1 Florida Experience with Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE Florida Department of Transportation Asst. State Geotechnical Engineer July 25, 2013 Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25,
2 Introduction Majority of Florida bridges are supported on deep foundations Most common deep foundation: Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles Dynamic testing of all Test Piles required as per specifications Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
3 1995 FDOT Practice Embedded Data Collectors Pile Installation Plan (Contractor) Pre-field wave equation analysis Test Pile program PDA CAPWAP Final wave equation Driving Criteria Install Production Piles Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
4 Driving Criteria Embedded Data Collectors The Driving Criteria letter as a minimum addresses the following items: Minimum number of blows per foot at various hammer stroke heights for the bearing layer Maximum allowable stroke height Minimum tip Refusal conditions Set-check requirements (when needed) Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
5 In 1996 we were asking WHAT IF? What if piles could be instrumented without climbing the leads? What if pile testing did not impact construction operations? What if all foundations could be monitored instead of issuing blow count criteria? What if all of this was affordable? Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
6 FDOT Sponsored Research Alternate dynamic testing method investigated by UF through FDOT sponsored research University of Florida s final report issued August 2002 Proposed theory for the use of two levels of instruments First generation hardware and software Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
7 FDOT Sponsored Research In 2003 Smart Structures, Inc. acquired a license to the patented technology Advancements to the hardware and signal transmission aspects of the system Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
8 FDOT Design Standards Index This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
9 Embedded Data Collector Instruments cast into solid concrete piles Two instrumentation levels, pile head and tip This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
10 Casting Process Instrumentation Tip gages Connector cable (within the pile) Top gages and antenna
11 Embedded Data Collector Accelerometer Signal conditioning, temperature sensor Strain transducer
12 Casting Process
13 Casting Yard Measurements Install two levels of instruments prior to casting the pile Get an initial measurement to confirm signal transmission Cast the pile Subsequent measurements Strain before and after cutting pre-stressing strands Temperature readings at pile core and antenna (ambient) This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
14 Casting Yard Battery Pile Driving Battery
15 Software Interface Display of raw data Strain and acceleration Qualitative assessment of data Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
16 Software Interface Display of top level instrumentation Force-Velocity Wave up / Wave down Pile static capacity Compression and tension stresses Estimates of pile integrity (MPI) Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
17 Software Interface Tip instrumentation readings Measured compressive stress near the pile tip Total, dynamic, inertial and static components of the measured force Force-velocity Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
18 Software Output Summary Table Project information Blows/ft UF method (resistance) Stresses Energy Stroke Integrity Other This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
19 Software Output This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
20 Software Output UF and Fixed methods Minimum Tip NBR This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
21 Software Output Top and Tip compressive stresses Max. Tension This is a sample image. Similar documentation will be posted to the TIG Embedded Data Collectors website in the near future.
22 Calculation Methods Fixed Case Method Constant damping factor for the entire drive, input by operator Only top level of instruments UF Method Damping factor is calculated for every hammer blow using pile top and tip measured data Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
23 Calculation Methods UF Method Continued Allows for the separation of static and dynamic resistance in real time, no signal match analysis required on an instrumented pile Computes the contribution of end bearing and side friction to total resistance using both top and tip instrumentation Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
24 Evaluating Results Phase I, In-House evaluation ( ) Compare EDC estimates to PDA & CAPWAP Phase II, UF (2009 Present) Collect results and generate a database of EDC vs. static load tests to develop a system-specific resistance factor for use in LRFD design Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
25 Evaluating Results Phase 1: Compare EDC to PDA and CAPWAP Database of piles monitored simultaneously with EDC and PDA EDC data was collected and reported by different engineers than those collecting the PDA data Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
26 Evaluating Results Phase 1: Compare EDC to PDA and CAPWAP Neither engineer would see the other s data until test pile program was completed and both reports turned in Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
27 EDC Evaluation Phase I
28 EDC Evaluation Phase I
29 EDC Evaluation Phase I
30 EDC Evaluation Phase I
31 EDC Evaluation Phase I
32 EDC Evaluation Phase I
33 EDC/PDA Static Capacity Population n = 213,734 blows from 139 piles Ratio of Total Static Resistance Parameter Fixed Method/PDA UF Method/PDA Mean Median Standard Deviation Coefficient of Variation
34 EDC Evaluation Phase I Population n = 205,516 blows from 134 piles STRESS, ENERGY AND INTEGRITY EDC/PDA CSX CSB TSX EMX Beta Mean Median Std. Deviation Coefficient of Variation
35 TIP Damage Indicator
36 TIP Damage Indicator Changes in measured strain; Observed more often near the tip of the pile Gradual loss of pre-stress as a precursor to damage Measured state of stress during driving
37 EDC/CAPWAP Static Capacity Population n = 78 blows from 78 piles Parameter Ratio of Total Static Resistance Fixed Method/CAPWAP UF Method/CAPWAP Mean Median Standard Deviation Coefficient of Variation
38 EDC Evaluation - CAPWAP
39 EDC Evaluation - CAPWAP
40 EDC Evaluation - CAPWAP
41 EDC Evaluation - CAPWAP
42 EDC Evaluation Phase I Partial findings published in the proceedings of the 2009 International Foundation Congress and Equipment Expo Blows with PDA estimate > 50 tons Data within three standard deviations from the mean used in the development of statistical parameters Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
43 Evaluating Results Phase 2: Compare EDC to Static Load Tests 12 Load Tests (7 compression and 5 tension) 8 in Florida 4 in Louisiana More to come Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
44 Evaluating Results
45 Implementation Design Bulletins issued on 2006, 2009 and 2010 addressing the use of EDC in test and production piles Collect sufficient data to evaluate the system Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
46 Implementation July 2011 Workbook EDC introduced as a stand-alone system Effective for projects let after January Standard Specifications Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
47 EDC Evaluation Summary Technology developed initially through FDOT funded research UF - Dr. Michael McVay Evaluation and stepped implementation of the system by FDOT between 2006 and 2011 Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
48 EDC Evaluation Summary Comparisons of total static capacity indicate that both UF and Fixed methods generally trend conservatively when compared to PDA and CAPWAP with averages near 86% and COV under 0.26 Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
49 AASHTO-TIG Thank you! Embedded Data Collectors Rodrigo Herrera, PE FDOT July 25, 2013
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