Introduction to Civil Engineering Systems

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1 Introduction to Civil Engineering Systems LECTURE What is a System? Sam Labi Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 1

2 Topics for today s conversation System? What the is that? General and Specific Examples of Systems in Everyday Life and in CE Attributes of a System Examples of CE Systems and their attributes Challenges faced by Civil Systems Engineers Steps for Systems Development 2

3 How do we define a System? Etymology: From Late Latin systemat-, systema From Greek systemat-, systema, from synistanai (to combine), from syn- + histanai (to cause to stand) 3

4 Merriam-Webster Webster s s definition a a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole. Other definition A A collection of interrelated objects, rules or procedures that interact to achieve a certain goal 4

5 General Examples of Systems 5

6 General Examples: 1. a group of devices or artificial objects or an organization forming a network especially for distributing something or serving a common purpose 2. an organized set of doctrines, ideas, or principles usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a whole entity 3. an organized or established procedure 4. a harmonious arrangement or pattern 6

7 Specific Examples of Systems 7

8 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: The Human Body (Yeah, You!) - Consists of various organs that work together to achieve various goals including moving from place to place, learning and working for a living staying alive, etc. 8

9 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: Computer Hardware System The CPR, Monitor, and Keyboard Clip art images of computer components removed due to copyright restrictions. (note: this is a physical system) 9

10 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: Computer Operating System A set of sequential rules and algorithms (written using computer code or machine language) that govern the way the computer runs. Example: Disk Operating System (DOS) Windows 98 (note: this is an operational system) 10

11 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: Sports Stadium System -- Steel Columns -- Steel Beams Image of stadium removed due to copyright restrictions. -- Seats -- Playing Field -- Press Box -- Scoreboard, etc (note: this is a physical system) 11

12 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: Rules of Operation for the Sports Stadium Entry/Exit System- Certain rows enter or exit the stadium before others. Behavioral System- No throwing of beer cans, vandalism prohibited, etc. No spectators allowed on field during play. Rules of Game to be followed by all players. (note: this is an operational system) 12

13 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: A University s s Physical Facilities System -- Roads/Streets -- Buildings Photograph removed due to copyright restrictions. -- Sidewalks -- Landscape -- Utility lines -- Fountains, etc (note: this is a physical system) 13

14 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: MIT s s GPA Scoring System GPA Scoring: Set of Rules A Computational Formula used - depends on the credit hours of each course taken - also depends on grade earned for each course (note: this is an operational system) 14

15 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: MIT Credit Union Bank Structure and Facilities System -- Counters -- Computers -- Cash counting machines -- Safes and Vaults -- Security Cameras -- Accounting books, etc -- Utilities (note: this is a physical system) 15

16 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: MIT Credit Union Loan Application System Set of Rules for Loan Approval - Credit History, - Amount to be borrowed, - Outstanding loan balances, etc. All these are entered into a formula which spits out a decision on whether to accept or to reject the loan application (note: this is an operational system) 16

17 Specific Examples of Systems In Everyday Life: Queuing System at BMV, McDonalds, etc. SOME OPERATIONAL RULES -- Enter from the back of Queue, not the front -- Stand in a straight line -- Proceed to the front of the queue and not towards the back -- Leave the queue after you are served (note: this is an operational system) 17

18 Specific Examples of Systems In Civil Engineering: Traffic Signal System (Equipment) -- Metal Poles -- Light Bulbs Photograph removed due to copyright restrictions. -- Electrical Wiring -- Signs -- Processor -- Loop Detectors in Pavement, etc (note: this is a physical system) 18

19 Specific Examples of Systems In Civil Engineering: Traffic Signal System (Timing Sequence) TIMING SEQUENCE (Example) 1. Main Street Green 17 seconds Yellow 3 seconds Red 10 seconds 2. Side Street Green 10 seconds Yellow 3 seconds Red 17 seconds 3. Additional All Red Time for both Streets 3 seconds (note: this is an operational system) 19

20 Specific Examples of Systems In Civil Engineering: A System of Construction Activity Sequence and Schedules (such as the Critical Path Method) - Do some activities before certain others, after certain others simultaneously with certain others - Choose the best sequence of activities that minimizes time delay is consistent with supply schedules does not compromise the budget is within labor constraints, etc. (note: this is an operational system) 20

21 Specific Examples of Systems In Civil Engineering: A Sedimentation Pond (Physical Structure) Pond Liner Pumps, Pipes, etc. (note: this is a physical system) 21

22 Specific Examples of Systems In Civil Engineering: A Decision-Support System for Sewer Pipe Replacement Hypothetical example of some decision parameters: - When pipe age exceeds 50 years - If slope exceeds 5% - If demand exceeds pipe capacity - if sewer condition (corrosion levels) are found to be very high, etc. (note: this DSS is an operational system) 22

23 Specific Examples of Systems : WHAT S A SYSTEM? The Rest Room System Keyboard Sound Knob (Stereo) Central Processing Unit Software Units Floppy Disk Occasional Monitor Mouse (note: this is a physical system) 23

24 Attributes of a system: 1. Physical structure 2. Rules or procedures for operation of the system 3. Goals or objectives 4. Criteria by which attainment of the goals are measured (MOE s) 5. Condition or performance of the system at any time 6. Environment within which system operates 24

25 Components of a system: These typically refer only to the following attributes: - Physical Structure - Operating procedures/rules Note: Not all systems have a physical structure component. 25

26 Examples of CE Systems and Attributes System Physical Structure(s) Operation Goals Performance Criteria Interstate 90 Freeway System, Pavement Road Signs Bridges Vehicular use Improve traffic flow Congestion levels Traffic Signal System Traffic Lights, Video Cameras Vehicular & pedestrian use Minimize delay Average delay per vehicle and pedestrian Freeway Patrols Vans, 2-way 2 radios, Tow cranes Patrolling the highway Quickly clear accidents Accident response & clearance time, minutes Boston Waste Treatment System Filtration Units, Sedimentation ponds, etc. Effluent Treatment Maximize amt. of waste treated Volume of waste treated /hr 26

27 Some General Categories of CE Systems Physical vs. Operational Dynamic vs. Static Network vs. Non-network network Supersystem vs. Subsystem 27

28 Questions that systems design seeks to answer: WHEN? WHEN? HOW? WHEN? WHY? WHEN? WHETHER? WHAT IF? WHAT? WH Y? HOW? WHICH? WHEN? WHEN? WHAT? WHAT? WHEN? HOW? WHY? Obviously, CE system design can be a daunting task 28

29 Examples of such questions: Is the physical structure of I-90 I adequate for the kinds of trucks that use that highway? How can we describe highway traffic operations on Purdue s s State Street? Is the level of congestion on I-93 I tolerable? How can we minimize delay at our local intersections? Is it OK to use a new cheaper lightweight material for our steel structures? What factors affect our decision to design a new water treatment plant for our fast growing city? How can we optimize the operations of our waste treatment plant? 29

30 Examples of such questions (continued): Why do we choose a concrete pavement over an asphalt pavement for a specific project? When should we replace a bridge deck? Whether or not to line a large sedimentation pond. How to describe the way Purdue s s Loop Transit works. What economic conditions make it more attractive to build a highway in 2005 instead of now? How to predict the condition of a steel bridge elements 10 years from now? What factors to consider in designing a parking garage for Purdue? 30

31 Therefore, all engineers face the challenge of: Planning and managing our systems effectively: we as engineers should obviously be able to carry out effective (1) Systems description, (2) Systems analysis, (3) Systems optimization, (4) Systems evaluation, and (5) Systems selection (for more than one alternative). 31

32 The challenges that all engineers face (continued): SYSTEMS DESIGN Physical design: What physical design should I use for the new facility? What physical modifications should I make to an existing system? Operational design: What rules or procedures should govern the operation of my new system? What changes in operational rules and procedures are needed to my existing system? 32

33 The challenges that all engineers face (continued): Description of physical structure: SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION WHAT S A SYSTEM? How can I describe the composition or physical structure of my design? Graphically? Blue Prints, Artistic sketches? If the structure changes over time, can I predict the future physical structure say, 10 years from now? How should I describe proposed physical modifications to an existing structure? Description of Operational Procedures: How should I describe the way the system works? An equation? Probability distributions? Graphical simulation? How should I describe proposed changes in the operations of the system? Description of System Condition: How can I describe the condition of the system? Using GIS? How can I predict the future condition of the system? Using statistical models? 33

34 The challenges that all engineers face (continued): SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Analysis of the Physical Structure: How do we calculate to get the engineering features of each member of the system. E.g., what are the shear forces and bending moments in each member of a steel truss? Analysis of the System s Operational Procedures: How does the system work? How are loads supported? How is the effluent treated? 34

35 The challenges that all engineers face (continued): WHAT S A SYSTEM? SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION Optimization of Physical Structure: What physical design gives me the highest benefits at least possible costs of construction and maintenance of the physical structure? Description of Operational Procedures: How should I operate my system in order to yield the most benefits with minimal costs? 35

36 The challenges that all engineers face (continued): SYSTEMS EVALUATION Evaluation of physical structure: Is the system structurally sound? Are bending moments and deflections acceptable? Is the system physical condition OK? WHAT S A SYSTEM? Evaluation of Operational Procedures: Are the system goals being achieved? Is there a more economical way to operate the system? What is the ratio of the system benefits to its costs? Are there any environmental side effects of system operation? Evaluation of System Condition: Five years from now, will the expected condition be acceptable? level of cracks can we expect on the system structure 5 years from now? 36

37 The challenges that all engineers face (continued): SYSTEMS SELECTION (only where we are choosing one of many alternative designs for a system) Selection of Best Physical Structure: On what basis should I say a particular physical design alternative is the best? - Aesthetics? - Maintainability? - Environmental compatibility? Etc. Selection of Best Operational Procedure: On what basis should I say a particular operational design alternative is the best? - Availability of skilled operating personnel? - Harmony of operations with the environment? Etc. 37

38 Summary of the challenges we civil engineers face Design, Optimize Describe, Predict Analyze, Evaluate Physical Structure Condition Operation/Usage Activities for the Systems Designer System Attributes 38

39 Therefore, The overall steps in systems development are: SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS DESIGN SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS SYSTEMS EVALUATION SYSTEMS SELECTION - PHYS. STRCT. - OPS/USAGE - PHYS. STRCT. - CONDITION - OPS/USAGE - PHYS. STRCT. - CONDITION - OPS/USAGE - PHYS. STRCT. - CONDITION - OPS/USAGE - PHYS. STRCT. - OPS/USAGE 39

40 The Last Word 40

41 The Last Words for Today Key questions for the systems engineer 1. How should I design my system? What factors to consider in the design? What steps should I follow? 2. How can I best describe (or predict in future) the physical structure, condition or performance of the system to any interested party? 3. How do I choose from several alternative systems? What factors should I consider? 4. How can I tell if a given system is doing well? 5. How can I optimize the operations of my system? What should I minimize? What should I maximize? *Tools include Math, Econ, probability, statistics, operations research, etc. 41

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