SIZE 1-3/4, Panasonic LN21RPHL 3 1 J1 Test lead, red, 12 L 4 1 J2 Test lead, black, 12 L 5 1 J3 Cable, 9V battery snap 6 1 R1 Resistor, 2 K ohm 1/4W, 5% tolerance 7 1 R2 Resistor, 10 K ohm 1/4W, 5% tolerance 8 1 R3 Resistor, 100 ohm 1/4W, 5% tolerance 9 1 R4 Resistor, 470 ohm 1/4W, 5% tolerance 10 1 R5 Resistor, 100 ohm 1/4W, 5% tolerance 11 1 S1 Switch, Panasonic EVQ-PAC09K 12 1 U1 IC, LM311M, surface mount component Figure 1. Schematic of the Continuity Tester Project
10 PCB Manufacture and Assembly The detailed PCB materials and manufacturing processes are taught in lecture. Braun 8 summarized and compared four PCB manufacturing methods in a university environment: 1) commercial production of PCBs, 2) in-house facilities for photo-exposure, chemical etching and automated drilling, 3) use of pre-sensitized PCBs photo-processing and manual drilling, and 4) mill/dill machine. At Cal Poly, we have a dark room for photo-exposure, a Kepro (now D&L Products) Bench-top laminator, a Kepro bench-top developer, and a Kepro bench-top etcher for photoresist lamination, chemical developing and etching. Though we are unable to make multilayer boards, the facility provides the capability to produce PCBs of up to two-layers and provides good educational training. The PCB manufacturing processes include drilling a fiberclass laminated board, making a photo-tool, laminating a dry photoresist onto the board, exposing the photoresist using UV, developing the photoresist, etching the board, stripping the photoresist, and cutting the board to size. After the board was fabricated and holes drilled, students began to assemble the components on the board. In this process, students not only practiced manual soldering skills, but also learned how to identify various component types, values, polarity and orientation. Chassis Design and Manufacture A chassis is also required for the electronic device. Although many students had learned engineering drafting in high schools, most did not have mechanical CAD experience. Therefore, hand-drafting drawings are acceptable and CAD drawings are a plus. Students were asked to design his/her chassis and make a mock-up using cardboard for approval before they were allowed to cut and bend sheet metal. The purpose of the mock-up is to make sure that students had a feasible chassis design to avoid the waste of sheet metal. In the lab, students were provided with 0.75 mm (or inch) thick mild steel for making the chassis. In this chassis fabrication process, students used various tools including the metal shear machine, the sheet metal bender machine, the metal sheer notch maker, dial calipers, file, hole de-burr tools, hole punch machine, ruler, center punch, hammer, hand drill, and drill bits. After it was fabricated, the chassis was painted and labeled, and the PCB was connected to the chassis. Note that the overall operation and electronics are the main focus on the project, whereas the chassis merely needs to be functional. Sample Projects A Guitar Pedal: Figure 3 shows a compression pedal for use with an electric guitar. The purpose of a compression circuit is to variably change the gain of the input to a constant desired output level. If the input is greater than the threshold, the circuit limits the gain, and if the input is less than the desired output, the circuit amplifies it. The compression pedal has a footswitch controller for turning the effect on and off, a volume knob to control the output level, and a bias trim knob to control the threshold compression level. It is powered by an internal 9V battery with an option to connect to a 9V DC wall-wart power supply.
11 A stepper motor drive: The stepper motor driver shown in Figure 4 supports two 6-lead, unipolar stepper motors and allows for independent direction control, step mode (full-step, half-step, or wave), speed, and power. A laser light show: The project uses a laser pointer, some mirrors, and some motors to create epicyclical light patterns. In addition, it has one final mirror mounted on a speaker, which modulates the light pattern to the beat of the music. There are a total of four circuits: two motor control circuits (one for each of the two motors) that provide power to the motors and allow the speeds of the motors to be adjusted using a potentiometer, one audio circuit for the speaker which has an audio-in jack for the audio source as well as a potentiometer to adjust the volume of the speaker, and one power circuit which has a DC-in jack and a battery connector, allowing for two different power sources. The power circuit then takes the incoming DC and provides it to the other three circuits and to the laser pointer, all in the proper voltages. A power supply: The power supply uses a transformer to convert a 110-volt power from a wall socket into a variable DC power output for miscellaneous use. Figure 3. Sample Project 1: A Guitar Pedal Figure 4. Sample Project 2: A Stepper Motor Driver
12 Figure 5. Sample Project 3: Laser Light Show Figure 6. Sample Project 4: A Power Supply Project Evaluation In the last week, students were asked to give a 10-minute presentation and demonstration of his/her project plus 5 minutes for questions and answers. Student projects were evaluated by five faculty members from three departments: Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, as well as a community college instructor who teaches both circuits and mechanics. Students were also asked to evaluate their peers. The project evaluation rubric given to judges is shown in Table 4. What we found was that the evaluation scores from student peers were consistently higher than that from faculty members.
13 Table 4. Project Evaluation Rubric Criteria Presentation Technical Content Score = 5 Score = 4 Score = 3 Score = 2 Score = 1 Presentation was clear Slides were very well thought and to the point Presenter was very knowledgeable and self-confident Presenter rarely looked at notes and has eye-contact Presenter s answers to the questions indicated an exceptional understanding of the project Presentation was clear Slides were understandable and enhanced the presentation Presenter spoke clearly Presenter referred to notes but didn t read notes and has eye contact Presenter answer questions to the satisfaction of the class Presentation was clear Slides were understandable Presenter spoke clearly Presenter referred to notes but didn t read notes Presenter answer most of the questions to the satisfaction of the class Presenter was unsure of the research and his/her work Slides were difficult to read Presenter read most of the presentation from the notes Presenter could answer a few questions Presentation exceeded 12 minutes. Presenter was totally disorganized No slides or transparencies Presenter was unable to answer any questions. Presentation exceeded 12 minutes or too short to be effective. The project was working The project was appropriate for a student beyond the presenter s current level. Board schematic and layout were correct The quality of board fabrication and soldering was excellent The quality of chassis design and fabrication was excellent The project may or may not working The project was appropriate for a student at the presenter s current level Board schematic and layout were correct The quality of board fabrication and soldering was acceptable The quality of chassis design and fabrication was acceptable The project was not working The project was appropriate for a student slightly below the presenter s current level Board schematic and layout were correct The quality of board fabrication and soldering was O.K. The quality of chassis design and fabrication was O.K. The project was not working The project was appropriate for a student well below the presenter s current level Board schematic and layout had some issues The quality of board fabrication and soldering was O.K. The quality of chassis design and fabrication was O.K. The project was not working The project was inappropriate Board schematic and layout had many issues The quality of board fabrication and soldering was unacceptable The quality of chassis design and fabrication was unacceptable Advice to Future Students In the final project report, students were asked to provide advice to future students of this course. One recommendation made by almost every student was to manage time well. They suggested future students start the project early since every student had to repeat at least one step during the project. Several students even recommended that the instructor place stiffer due dates for the board layout and the board fabrication.
14 The second recommendation made by many students was to select a good project. One student wrote, Do not choose an overly simplistic design, as you will learn very little, and become bored. Conversely, do not choose an overly complex design, as you will be constantly frustrated and pressed for time. The third recommendation was design for manufactuability. Students learned that the manufacturing process for narrower copper traces was not stable and it is difficult to make reliable solder joints on small pads. Students Feedback Students were asked to provide their honest feedback on this laboratory course. Some of students feedback is copied below: Being a freshmen and learning the whole process of PCB fabrication and putting it to use on my own project is what am proud of. After this project I can t wait to take a higher level class to get to apply my newly learned knowledge on some projects in more advanced [courses] in which I can challenge myself even more. Now I have a better understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of through-hole mounting as opposed to surface mount technology. the hands-on experience in the lab was very enlightening. Another part of the learning process that I appreciated was the chassis design and fabrication. Being able to construct precision parts out of sheet metal was another key factor that had to be considered in the project design. Overall, this was a very educational experience. I feel that the laboratory component of this class, although very rigorous, supported the concepts presented in the class very well. Throughout the project, every aspect of the electronics manufacturing process was new to me, and I feel that I now have intimate knowledge of the art. From soldering, to etching, to board design, I felt that I truly experienced Cal Poly s learn by doing philosophy. This is probably the most satisfying project I ve ever done. This project provides a good challenge through having to learn new software and having to critically think through the issues that arose throughout the process. Also, it tests your patience, and your ability to follow instructions. These are great characteristics that will serve as a great tool for yourself and will carry through in the future when working for your future employer. This project has really opened my eyes to the world of Electronic Manufacturing. Before this class, I could not tell you one thing on the process of creating PWBs, and chassis. I now fully understand how boards are created, and also how to create these boards on the computer and then transform them into a physical object. My skills in soldering, chassis design, and computers has improved dramatically over this quarter. A PWB will never look the same now that I have some idea how they work and how the components are installed onto it. It is amazing to me the technology that I use everyday without knowing it, and how all of Electronics Manufacturing affects my life, and the whole world.
15 Summary and Conclusions The paper describes a lower-division project-based hands-on laboratory course on electronics manufacturing. It is clearly shown from the students feedback and the students projects that the course provides a solid foundation of PCB design and manufacture and all learning outcomes have been achieved. Students were proud of making some things useful by themselves. The hands-on experience makes the learning experience enjoyable. This project experience better prepares students for advanced electronics circuit study. With the adoption of the DipTrace tool, it is it feasible to make two electronic devices in a ten-week quarter. Through project-based learning methodology, students not only learn technical skills in designing and manufacturing an electronic device, but also exercise their project management and communication skills in the early stage of college study. Acknowledges This work was sponsored by National Science Foundation, under Award # DUE The authors want to thank Brian Wright, Ronald Sloat, Greg Lacaille, and Edward Adams for assistance in creating the lab modules and manuals. The first author wants to thank his IME 157 students for allowing the use of their projects in this paper. Bibliography 1. Manufacturing Engineering Department at Boston University webpage at 2. Koretsky, M.D., Rochefort, W.E., Reiter, W.F., An Interdisciplinary Program and Laboratory for Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Manufacturing, ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, McLaren, T.S., A Microelectronics Fabrication and Packaging Learning Laboratory for Manufacturing Engineers, Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, pp Fuller, L., Undergraduate Microelectronic Engineering Programs and Laboratory Facilities, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics Symposium, 1999, IEEE, pp Gwozdz, P.S., Semiconductor Manufacturing Education at San Jose State University, IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, Vol. 5, No. 2, May 1992, pp Yang, D.G., A New Educational Curriculum for Microelectronic Manufacturing Engineering Program, Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, pp Braun, C.G., Making Things Real in Electronics Laboratories, Proceedings of 1995 Frontiers in Education Conference. 8. Braun, C.G., An Electronics Prototyping Facility for Undergraduate Electronics Laboratories, 1996 ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, pp Herniter, M.E., PC Board Design and Fabrication using Schematics, PADS-PERFORM, and a Laser Printer, Proceedings of 1994 Frontier in Education Conference. 10. Blackwell, G.R., Laboratories for the Design and Assembly of Electronic Devices using Surface Mount Components, Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, pp Rizkalla, M.E., O Loughlin, C., Yokomoto, C., and Burkart, G., A New Electronic Manufacturing Course for the Electrical Engineering Curriculum, IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 39, No. 4, November 1996, pp
16 12. Rizkalla, M.E., Yokomoto, C.F., Miled Z.B., Salama, P., and El-Sharkawy, M., A Multidisciplinary Electronic Manufacturing Undergraduate Laboratory for the Design and Manufacture of DSP and Computer Based ASIC Systems, Proceedings of the 1999 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, pp Rizkalla, M.E., O Loughlin, C., and Yokomoto, C., Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory for a Course on Design and Manufacture of Surface Mount Printed Circuit Board Assemblies, Proceedings of the 1997 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. 14. Rizkalla, M.E., O Loughlin, C., and Yokomoto, C., An innovative model for senior level undergraduate engineering education in electronic manufacturing, International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1996, pp Prince, M.J., Felder, R.M., and Brent, R., Does Faculty Research Improve Undergraduate Teaching? An Anlysis of Existing and Potential Synergies, Journal of Engineering Education, October 2007, pp Davis, B. G., Tools for Teaching, Jossey-Bass Publishers, p.100, Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E., and Allen, D.E., Chapter 1: Why Problem-based learning? A Case Study of Institutional Change in Undergraduate Education, The Power of Problem-Based Learning, A Practical How to for Teaching Undergraduate Courses in Any Disciplinary, edited by Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E., and Allen, D.E., Stylus Publishing, LLC, Sterling, Virginia, 2001, pp Daems, W., Smedt, B.D., Vanassche, P., Gielen, G., Sansen, W., and Man, H.D., PeopleMover: An Example of Interdisciplinary Project-Based Education in Electrical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 46, No. 1, February 2003, pp Presley, M. and McCormick, C.B., Cognition, Teaching and Assessment, HarperCollins, New York, Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, Reinventing Undergraduate Education: A Blueprint for America s Research Universities, State University of New York at Stony Brook for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Stony Brook, NY, Hadim, H.A. and Esche, S.K., Enhancing the Engineering Curriculum through Project-Based Learning, Proceedings of the 32 nd ASEE/IEEE Frontier in Education Conference, November 6-9, 2002, Boston, MA, Section F3F, pp Witt, H.J., Alabart, J.R., Giralt, F., Herrero, J., Medir, M., and Fabregat, A., Development of Coaching Competencies in Students through a Project-Based Cooperative Learning Approach, Proceedings of the 32 nd ASEE/IEEE Frontier in Education Conference, November 6-9, 2002, Boston, MA, Section F2A, pp Fincher, S. and Petre, M., Problem-Based Learning Practices in Computer Science Education, Proceedings of 1998 Frontiers in Education Conference. 24. Ju, W., Oehlberg, L., and Leifer, L., Project-Based Learning for Experimental Design Research, Proceedings of International Engineering and Product Design Education Conference, September 2-3, 2004, Delft, the Netherlands. 25. Thomas, J.W., A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning, available at https://www.bie.org/files/researchreviewpbl.pdf 26. PCB Design Tools Webpage at 27. PCB123 Software can be downloaded free at 28. ExpressPCB software can be downloaded free at 29. PCB Artist software can be downloaded free at 30. Jameco webpage at 31. Omitron Electronics webpage at 32. Digikey webpage at 33. Mouser Electronics webpage at
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