Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2009

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1 Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2009 Studying Research Work, Innovations and Innovation Policy Lecturer: Professor Reijo Miettinen, Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research, University of Helsinki, Finland Main disciplines: Innovation Studies, Sociology, STS, Policy Studies Dates: 3-7 August 2009 Course Credits: 10 pts (ECTS) Limitation: 30 participants Introduction The objective of the course is to compare the contribution and methods of three broad theoretical traditions in the study of technical change, innovations and innovation policy. They are 1) Evolutionary economics of innovations (and the National innovation approach based on it), 2) Science and technology studies (STS) (especially actor network theory) as well as 3) two theories of practice: Culturalhistorical activity theory and Deweyan pragmatism. In addition to these traditions the rhetorical analysis of technology policy language is discussed. Each of these traditions also use different and complementary methodological approaches: quantitative and comparative institutional (evolutionary economics), qualitative/ethnographical (STS) and qualitative change-oriented or interventionist approaches (practice theories). In each lecture, both a substantial and theoretical issue related to innovations and innovation policy as well as a methodological theme related to qualitative (case) research will be discussed. Also the relevance of qualitative studies for policymaking will be discussed. Six first lectures deals with qualitative studies of scientific work and innovations. Four last lections deals with the foundations of innovation policy and the contribution of different approaches to this policy.

2 Essential readings: Cambrosio, A. & Keating, P. (1995). Exquisite specificity. The monoclonal antibody revolution. New York: Oxford University Press. Miettinen & Hasu & Saari: A collection of papers on research work, innovations and creativity. Package prepared for the course participants. Miettinen, Reijo Rhetoric and practice in innovation policy. Lessons from Finland. Manuscript of a forthcoming book. LECTURE OUTLINE In addition to the core reading recommended, complementary readings are listed for each lecture. Complementary reading have been commented in core readings and will be discussed during the lectures. They also supply alternative and complementary viewpoints to those of the core readings. Complementary readings not available in the Internet will be supplied to the students beforehand. Lecture 1: The functions of case studies in science, technology and innovation studies The different functions case studies have played in Science and technology studies and innovation studies will be analyzed. Cambrosio and Keating s study on Monoclonal antibody revolution is used to illustrate the versatility of possibilities. The problem of novelty and change immanent to the concept of innovation is discusses as a problem faced by qualitative studies. Cambrosio, A. & Keating, P. (1995). Exquisite specificity. The monoclonal antibody revolution. New York: Oxford University Press. Fagerberg, J Innovation. A guide to the literature. In J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery & R. Nelson (eds.). Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford University Press, Pinch, T.J. & Bijker, W.E The social construction of facts and artifacts: Or how the sociology of science and sociology of technology might benefit each other. In Bijker, W.E. & Hudges, T. & Pinch, T. (eds.), The social construction of technological systems. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, Cambrosio, A. & Keating, O. (1988). Going monoclonal, art, science and magic in the day-to-day use of hybridoma technology. Social Problems 35(3), Miettinen, R Epistemology of material transformative activity: John Dewey s pragmatism and cultural-historical activity theory. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 36(4),

3 Lecture 2: Comparing and evaluating theories through an empirical study/case How the different theories of invention manage to make sense and explain the emergence of an industrial innovation? Miettinen, R Theories of invention and an industrial innovation. Science Studies Vol. 9 (2), Brannigan, A "The reification of Mendel." Social Studies of Science 9, Merton, R.K Multiple discoveries a strategic research site. In Merton, RK. The sociology of science. Theoretical and empirical Investigations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Lecture 3: Comparing theories in the construction a frame for qualitative study 2: Activity theory and Actor network theory as approaches of studying innovations The similarities, differences, strengths and weaknesses of two theories are discussed to form a framework for studying an innovation processes. Miettinen, R The riddle of things. Activity theory and actor network theory as approaches of studying innovations. Mind, Culture, and Activity Vol. 6 (3), Law, J. & Callon, M The life and death of an aircraft. A network analysis of technical change. In Bijker, W. & Law, J. (eds.), Shaping Technology/Building Society. Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, Lehenkari, J Studying Innovation Trajectories and Networks: The Case of Benecol Margarine, Science Studies 13(1): Latour, B Circulating references. Sampling the soil in the Amazon forest. In Latour: Pandora s hope. Essays on the reality of science studies, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, Lecture 4. Studying dynamics of change in research work (1): networking and strategy in an aerosol research group Saari, E. & Miettinen R The dynamics of change in research work: constructing a new research area in a research group. Science, Technology, Human Values Vol 26 (3),

4 Fujimura, J.H Constructing 'Do-able' problems in cancer research: Articulating alignment. Social Studies of Science 17: Lecture 5:Studying dynamics of change (2) Producer-user interaction in innovations: developing a diagnostic method How a high-technology small enterprise took into account the needs of the users? The core reading supplies an example of an intervention of the social scientists in an innovation process and the consequences of this intervention. Miettinen, R. & Hasu, M Articulating user needs in collaborative design: Towards an activity theoretical approach. Computer Supported Collaborative Work 11 (1-2), Stewart and Williams (2005), The wrong trousers? Beyond the design fallacy: social learning and the user, reprinted in Howcroft et al (eds) Critical IT Handbook, Edward Elgar, 2005 pp Miettinen 2009 Chapter 8.5 ( An outline for a bottleneck: technologydriven development and the failure to learn from users ). Hasu, M. & Miettinen, R Dialogue and intervention in science and technology studies. Whose point of View? Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research. Working Papers 3/ pages. Lecture 6: Studying dynamics of change (3). Social innovations and organizational change The problem of social innovations and development of work. A study on the transformation and development of occupational health and safety inspection work. Miettinen, R. & Virkkunen, J Epistemic objects, artifacts and organizational change. Organization 12 (3), Complementary reading: Orlikowski, W. J Organizational change around groupware technology. CCS wp #186, Sloan WP # June Lecture :. Emergence of the National Innovation System (NIS) approach in innovation policy and its adoption in Finland Miettinen 2009, Chapters 2 ( NIS in innovation research and policy making ) and 5 ( Adoption of NIS in Finland s technology policy ).

5 Lundvall, B-Å. & Johansson, B. & Andersen, E. S. & Dalum, B National systems of production, innovation and competence building. Research Policy 31, Mytelka, L.K. & Smith, K Policy learning and innovation theory: an interactive and co-evolving process. Research Policy 31, Sharif. N Emergence and development of National Innovation Systems concept. Research Policy, Albert, M. & Laberge, S The legimitation and dissemination process of the innovation system approach: The case of Canadian and Québec science and technology policy. Science, Technology & Human Values 32(2), Eklund, M Adoption of the innovations system concept in Sweden. Stockholm: Uppsala Studies in Economic History 81. (available in Internet). Lecture 8: NIS policy and the explanations of success of the Finnish ICT sector in the 1990s. Miettinen 2009, Subchapters 6.2 (Did the NIS policy contribute to the rise of the Finnish ICT industry in the 1990s?), 6.3 ( The Finnish educational system as an explanation of success ) and 6.4 ( The governance of school: From a culture of control to culture of trust. ) Complementary reading: Hyytinen, A. & Paija, L. & Rouvinen, P. & Ylä-Anttila, P Finland s emergence as a global information and communication technology player. Lessons from the Finnish wireless cluster. In Zysman, J. & Newman, A. (eds.) How revolutionary was digital revolution? Stanford: Stanford Business Books, Lecture 9: Regionality in a small country How empirical case studies of Finnish firms are used to argue about regionality. Miettinen 1999, Subchapters 7.4. ( Limits of regionality in a small country ) and 7.5 ( Regional or transregional networks ). Oinas, P Distance and learning: Does Proximity matter? In Boekema, F. & Morgan, K. & Bakkers, S. & Rutten, R. (eds.), Knowledge, innovations and economic growth. The theory and practice of learning regions. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar,

6 Lecture 10. Information technological revolution, democracy and innovation policy The challenges of innovation policy in the deployment period of information technological revolution. The relationship between innovation policy and democracy. How the different approaches can contribute to the sensemaking of and meeting the challenges of innovation policy? Miettinen 1999, Chapter 10 ( Information technological revolution, democracy and innovation policy ). Dewey, J. 1926/1988. Public and its problems. The Later Works of John Dewey. Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Volume 12. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. (Chapter 6. The problem of method, pp ). Miettinen, R The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey s theory of reflective thought and action. International Journal of Lifelong Education Vol 19 (1), Dyer-Whiteford, N Commonism. Turbulence, June 2007, The Lecturer Reijo Miettinen is Professor of Adult Education at the University of Helsinki. Before coming to the academia he worked as an educational planner in charge of in house training of the research scientists at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT). In 1990 he joined as a researcher to the newly established VTT group for Technology Studies. In 1995 he removed to the University of Helsinki and acted as a Vice director of the Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research in the Department of Education. He has directed since 1995 a research group that studied the work of research groups, learning in innovation processes, innovation networks and producer-user interaction in innovations. Lately the group has also studied free/open source development model (FOSS) in software development as well as other forms of internet-mediated distributed knowledge production. He is interested in theories of learning and creativity and as well as in the comparison of the philosophical and sociological theories of human practice and thought. He acted for five years as the scientific director of the Finnish National Graduate School for Science and Technology studies. He has co-edited the book Perspectives on Activity Theory (1999) and written a book on the uses of the concept National innovation system: National Innovation System Scientific Concept or Political Rhetoric (2002). He is finalizing an enlarged and updated version of the latter book. For his recent publications see his Internet page: Main page - Current Oslo Summer School Program

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