The following slides will give you a short introduction to Research in Business Informatics.

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1 The following slides will give you a short introduction to Research in Business Informatics. 1

2 Research Methods in Business Informatics Very Large Business Applications Lab Center for Very Large Business Applications Faculty of Computer Science Department of Technical and Business Information Systems Matthias Splieth University of Magdeburg

3 3 Outline 1. Goals & Motivation 2. Problems 3. Goal of Business Informatics 4. Mission and Goals in Business Informatics 5. Spectrum of Methods in Business Informatics 6. Methods Portfolio 7. Conclusion

4 4 Goals & Motivation Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions (The Oxford Dictionary) Goal of research process: produce knowledge Knowledge and usage of research methods is essential for the publication of relevant research findings Business Informatics as scientific discipline influenced by many adjacent disciplines (real, formal and engineering sciences) Basically two tendencies recognizable: o Constructivistically orientation ( Design Science Research, german Wirtschaftsinformatik) o Behavioral orientation (anglo-american Information Systems Research)

5 5 Problems: Classification Owen, C.: Design Research: Building the Knowledge Base. Journal of the Japanese Society for the Science of Design 5, (1997)

6 6 Problems: Knowledge Sources of knowledge o Experiences o Mind How to gain knowledge? o Inductive (closing of individual cases to general cases) o Deductive (deriving a statement from other statements by virtue of logical inference rules) Basic positions: o Ontological position: real world is objective / not objective. o Epistemological position: objective realization is possible / not possible. o Linguistic position: Speech, language artifacts, inter-subjective understanding

7 7 Goals of Business Informatics The aim of scientific research in computer science is (..) the production of theories, methods, tools and inter subjectively verifiable knowledge about / for information and communication systems. (...) The economic structure of a computer science uses the scientific approach in description of information and communication systems, explanation of these, prediction of system behavior and design of new systems. Decision of WKWI,

8 8 Mission and Goals in Business Informatics basic position+ research goal determines research method Becker, J., Holton, R., Knackstedt, R., Niehaves, B.: Forschungsmethodische Positionierung in der Wirtschaftsinformatik. epistemologische, ontologische und linguistische Leitfragen (2003)

9 9 Spectrum of Methods in Business Informatics Wilde, T., Hess, T.: Methodenspektrum der Wirtschaftsinformatik: Überblick und Portfoliobildung (2006) Most used methods in german WI literature: o Argumentative-deductive (35%) o Case study (16%) o Prototyping (13%) o Qualitative-empirical (10%) o Conceptual-deductive (10%)

10 10 Methods Portfolio Wilde, T., Hess, T.: Methodenspektrum der Wirtschaftsinformatik: Überblick und Portfoliobildung (2006)

11 11 Methods Portfolio Wilde, T., Hess, T.: Methodenspektrum der Wirtschaftsinformatik: Überblick und Portfoliobildung (2006)

12 12 Conclusion Methods are important for research Lot of methods in Business Informatics that can be used to produce knowledge Research method determined by base position and research goal

13 Design Science Research in Business Informatics Very Large Business Applications Lab Center for Very Large Business Applications Faculty of Computer Science Department of Technical and Business Information Systems Sascha Bosse University of Magdeburg

14 14 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Behavioral Science and Design Science 3. Information System Research Framework 4. Seven Guidelines for Design Science in Information System Research 5. Conclusion

15 15 Introduction Information Systems (IS) to improve effectiveness and efficiency of an organization To remain competitive, IS need to be evolved constantly Research Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions (The Oxford Dictionary) Research in Business Informatics (BI) to gather knowledge o Supporting the productive application of IT to human organizations o Concerning management and use of IT for organizational purpose

16 16 Behavioral and Design Science Presentation bases upon A. Hevner et al. Design Science in Information Systems Reseach, MIS Quaterly Vol. 28, No. 1, 2004, pp Two basic approaches of research in BI o Behavioral Science o Design Science

17 17 Behavioral Science in context of BI Roots in natural science research Develop and justify theories that explain human or organizational behavior Goal is truth

18 18 Design Science Research in context of BI Roots in engineering Problem-solving, result is an artifact Create innovations which increases the effectivity and efficiency of information systems Goal is utility

19 19 Relation between Behavioral and Design Science Are distinct, but complementary approaches Form a Research Cycle Behavioral Science develops new theories for the use of artifacts Design Science uses theories to reach a utility Example: Technology Acceptance Model

20 Information System Research Framework 20

21 21 Seven Guidelines for Design Science Research in BI Design as an Artifact Problem Relevance Design Evaluation Research Contributions Research Rigor Design as a Search Process Communication of Research

22 22 Design as an Artifact Possible Results of Design Science o Constructs language for problems and solutions o Models representation of real world o Methods processes to solve problems o Instantiation implementation to real systems Does not include people or (parts of) organizations

23 23 Problem Relevance Research should provide solutions to unsolved and important business problems Problem: Difference between current and desired state of a system Goals and constraints Addressed to a constituent community

24 24 Design Evaluation Demonstration of the utility and qualtity of the artifact via well-executed evaluation methods Defining measurable success criteria, maybe also gathering and analysis of data Provides feedback to designed products and design process Examples: Case Study, Analysis, Experiments, Tests

25 25 Research Contributions Research has a significant value to the community o Enables a solution o Extends the knowledge base o Uses existing knowledge in a new way Contribution depends on the novelty, generality and significance of the artifact Forms o Artifact o Foundations o Methodologies

26 26 Research Rigor Using rigorous methods in construction and evaluation Derived from the effective use of the knowledge base With respect to applicability and generalizability of the artifact Overemphasis can lead to less relevant results

27 27 Design as a Search Process Iterative process - Generate/Test-Cycle Set of possible solutions o Available means o Desired ends o Laws to be considered Too complex to find the optimal solution Search the solution space with heuristics Problem simplification and decomposition

28 28 Communication of Research Presentation to technology- and management-orientated audiences Technical: Present detail to enable the implementation of the artifact and for further development Managerial: Present information if the artifact can be utilized in a specific organization context

29 29 Conclusion Design Science and Behavioral Science are both important o Truth and utility complement each other Information System Research Framework helps to understand, exectute and evaluate IS Research Difference between design and Design Research Guidelines as a base to understand requirements for effective Design Science Research o Must be adapted to specific context

30 Conducting a Literature Review Very Large Business Applications Lab Center for Very Large Business Applications Faculty of Computer Science Department of Technical and Business Information Systems Bastian Kurbjuhn University of Magdeburg

31 31 Outline 1. Definition 2. Purpose 3. Content Analysis 4. Types of Content Analysis 5. Qualitative and Quantitative Content Analysis 6. Structured Content Analysis 7. Literature Review Structure (Process Steps) 8. Software Tools

32 32 Definition A literature review is a systematic, explicit, and reproducible design for identifying, evaluating, and interpreting the existing body of recorded documents. Fink (1998)

33 33 Purpose o Idea generation for research (starting point for a new topic) And o Identification of patterns, topics and problems in existing literature (idea organisation, topic structuring)

34 34 Lit. Review as a Content Analysis o Structuring field of research/interest o Identification of conceptual content o Theory development through a content analysis

35 35 Types of Content Analysis qualitative quantitative structured content analysis result evaluation Ref. to Brewerton and Millward (2001), p. 151

36 36 Qualitative and quantitative CA Not contradictory, but interdependent Example: text analysis Generation of categories (qualitative) Assignment of articles (quantitative) Interpretation of the assignments (qualitat.) From quality to quantity and back to quality. Mayring (2003), p. 19

37 37 Structured Content Analysis Also considers the development of relationship between elements Based on a previous qualitative and quantitative investigation Reflects formal and content-related aspects Driven by preliminary considerations Explicit process for conclusions

38 38 Process: Structured Content Analysis 1st material collection formal part 4th material evaluation 2nd descriptive analysis Content-related part 3rd category selection Ref. Mayring (2003), p. 54

39 39 First step: Material Evaluation Driven by preliminary considerations: definitions, key words Material types/sources: books, journal articles, databases Time period Exclusion criteria, resp. rules

40 40 Second: Descriptive Analysis Key figures Publications/year Types of scientific compositions Creates the background for the following material analysis

41 Second: Descriptive Analysis (2) 41

42 42 Process Structured Content Analysis 1 st material collection formal part 4th material evaluation 2nd descriptive analysis Content-related part 3rd category selection Ref. Mayring (2003), p. 54

43 43 Detail view: content-related part Selection of dimensions and categories Determinition of definitions for each category Material analysis: denotation of relevant place of finding Revision Material analysis: extraction Preparation of results Ref. Mayring (2002), p. 120

44 44 Third: Category Selection Creation of dimensions Characteristics of dimensions have to be captured in categories Definition of categories structures the research field and forms main topics for the analysis

45 45 Fourth: Material Evaluation Sort papers into categories Identify relevant and common place of findings Identify relevant problems Interpret the results

46 46 4th: Material Evaluation Tables: Goal Relations between Economic and Sustainability Objectives

47 47 Revision Classification deductive or inductive Deductive: before material evaluation Inductive: during the analysis in terms of generalisation/abstraction Recommendation: multiple researchers Minimisation of risk Critical examination with created categories

48 48 Software Tools Bibliography applications Mind mapping

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