#5802 使用者研究 Design and Research on User Experience

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1 本週課程大綱 #5802 使用者研究 Design and Research on User Experience Week 02 交大應用藝術研究所 / 工業技術研究院資通所 Dr. 莊雅量 複習 : 使用者研究的趨勢與重要性 Chap 1. Experience in Products 相關調查方法概論 Chap 2. Inquiring about Pepole s Affective Product Judgments 課堂作業 1 User Study 常見的相關用語 3 Source: 1

2 Usability ( 使用性 ) and User Model Usability 與 Human Factor ( 人因工程 ) The design model and the user's model (based on Norman 1986, p.46). 6 Source: UI User Interface: 人與產品或系統的溝通介面 (Face) UI User Interaction: 人與產品之間的動作 (Action) 一個好的互動設計中, 系統要能 1. Listening: 隨時傾聽 / 觀察使用者的動作 ; 2. Thinking: 揣摩他需要什麼 ; 3. Responsiveness: 迅速做出適當的反應 Source: Ref: 2

3 UI 與 UX 的差異 好的 User Interface 設計 : 簡單 好用 ; 讓大部分的人都能夠正確完成所需的工作 例如 :ATM 的操作介面 好的 User Interaction 設計 : 會讓人覺得貼心, 能有效率地完成使用者預期的成果 例如 :Google 的搜尋系統 好的 User Experience 設計 : 會讓人有會心一笑的滿足感, 並留下深刻的印象 例如 :BBVA 的 Self-Service Banking Chap. 1:Experience in Products & Service (2) 人在一個與產品或系統相關脈絡中的整體經驗, 包含 1. Perception: 感官知覺 2. Cognition: 理性認知 3. Memory: 回憶 ( 自己或他人 ) 4. Emotion: 情感 ( 正面或負面 ) 5. Physiology: 生理學, 例如亢奮時腎上腺素會上升 6. Behaviour: 行為 7. Expectation: 期望.. 等等 10 Source: P. 6 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user Chap. 1:Experience in Products & Service (3) 產品或服務的屬性, 可大概分為下列兩類 1. Tools: Things you need, but do not want to spend time on. For these type of products a positive emotional engagement is an asset probably for high-end products -, and negative experiences should be avoided. 2. For Leisure Time: Their task is to generate experiences, often positive in nature, but not necessarily so: some elements in movies or art deliberately evoke negative emotions. 11 Chap. 1:Experience in Products & Service (3) 產品或服務的屬性, 可大概分為下列兩類 1. Tools: A positive emotional engagement is an asset, and negative experiences should be avoided. 2. For Leisure Time: Their task is to generate experiences. The experiences a user has with a product build up over time: The novelty of the product and its complexity will determine how vivid these experiences are, and they will be retained in memory. 12 Source: P. 7 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user Source: P. 7 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user 3

4 Chap. 1:Experience in Products & Service (3) 經驗的形成過程, 及其記憶效應 The experiences a user has with a product build up over time: The novelty of the product and its complexity will determine how vivid these experiences are, and they will be retained in memory. The lessons derived might stick to the context of the product involved, but could also be integrated in a wider view of similar concepts. In the latter case such memories will influence expectations, not only of the present product, but also of similar products in the future. 13 Chap. 1:Experience in Products & Service (4) 如何設計產品或服務, 使能提供更好的經驗 1. It was considered important to conceive products that fulfill a real need of people. 2. Many products are helped in creating a positive experience if the cognitive effort needed to operate them is kept to a minimum It will allow the user to direct more attention to what he/she really wants to spend time on Making things simple will be effective in counteracting negative experiences from the past [memory] in creating a positive experience in itself. 3. Unwanted (negative) experiences should be avoided. Full user control of the product and possibly 14 of the environment is advocated as a safeguard. Source: P. 7 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user Source: Pp. 7-8 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user 節目網頁 : 課堂播放片段 : Photo Source: 4

5 Home Work: 構思你想要探討的問題 漢寶德 : 真正的設計作業, 不一定要產生具體的形狀, 不一定有圖樣, 其目的是尋找方法解決一個特定的難題 (p. 96) Home Work: 構思你想要探討的問題 we start with the user experience, and work backwards to the technology 17 Source: 漢寶德 (2012) 設計型思考 台北市 : 聯經 Source: 相關的研究方法 訪談法 調查法 觀察法 實驗法 Chap. 2:Inquiring about People s Affective Product Judgements (1) From Usability to User Experience 1. Performance 2. Easy and comfortable to use 3. Safe 4. Effective 5. Efficient 6. Easy to learn how to use 1. Using such a device should be enjoyable and engaging 2. The device should be appealing 3. Playfulness, fun, flow, satisfaction From Cognitive Perspective to Perceived Enjoyment Source: P. 11 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user 5

6 (2.3) Game Heuristics What makes games so capturing and playing games so enjoyable? Appropriate challenge Goals Performance feedback Curiosity Control Fantasy Co-operation Competition Social Recognition 21 Chap. 2:Inquiring about People s Affective Product Judgements (2) Ideas on What User Experience Entails Norman: Emotion, or affect, can be seen as an information processing system, similar to but distinct from cognition. Cognition helps us to understand and interpret the world however, this takes time. Emotion works much more quickly, and it plays an important role in making judgments, what is good, what is bad, and so on. From Cognitive Perspective to Perceived Enjoyment 22 Source: P. 15 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user Source: P. 12 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user (2) Ideas on What User Experience Entails Norman distinguishes three levels of processing: Visceral Level: address the first appearance of a product, how it feels to the touch, its first impression. Behavioural Level: address the product s utility, usability and performance; it is about the effectiveness of using the product. Reflective Level: involves conscious consideration and reflection on past experiences. It ll weight appearance and performance, and 感情 then considering how it matches with 23 ones image, how it makes one look. 感受 Source: P. 13 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user 感覺 (3) How to measure experiences? 傳統 Usability 強調的是 易於使用, 評估的方法是 : observing users working with products, measuring countable parameters such as time-on-task, number of errors, time-to-repair, time-to-learn a task up to a certain level, et cetera. 評估的項目包含 1. Performance 2. Effectiveness 3. Efficiency 4. Learnability 5. Error Rate Source: P. 17 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user 24 6

7 (3) How to measure experiences? 然而, 前述的評量看不到對於 Experience 的探討 : This aspect is rather about the user s attitude and affective response towards the interaction with the device: in the opinion of the user, how appealing, entertaining or enjoyable is the interaction with the device. To collect this type of information, researchers quite often apply instruments such as questionnaires and scales. (3) How to measure experiences? 開發與使用量表 (Scale) 時, 要考慮下列六個要素 : Sensitivity ( 敏感度 ) Ease of Use ( 易用性 ) Acceptance ( 接受度 ) Intrusion ( 流暢性 ) Validity ( 效度 ) Reliability ( 信度 ) Source: P. 17 in Westerink, J., Ouwerkerk, M., Overbeek, J. M. T., & Pasveer, W. F. (Eds.) (2008). Probing experience: From assessment of user (3.1) Approach in developing rating scales 開發量表 (Scale) 時的步驟 : 1. Test conceptualization 2. Draft item pool 3. Choosing what format is going to be used 4. Test tryout and psychometric evaluation of the scale (3.2) Development of the Fun-Questionnaire FunQ: A tool to determine the enjoyability of interacting with consumer devices: It is not sufficient to simply ask users whether or not they enjoyed using a particular device. Enjoyability appears to be a concept that consists of multiple dimensions, and ideally a measurement instrument should reflect this

8 (3.2) Development of the Fun-Questionnaire FunQ 的開發步驟 : 1. To collect 59 items, covering the different aspects that were found in the literature and in the interviews. 2. The draft scale was then evaluated with regard to the comprehensibility of the items in a test with 20 subjects. 3. This led to further refinements (e.g. rewording) of the scale items. Also, some scale items were removed, resulting in a total of 45 items, divided over 7 dimensions. 29 (3.2) Development of the Fun-Questionnaire The 7 dimensions of FunQ : 1. overall appeal, 2. motivating, 3. challenging-exciting, 4. curiosity, 5. concentrationimmersiveness, 6. efficacy, 7. pride. Next, initial tests were conducted with three different electronic consumer applications, all three with some level of complexity in terms of functions and features, and all three expected to differ in enjoyability. 30 9/25 Home Work: 1. 繼續思索您想要探討的問題, 並收集相關的資料 2. 預習 Chap. 3 & 4 31 Source: p. 69 in 陳輝吉 (1992) 如何市場調查 台北市 : 遠流 8